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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701180

RESUMO

The catalytic oxidation of CO on transition metals, such as Pt, is commonly viewed as a sharp transition from the CO-inhibited surface to the active metal, covered with O. However, we find that minor amounts of O are present in the CO-poisoned layer that explain why, surprisingly, CO desorbs at stepped and flat Pt crystal planes at once, regardless of the reaction conditions. Using near-ambient pressure X-ray photoemission and a curved Pt(111) crystal we probe the chemical composition at surfaces with variable step density during the CO oxidation reaction. Analysis of C and O core levels across the curved crystal reveals that, right before light-off, subsurface O builds up within (111) terraces. This is key to trigger the simultaneous ignition of the catalytic reaction at different Pt surfaces: a CO-Pt-O complex is formed that equals the CO chemisorption energy at terraces and steps, leading to the abrupt desorption of poisoning CO from all crystal facets at the same temperature.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(47): 16245-16252, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431270

RESUMO

Understanding nanoparticle catalysis requires novel approaches in which adjoining crystal orientations can be studied under the same reactive conditions. Here we use a curved palladium crystal and near-ambient pressure X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to characterize chemical species during the catalytic oxidation of CO in a whole set of surfaces vicinal to the (111) direction simultaneously. By stabilizing the reaction at fixed temperatures around the ignition point, we observe a strong variation of the catalytic activity across the curved surface. Such spatial modulation of the reaction stage is straightforwardly mapped through the photoemission signal from active oxygen species and poisoning CO, which are shown to coexist in a transient regime that depends on the vicinal angle. Line-shape analysis and direct comparison with ultrahigh vacuum experiments help identifying and quantifying all such surface species, allowing us to reveal the presence of surface oxides during reaction ignition and cooling-off.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(40): 12974-12979, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226048

RESUMO

CO2 reduction reactions, which provide one route to limit the emission of this greenhouse gas, are commonly performed over Cu-based catalysts. Here, we use ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy together with density functional theory to obtain an atomistic understanding of the dissociative adsorption of CO2 on Cu(100). We find that the process is dominated by the presence of steps, which promote both a lowering of the dissociation barrier and an efficient separation between adsorbed O and CO, reducing the probability for recombination. The identification of steps as sites for efficient CO2 dissociation provides an understanding that can be used in the design of future CO2 reduction catalysts.

4.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 5): 1389-1394, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179177

RESUMO

High-energy surface X-ray diffraction (HESXRD) provides surface structural information with high temporal resolution, facilitating the understanding of the surface dynamics and structure of the active phase of catalytic surfaces. The surface structure detected during the reaction is sensitive to the composition of the gas phase close to the catalyst surface, and the catalytic activity of the sample itself may affect the surface structure, which in turn may complicate the assignment of the active phase. For this reason, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and HESXRD have been combined during the oxidation of CO over a Pd(100) crystal. PLIF complements the structural studies with an instantaneous two-dimensional image of the CO2 gas phase in the vicinity of the active model catalyst. Here the combined HESXRD and PLIF operando measurements of CO oxidation over Pd(100) are presented, allowing for an improved assignment of the correlation between sample structure and the CO2 distribution above the sample surface with sub-second time resolution.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(9): 096102, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949575

RESUMO

Using surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD), quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have determined the structure of the (4×1) reconstruction formed by sputtering and annealing of the SnO_{2}(110) surface. We find that the reconstruction consists of an ordered arrangement of Sn_{3}O_{3} clusters bound atop the bulk-terminated SnO_{2}(110) surface. The model was found by application of a DFT-based evolutionary algorithm with surface compositions based on SXRD, and shows excellent agreement with LEED and with previously published scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. The model proposed previously consisting of in-plane oxygen vacancies is thus shown to be incorrect, and our result suggests instead that Sn(II) species in interstitial positions are the more relevant features of reduced SnO_{2}(110) surfaces.

6.
Acc Chem Res ; 50(9): 2326-2333, 2017 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880530

RESUMO

Motivated mainly by catalysis, gas-surface interaction between single crystal surfaces and molecules has been studied for decades. Most of these studies have been performed in well-controlled environments and have been instrumental for the present day understanding of catalysis, providing information on surface structures, adsorption sites, and adsorption and desorption energies relevant for catalysis. However, the approach has been criticized for being too far from a catalyst operating under industrial conditions at high temperatures and pressures. To this end, a significant amount of effort over the years has been used to develop methods to investigate catalysts at more realistic conditions under operating conditions. One result from this effort is a vivid and sometimes heated discussion concerning the active phase for the seemingly simple CO oxidation reaction over the Pt-group metals in the literature. In recent years, we have explored the possibilities to perform experiments at conditions closer to those of a technical catalyst, in particular at increased pressures and temperatures. In this contribution, results from catalytic CO oxidation over a Pd(100) single crystal surface using Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photo emission Spectroscopy (NAPXPS), Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), and High Energy Surface X-ray Diffraction (HESXRD) are presented, and the strengths and weaknesses of the experimental techniques are discussed. Armed with structural knowledge from ultrahigh vacuum experiments, the presence of adsorbed molecules and gas-phase induced surface structures can be identified and related to changes in the reactivity or to reaction induced gas-flow limitations. In particular, the application of PLIF to catalysis allows one to visualize how the catalyst itself changes the gas composition close to the model catalyst surface upon ignition, and relate this to the observed surface structures. The effect obscures a straightforward relation between the active phase and the activity, since in the case of CO oxidation, the gas-phase close to the model catalyst surface is shown to be significantly more oxidizing than far away from the catalyst. We show that surface structural knowledge from UHV experiments and the composition of the gas phase close to the catalyst surface are crucial to understand structure-function relationships at semirealistic conditions. In the particular case of Pd, we argue that the surface structure of the PdO(101) has a significant influence on the activity, due to the presence of Coordinatively Unsaturated Sites (CUS) Pd atoms, similar to undercoordinated Ru and Ir atoms found for RuO2(110) and IrO2(110), respectively.

7.
ACS Nano ; 11(10): 10519-10528, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960985

RESUMO

The perfect switching between crystal phases with different electronic structure in III-V nanowires allows for the design of superstructures with quantum wells only a single atomic layer wide. However, it has only been indirectly inferred how the electronic structure will vary down to the smallest possible crystal segments. We use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to directly probe the electronic structure of Zinc blende (Zb) segments in Wurtzite (Wz) InAs nanowires with atomic-scale precision. We find that the major features in the band structure change abruptly down to a single atomic layer level. Distinct Zb electronic structure signatures are observed on both the conduction and valence band sides for the smallest possible Zb segment: a single InAs bilayer. We find evidence of confined states in the region of both single and double bilayer Zb segments indicative of the formation of crystal segment quantum wells due to the smaller band gap of Zb as compared to Wz. In contrast to the internal electronic structure of the nanowire, surface states located in the band gap were found to be only weakly influenced by the presence of the smallest Zb segments. Our findings directly demonstrate the feasibility of crystal phase switching for the ultimate limit of atomistic band structure engineering of quantum confined structures. Further, it indicates that band gap values obtained for the bulk are reasonable to use even for the smallest crystal segments. However, we also find that the suppression of surface and interface states could be necessary in the use of this effect for engineering of future electronic devices.

8.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(45): 453002, 2016 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27619414

RESUMO

In recent years, efforts have been made in catalysis related surface science studies to explore the possibilities to perform experiments at conditions closer to those of a technical catalyst, in particular at increased pressures. Techniques such as high pressure scanning tunneling/atomic force microscopy (HPSTM/AFM), near ambient pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (NAPXPS), surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) at semi-realistic conditions have been used to study the surface structure of model catalysts under reaction conditions, combined with simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS). These studies have provided an increased understanding of the surface dynamics and the structure of the active phase of surfaces and nano particles as a reaction occurs, providing novel information on the structure/activity relationship. However, the surface structure detected during the reaction is sensitive to the composition of the gas phase close to the catalyst surface. Therefore, the catalytic activity of the sample itself will act as a gas-source or gas-sink, and will affect the surface structure, which in turn may complicate the assignment of the active phase. For this reason, we have applied planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to the gas phase in the vicinity of an active model catalysts. Our measurements demonstrate that the gas composition differs significantly close to the catalyst and at the position of the MS, which indeed should have a profound effect on the surface structure. However, PLIF applied to catalytic reactions presents several beneficial properties in addition to investigate the effect of the catalyst on the effective gas composition close to the model catalyst. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PLIF provides a unique tool to visualize the on-set of catalytic reactions and to compare different model catalysts in the same reactive environment. The technique can be applied to a large number of molecules thanks to the technical development of lasers and detectors over the last decades, and is a complementary and visual alternative to traditional MS to be used in environments difficult to asses with MS. In this article we will review general considerations when performing PLIF experiments, our experimental set-up for PLIF and discuss relevant examples of PLIF applied to catalysis.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(32): 9267-71, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346455

RESUMO

Ultrathin metal oxides exhibit unique chemical properties and show promise for applications in heterogeneous catalysis. Monolayer FeO films supported on metal surfaces show large differences in reactivity depending on the metal substrate, potentially enabling tuning of the catalytic properties of these materials. Nitric oxide (NO) adsorption is facile on silver-supported FeO, whereas a similar film grown on platinum is inert to NO under similar conditions. Ab initio calculations link this substrate-dependent behavior to steric hindrance caused by substrate-induced rumpling of the FeO surface, which is stronger for the platinum-supported film. Calculations show that the size of the activation barrier to adsorption caused by the rumpling is dictated by the strength of the metal-oxide interaction, offering a straightforward method for tailoring the adsorption properties of ultrathin films.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(30): 20312-20, 2016 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805438

RESUMO

In an attempt to bridge the material and pressure gaps - two major challenges for an atomic scale understanding of heterogeneous catalysis - we employed high-energy surface X-ray diffraction as a tool to study the Pd(553) surface in situ under changing reaction conditions during CO oxidation. The diffraction patterns recorded under CO rich reaction conditions are characteristic for the metallic state of the surface. In an environment with low excess of O2 over the reaction stoichiometry, the surface seems to accommodate oxygen atoms along the steps forming one or several subsequent adsorbate structures and rapidly transforms into a combination of (332), (111) and (331) facets likely providing the room for the formation of a surface oxide. For the case of large excess of O2, the diffraction data show the presence of a multilayer PdO with the [101] crystallographic direction parallel to the [111] and the [331] directions of the substrate. The reconstructions in O2 excess are to a large extent similar to those previously reported for pure O2 exposures by Westerström et al. [R. Westerström et al., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2007, 76, 155410].

11.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8903, 2015 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561388

RESUMO

Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a 'tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. These results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions.

12.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7076, 2015 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25953006

RESUMO

Visualizing and measuring the gas distribution in close proximity to a working catalyst is crucial for understanding how the catalytic activity depends on the structure of the catalyst. However, existing methods are not able to fully determine the gas distribution during a catalytic process. Here we report on how the distribution of a gas during a catalytic reaction can be imaged in situ with high spatial (400 µm) and temporal (15 µs) resolution using infrared planar laser-induced fluorescence. The technique is demonstrated by monitoring, in real-time, the distribution of carbon dioxide during catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide above powder catalysts. Furthermore, we demonstrate the versatility and potential of the technique in catalysis research by providing a proof-of-principle demonstration of how the activity of several catalysts can be measured simultaneously, either in the same reactor chamber, or in parallel, in different reactor tubes.

13.
Nanoscale ; 7(22): 9998-10004, 2015 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25981415

RESUMO

Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we evaluate the surface structure and morphology down to the atomic scale for micrometers along Au-free grown InAs nanowires (NWs) free from native oxide. We find that removal of the native oxide (which covers the NWs upon exposure to the ambient air) using atomic hydrogen does not alter the underlying step structure. Imaging with sub-nanometer resolution along the NWs, we find an extremely low tapering (diameter change along the NW) of 1.7 ± 0.5 ŵm(-1). A surface morphology with monolayer high islands, whose shape was influenced by stacking faults, was found to cover the NWs and was attributed to the decomposed native oxide. The appearance of point defects in the form of As-vacancies at the surface is analyzed and we set limits to the amount of carbon impurities in the NWs.

14.
ACS Catal ; 5(4): 2028-2034, 2015 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893136

RESUMO

The gas composition surrounding a catalytic sample has direct impact on its surface structure, which is essential when in situ investigations of model catalysts are performed. Herein a study of the gas phase close to a Pd(110) surface during CO oxidation under semirealistic conditions is presented. Images of the gas phase, provided by planar laser-induced fluorescence, clearly visualize the formation of a boundary layer with a significantly lower CO partial pressure close to the catalytically active surface, in comparison to the overall concentration as detected by mass spectrometry. The CO partial pressure variation within the boundary layer will have a profound effect on the catalysts' surface structure and function and needs to be taken into consideration for in situ model catalysis studies.

15.
ACS Nano ; 9(5): 5422-31, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880600

RESUMO

Using in situ surface-sensitive electron microscopy performed in real time, we show that the dynamics of micron-sized Ga droplets on GaP(111) can be manipulated locally using Au nanoparticles. Detailed measurements of structure and dynamics of the surface from microns to atomic scale are done using both surface electron and scanning probe microscopies. Imaging is done simultaneously on areas with and without Au particles and on samples spanning an order of magnitude in particle coverages. Based on this, we establish the equations of motion that can generally describe the Ga droplet dynamics, taking into account three general features: the affinity of Ga droplets to cover steps and rough structures on the surface, the evaporation-driven transition of the surface nanoscale morphology from rough to flat, and the enhanced evaporation due to Ga droplets and Au nanoparticles. Separately, these features can induce either self-propelled random motion or directional motion, but in combination, the self-propelled motion acts to increase the directional motion even if the directional force is 100 times weaker than the random force. We then find that the Au particles initiate a faster native oxide desorption and speed up the rough to flat surface transition in their vicinity. This changes the balance of forces on the Ga droplets near the Au particles, effectively deflecting the droplets from these areas. The model is experimentally verified for the present materials system, but due to its very general assumptions, it could also be relevant for the many other materials systems that display self-propelled random motion.

16.
Chemphyschem ; 16(5): 923-7, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25712198

RESUMO

We demonstrate the reversible intercalation of CO between a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayer and a Rh(111) substrate above a threshold CO pressure of 0.01 mbar at room temperature. The intercalation of CO results in the flattening of the originally corrugated h-BN nanomesh and an electronic decoupling of the BN layer from the Rh substrate. The intercalated CO molecules assume a coverage and adsorption site distribution comparable to that on the free Rh(111) surface at similar conditions. The pristine h-BN nanomesh is reinstated upon heating to above 625 K. These observations may open up opportunities for a reversible tuning of the electronic and structural properties of monolayer BN films.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(8): 5795-804, 2015 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25626848

RESUMO

The correlation between surface structure, stoichiometry and atomic occupancy of the polar MgAl2O4(100) surface has been studied with an interplay of noncontact atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface X-ray diffraction under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The Al/Mg ratio is found to significantly increase as the surface is sputtered and annealed in oxygen at intermediate temperatures ranging from 1073-1273 K. The Al excess is explained by the observed surface structure, where the formation of nanometer-sized pits and elongated patches with Al terminated step edges contribute to stabilizing the structure by compensating surface polarity. Surface X-ray diffraction reveals a reduced occupancy in the top two surface layers for both Mg, Al, and O and, moreover, vacancies are preferably located in octahedral sites, indicating that Al and Mg ions interchange sites. The excess of Al and high concentration of octahedral vacancies, very interestingly, indicates that the top few surface layers of the MgAl2O4(100) adopts a surface structure similar to that of a spinel-like transition Al2O3 film. However, after annealing at a high temperature of 1473 K, the Al/Mg ratio restores to its initial value, the occupancy of all elements increases, and the surface transforms into a well-defined structure with large flat terraces and straight step edges, indicating a restoration of the surface stoichiometry. It is proposed that the tetrahedral vacancies at these high temperatures are filled by Mg from the bulk, due to the increased mobility at high annealing temperatures.

18.
ACS Nano ; 8(12): 12346-55, 2014 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406069

RESUMO

We determine the detailed differences in geometry and band structure between wurtzite (Wz) and zinc blende (Zb) InAs nanowire (NW) surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy. By establishing unreconstructed and defect-free surface facets for both Wz and Zb, we can reliably measure differences between valence and conduction band edges, the local vacuum levels, and geometric relaxations to the few-millielectronvolt and few-picometer levels, respectively. Surface and bulk density functional theory calculations agree well with the experimental findings and are used to interpret the results, allowing us to obtain information on both surface and bulk electronic structure. We can thus exclude several previously proposed explanations for the observed differences in conductivity of Wz-Zb NW devices. Instead, fundamental structural differences at the atomic scale and nanoscale that we observed between NW surface facets can explain the device behavior.

19.
ACS Nano ; 6(11): 9679-89, 2012 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23062066

RESUMO

Using both synchrotron-based photoemission electron microscopy/spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, we obtain a complete picture of the surface composition, morphology, and electronic structure of InP nanowires. Characterization is done at all relevant length scales from micrometer to nanometer. We investigate nanowire surfaces with native oxide and molecular adsorbates resulting from exposure to ambient air. Atomic hydrogen exposure at elevated temperatures which leads to the removal of surface oxides while leaving the crystalline part of the wire intact was also studied. We show how surface chemical composition will seriously influence nanowire electronic properties. However, opposite to, for example, Ge nanowires, water or sulfur molecules adsorbed on the exterior oxidized surfaces are of less relevance. Instead, it is the final few atomic layers of the oxide which plays the most significant role by strongly negatively doping the surface. The InP nanowires in air are rather insensitive to their chemical surroundings in contrast to what is often assumed for nanowires. Our measurements allow us to draw a complete energy diagram depicting both band gap and differences in electron affinity across an axial nanowire p-n junction. Our findings thus give a robust set of quantitative values relating surface chemical composition to specific electronic properties highly relevant for simulating the performance of nanoscale devices.


Assuntos
Índio/química , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Fosfinas/química , Semicondutores , Condutividade Elétrica , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(14): 4796-801, 2012 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22361687

RESUMO

The structure and chemical composition of Pd nanoparticles exposed to pure CO and mixtures of CO and O(2) at elevated temperatures have been studied in situ by a combination of X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in pressures ranging from ultra high vacuum to 10 mbar and from room temperature to a few hundred degrees celsius. Our investigation shows that under CO exposure, above a certain temperature, carbon dissolves into the Pd particles forming a carbide phase. Upon exposure to CO and O(2) mixtures, the carbide phase forms and disappears reversibly, switching at the stoichiometric ratio for CO oxidation. This finding opens new scenarios for the understanding of catalytic oxidation of C-based molecules.

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