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1.
Brain ; 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076694

RESUMO

Phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) aggregates in the cytoplasm of motor neurons and neuroglia in the brain are one of the pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although the axons exceed the total volume of motor neuron soma by several orders of magnitude, systematic studies investigating the presence and distribution of pTDP-43 aggregates within motor nerves are still lacking. The aim of this study is to define the TDP-43/pTDP-43 pathology in diagnostic motor nerve biopsies performed on a large cohort of patients presenting with a lower motor neuron syndrome and to assess whether this might be a discriminating tissue biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and non-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. We retrospectively evaluated 102 lower motor neuron syndrome patients referred to our centre for a diagnostic motor nerve biopsy. Histopathological criteria of motor neuron disease and motor neuropathy were applied by two independent evaluators, who were blind to clinical data. TDP-43 and pTDP-43 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and results compared to final clinical diagnosis. We detected significant differences between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and non-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases in pTDP-43 expression in myelinated fibres: axonal accumulation was detected in 98.2% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis versus 30.4% of non-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis samples (P < 0.0001), while concomitant positive staining in Schwan cell cytoplasm was found in 70.2% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis versus 17.4% of patients who did not have amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (P < 0.001). Importantly, we were also able to detect pTDP-43 aggregates in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases displaying normal features at standard histopathological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that a specific pTDP-43 signature is present in the peripheral nervous system of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and could be exploited as a specific, accessible tissue biomarker. The detection of pTDP-43 aggregates within motor nerves of living patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, occurring before axonal degeneration, suggests that this is an early event that may contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.

2.
J Neurol ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059816

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is characterized by the degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons, which leads to muscle weakness and subsequently paralysis. It begins subtly with focal weakness but spreads relentlessly to involve most muscles, thus proving to be effectively incurable. Typically, death due to respiratory paralysis occurs in 3-5 years. To date, it has been shown that the management of ALS patients is best achieved with a multidisciplinary approach, and with the help of emerging technologies ranging from multidisciplinary teleconsults (for monitoring the dysphagia, respiratory function, and nutritional status) to brain-computer interfaces and eye tracking for alternative augmentative communication, until robotics, it may increase effectiveness. The COVID-19 pandemic created a spasmodic need to accelerate the development and implementation of such technologies in clinical practice, to improve the daily lives of both ALS patients and caregivers. However, despite the remarkable strides that have been made in the field, there are still issues to be addressed. This review will be discussed on the eureka moment of emerging technologies for ALS, used as a blueprint not only for neurodegenerative diseases, examining the current technologies already in place or being evaluated, highlighting the pros and cons for future clinical applications.

4.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a common symptom during the trajectory of ALS, and it can significantly impact on the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Nowadays, no specific tool for the screening of dysphagia in ALS is validated, and the approach is heterogeneous across the Italian centres. OBJECTIVE: To validate the DYALS (dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) questionnaire, adapting the DYMUS (dysphagia in multiple sclerosis) questionnaire, for the assessment of dysphagia in ALS patients, in order to uniform the evaluations across the Italian ALS network. METHODS: We included 197 patients diagnosed with ALS following the El Escorial criteria, in sixteen Italian ALS centres between 1st December 2019 and 1st July 2020. For each patient, we collected clinical and demographic data and obtained ALSFRS-r score, ALSAQ-5 score, DYMUS score, and EAT-10 score. RESULTS: Across the 197 patients, the ratio M/F was 113/84, and the median age was 64 years (IQR 56-72.5). Bulbar patients were 20%, and spinal patients 80%. The median ALSFRSr total score of patients was 35 (IQR 28-39). DYALS score was statistically higher in bulbar ALS than in spinal ALS (median = 6, IQR 4.5-9 vs median = 1, IQR 0-5, z = 6.253, p < 0.0001). DYALS questionnaire showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). There was a statistically significant correlation between DYALS and EAT-10 (rho = 0.90, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: DYALS scale is reliable, manageable, and easily usable for the screening of dysphagia in ALS. It can be shared with all the Italian ALS centres in order to collect uniform data for therapeutic strategies and clinical trials.

5.
Anal Chem ; 93(51): 16995-17002, 2021 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905686

RESUMO

Biofluid analysis by optical spectroscopy techniques is attracting considerable interest due to its potential to revolutionize diagnostics and precision medicine, particularly for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the lack of effective biomarkers combined with the unaccomplished identification of convenient biofluids has drastically hampered optical advancements in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that vibrational spectroscopy applied to human tears opens a new route, offering a non-invasive, label-free identification of a devastating disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our proposed approach has been validated using two widespread techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies. In conjunction with multivariate analysis, this vibrational approach made it possible to discriminate between tears from ALS patients and healthy controls (HCs) with high specificity (∼97% and ∼100% for FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively) and sensitivity (∼88% and ∼100% for FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively). Additionally, the investigation of tears allowed us to disclose ALS spectroscopic markers related to protein and lipid alterations, as well as to a reduction of the phenylalanine level, in comparison with HCs. Our findings show that vibrational spectroscopy is a new potential ALS diagnostic approach and indicate that tears are a reliable and non-invasive source of ALS biomarkers.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman , Lágrimas , Vibração
6.
PM R ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation in sports is known to have positive effects on people's health and psycho-social well-being. Recently, physical activity implications for people with disabilities have been explored, showing promising results on quality of life and self-concept. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effects of participation in adaptive sports on neuromuscular patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in psycho-social well-being between people affected by a neuromuscular disease who play wheelchair hockey and those who do not. Individuals playing an adaptive sport would report better quality of life, higher physical self-efficacy scores and more effective coping strategies, as assessed by self-reported measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were collected during clinical follow-ups at the NEMO Clinical Center in Milan (Italy). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 patients affected by neuromuscular diseases, aged 18 to 40 years, participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was to compare quality of life between groups. Secondary outcomes were the comparisons of physical self-efficacy and coping strategies through self-reported measures. RESULTS: Wheelchair hockey players scored significantly higher on the Quality of Life Index (specifically on the health/functioning and psychological/spiritual sub-scales) and reported better physical self-efficacy and perceived physical ability compared to the control group (i.e., patients who do not participate in any adaptive sport), controlling for age and pathology. On the contrary, no difference was found for coping strategies between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a significant association between participation in wheelchair hockey and improved physical and psychological well-being of people affected by neuromuscular diseases, compared to those who are not involved in adaptive sports. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Neurology ; 97(18): e1835-e1846, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although oculomotor abnormalities (OMAs) are not usually considered prominent features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), they may represent potential clinical markers of neurodegeneration, especially when investigated together with cognitive and behavioral alterations. The aim of our study was to identify patterns of clinically evident OMAs in patients with ALS and to correlate such findings with cognitive-behavioral data. METHODS: Three consecutive inpatient cohorts of Italian patients with ALS and controls were retrospectively evaluated to assess the frequency of OMAs and cognitive-behavioral alterations. The ALS population was divided into a discovery cohort and a replication cohort. Controls included a cohort of cognitively impaired individuals and patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Participants underwent bedside eye movement evaluation to determine the presence and pattern of OMAs. Cognitive assessment was performed with a standard neuropsychological battery (discovery ALS cohort and AD cohort) and the Italian Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) (replication ALS cohort). RESULTS: We recruited 864 individuals with ALS (635 discovery, 229 replication), 798 who were cognitively unimpaired and 171 with AD. OMAs were detected in 10.5% of our ALS cohort vs 1.6% of cognitively unimpaired controls (p = 1.2 × 10-14) and 11.4% of patients with AD (p = NS). The most frequent deficits were smooth pursuit and saccadic abnormalities. OMA frequency was higher in patients with bulbar onset, prominent upper motor neuron signs, and advanced disease stages. Cognitive dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with OMAs in both ALS cohorts (p = 1.1 × 10-25). Furthermore, OMAs significantly correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment and with pathologic scores at the ECAS ALS-specific domains. Last, OMAs could be observed in 35.0% of cognitively impaired patients with ALS vs 11.4% of patients with AD (p = 6.4 × 10-7), suggesting a possible involvement of frontal oculomotor areas in ALS. CONCLUSION: Patients with ALS showed a range of clinically evident OMAs, and these alterations were significantly correlated with cognitive, but not behavioral, changes. OMAs may be a marker of neurodegeneration, and bedside assessment represents a rapid, highly specific tool for detecting cognitive impairment in ALS.

8.
Dysphagia ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581857

RESUMO

The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a valid Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL) questionnaire for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) of heterogeneous etiologies. The study aimed at crossculturally translating and adapting the DHI into Italian (I-DHI) and analyzing I-DHI reliability, validity, and interpretability. The I-DHI was developed according to Beaton et al. 5-stage process and completed by 75 adult OD patients and 166 healthy adults. Twenty-six patients filled out the I-DHI twice, 2 weeks apart, for test-retest reliability purposes. Sixty-two patients completed the Italian-Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-SWAL-QoL) for criterion validity analysis. Construct validity was tested comparing I-DHI scores among patients with different instrumentally assessed and self-rated OD severity, comparing patients and healthy participants and testing Spearman's correlations among I-DHI subscales. I-DHI interpretability was assessed and normative data were generated. Participants autonomously completed the I-DHI in maximum 10 min. Reliability proved satisfactory for all I-DHI subscales (internal consistency: α > .76; test-retest reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient > .96, k = .81). Mild to moderate correlations (- .26 ≤ ρ ≤ - .72) were found between I-DHI and I-SWAL-QoL subscales. Construct validity proved satisfactory as (i) moderate to strong correlations (.51 ≤ ρ ≤ .90) were found among I-DHI subscales; (ii) patients with more severe instrumentally or self-assessed OD reported higher I-DHI scores (p < .05); and (iii) OD patients scored higher at I-DHI compared to healthy participants (p < .05). Interpretability analyses revealed a floor effect for the Emotional subscale only and higher I-DHI scores (p < .05) for healthy participants > 65 years. In conclusion, the I-DHI is a reliable and valid HRQOL tool for Italian adults with OD.

9.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 52, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial, multisystem motor neuron disease for which currently there is no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers to tackle the disease's complexity and help in early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanostructures released by any cell type into body fluids. Their biophysical and biochemical characteristics vary with the parent cell's physiological and pathological state and make them an attractive source of multidimensional data for patient classification and stratification. METHODS: We analyzed plasma-derived EVs of ALS patients (n = 106) and controls (n = 96), and SOD1G93A and TDP-43Q331K mouse models of ALS. We purified plasma EVs by nickel-based isolation, characterized their EV size distribution and morphology respectively by nanotracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy, and analyzed EV markers and protein cargos by Western blot and proteomics. We used machine learning techniques to predict diagnosis and prognosis. RESULTS: Our procedure resulted in high-yield isolation of intact and polydisperse plasma EVs, with minimal lipoprotein contamination. EVs in the plasma of ALS patients and the two mouse models of ALS had a distinctive size distribution and lower HSP90 levels compared to the controls. In terms of disease progression, the levels of cyclophilin A with the EV size distribution distinguished fast and slow disease progressors, a possibly new means for patient stratification. Immuno-electron microscopy also suggested that phosphorylated TDP-43 is not an intravesicular cargo of plasma-derived EVs. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis unmasked features in plasma EVs of ALS patients with potential straightforward clinical application. We conceived an innovative mathematical model based on machine learning which, by integrating EV size distribution data with protein cargoes, gave very high prediction rates for disease diagnosis and prognosis.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and weight loss are negative prognostic factors for survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, energy expenditure at rest (REE) is still not included in clinical practice, and no data are available concerning hypometabolic state in ALS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a referral cohort of patients with ALS the prevalence of hypometabolic state as compared with normometabolic and hypermetabolic states, and to correlate it with clinical phenotype, rate of progression and survival. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study examining REE measured by indirect calorimetry in patients with ALS referred to Milan, Limoges and Tours referral centres between January 2011 and December 2017. Hypometabolism and hypermetabolism states were defined when REE difference between measured and predictive values was ≤-10% and ≥10%, respectively. We evaluated the relationship between these metabolic alterations and measures of body composition, clinical characteristics and survival. RESULTS: Eight hundred forty-seven patients with ALS were recruited. The median age at onset was 63.79 years (IQR 55.00-71.17). The male/female ratio was 1.26 (M/F: 472/375). Ten per cent of patients with ALS were hypometabolic whereas 40% were hypermetabolic. Hypometabolism was significantly associated with later need for gastrostomy, non-invasive ventilation and tracheostomy placement. Furthermore, hypometabolic patients with ALS significantly outlived normometabolic (HR=1.901 (95% CI 1.080 to 3.345), p=0.0259) and hypermetabolic (HR=2.138 (95% CI 1.154 to 3.958), p=0.0157) patients. CONCLUSION: Hypometabolism in ALS is not uncommon and is associated with slower disease progression and better survival than normometabolic and hypermetabolic subjects. Indirect calorimetry should be performed at least at time of diagnosis because alterations in metabolism are correlated with prognosis.

11.
J Neurol ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410493

RESUMO

To define the presence and type of frontotemporal dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), different screening tools have been created. Currently, the most used screening tests are the Edinburgh cognitive and behavioural ALS screen (ECAS) and the ALS cognitive behavioural screen (ALS-CBS). The objective of this study was to compare the ability of ECAS and ALS-CBS in classifying non-demented ALS patients according to Strong criteria. One-hundred and fifty-four in- and out-patients with an age > 18 and a definite or probable ALS diagnosis were recruited between September 2019 and February 2020 at NeMO Clinical Centre and at Istituto Auxologico Italiano in Milan and underwent the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) and the ALS Cognitive Behavioural Screen (ALS-CBS). Exclusion criteria involved patients with a diagnosis of FTD, with a severe cognitive deterioration and/or an important behavioural impairment, with a significant psychiatric disorder or with the co-presence of another significant illness. The distribution of patients according to Strong criteria was different for ECAS and ALS-CBS and the degree of agreement between the two tests in terms of Cohen's Kappa coefficient resulted equal to 0.2047 with a 95% confidence limits interval between 0.1122 and 0.2973. This study for the first time compares the ability of ECAS and ALS-CBS in stratifying ALS patients. Further studies will be conducted to better understand the reasons underlying the differences between these two tests in classifying the different subtypes of fronto-temporal dysfunction in ALS.

12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2780-2783, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a motor neuron disorder characterized by a pure upper motor neuron degeneration in the bulbar and spinal regions. The key difference with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the lower motor neuron system integrity. Despite important literature on this disease, the pathophysiology of PLS remains unknown, and the link with ALS still balances between a continuum and a separate entity from ALS. METHODS: We report nine families in which both PLS and ALS cases occurred, in general among first-degree relatives. RESULTS: The patients with PLS and ALS had a typical disease presentation. Genetic studies revealed mutations in SQSMT1, TBK1, and TREM2 genes in two PLS patients and one ALS patient. CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly support a phenotypic continuum between PLS and ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Doença dos Neurônios Motores , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Neurônios Motores , Receptores Imunológicos , Proteína Sequestossoma-1
13.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(7): 1564-1571, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined neurophysiological (NI), split-hand (SI) and split-leg (SLI) index in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and their correlation with functional status, disease duration, staging and survival. METHODS: Eighty-two patients underwent nerve conduction study to analyze NI, SI and SLI. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), disease progression rate (ΔFS), Milano-Torino (MiToS) and King's staging systems, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and survival data were collected. RESULTS: Both NI and SI indices were significantly associated with ALSFRS-R, MiToS, King's and FVC. Slow progressor patients (ΔFS < 0.5) reported a significantly higher NI and SI values compared to both normal (0.5 ≤ ΔFS < 1.00) and fast progressors (ΔFS ≥ 1.0). After dichotomizing patients in slow progressors (ΔFS < 0.5) and not-slow progressors (ΔFS ≥ 0.5), a combination of SI index and disease duration revealed to be the best prediction model to discriminate patients in accordance with their disease progression (c-index: 0.92), leading to a new prognostic index: the 'Split-Hand prognostic index' (SHpi). CONCLUSION: SI and NI are correlated with functional status and FVC. SHpi index could represent an useful tool to discriminate patients in accordance with their disease progression. SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide novel evidence of neurophysiological indices as promising biomarkers in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Eletromiografia/métodos , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802349

RESUMO

Since NLRP3 inflammasome plays a pivotal role in several neurodegenerative disorders, we hypothesized that levels of inflammasome components could help in diagnosis or prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Gene and protein expression was assayed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation of transcriptional expression levels with longevity throughout disease progression in mice models. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate MCC950 effects (NLRP3 inhibitor) on lifespan of SOD1G93A mice. The results showed significant alterations in NLRP3 inflammasome gene and protein levels in the skeletal muscle of SOD1G93A mice. Spearman's correlation coefficient revealed a positive association between Nlrp3 transcriptional levels in skeletal muscle and longevity of SOD1G93A mice (r = 0.506; p = 0.027). Accordingly, NLRP3 inactivation with MCC950 decreased the lifespan of mice. Furthermore, NLRP3 mRNA levels were significantly elevated in the blood of ALS patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.03). In conclusion, NLRP3 could be involved in skeletal muscle pathogenesis of ALS, either through inflammasome or independently, and may play a dual role during disease progression. NLRP3 gene expression levels could be used as a biomarker to improve diagnosis and prognosis in skeletal muscle from animal models and also to support diagnosis in clinical practice with the blood of ALS patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Furanos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Indenos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Prognóstico , Sulfonamidas , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
15.
Brain ; 144(9): 2635-2647, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905493

RESUMO

Strong evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through altered regulation of proteostasis. Robust preclinical findings demonstrated that guanabenz selectively inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced eIF2α-phosphatase, allowing misfolded protein clearance, reduces neuronal death and prolongs survival in in vitro and in vivo models. However, its safety and efficacy in patients with ALS are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a multicentre, randomized, double-blind trial with a futility design. Patients with ALS who had displayed an onset of symptoms within the previous 18 months were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive 64 mg, 32 mg or 16 mg of guanabenz or placebo daily for 6 months as an add-on therapy to riluzole. The purpose of the placebo group blinding was to determine safety but not efficacy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients progressing to higher stages of disease within 6 months as measured using the ALS Milano-Torino staging system, compared with a historical cohort of 200 patients with ALS. The secondary outcomes were the rate of decline in the total revised ALS functional rating scale score, slow vital capacity change, time to death, tracheotomy or permanent ventilation and serum light neurofilament level at 6 months. The primary assessment of efficacy was performed using intention-to-treat analysis. The treatment arms using 64 mg and 32 mg guanabenz, both alone and combined, reached the primary hypothesis of non-futility, with the proportions of patients who progressed to higher stages of disease at 6 months being significantly lower than that expected under the hypothesis of non-futility and a significantly lower difference in the median rate of change in the total revised ALS functional rating scale score. This effect was driven by patients with bulbar onset, none of whom (0/18) progressed to a higher stage of disease at 6 months compared with those on 16 mg guanabenz (4/8; 50%), the historical cohort alone (21/49; 43%; P = 0.001) or plus placebo (25/60; 42%; P = 0.001). The proportion of patients who experienced at least one adverse event was higher in any guanabenz arm than in the placebo arm, with higher dosing arms having a significantly higher proportion of drug-related side effects and the 64 mg arm a significantly higher drop-out rate. The number of serious adverse events did not significantly differ between the guanabenz arms and the placebo. Our findings indicate that a larger trial with a molecule targeting the unfolded protein response pathway without the alpha-2 adrenergic related side-effect profile of guanabenz is warranted.

16.
Case Rep Neurol ; 13(1): 145-156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790773

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically heterogeneous disease, with chameleon presentations and several mimics. Considering the poor prognosis of ALS, their precise and timely identification is pivotal. Affection of the cervical spine represents one potential source of ALS mimics that should never be missed, since it is potentially treatable. We hereby present 5 cases initially diagnosed as ALS but eventually found to have different kinds of cervical spine affection, from a common compressive myelopathy to a rare space-occupying cystic fluid collection.

18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 103: 130.e1-130.e7, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637330

RESUMO

We report a case of childhood-onset ALS with a FUS gene mutation presenting cognitive impairment and a rapid clinical progression. The patient, an 11-year-old girl, presented with right distal upper limb weakness and mild intellectual disability at the Griffith Mental Development Scales. The disease rapidly worsened and the patient became tetraplegic and bed-ridden 2 years after symptom onset. A c.1509_1510delAG mutation in exon 14 of the FUS gene was detected, resulting in a predicted truncated protein, p.G504Wfs*12, lacking the nuclear localization signal. The levels of FUS mRNA in the proband were not significantly different compared to controls. Western immunoblot analysis showed that one antibody (500-526) detected in the proband ~50% of the amount of FUS protein compared to controls, while 3 other antibodies (2-27, 400-450 and FUS C-terminal), which recognize both wild type and the mutated FUS, detected 60% to 75% of the amount of the protein. These findings indicate that p.G504Wfs*12 FUS is more prone to undergo post-translational modification respect to wild type FUS.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1978, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479441

RESUMO

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients express significant clinical heterogeneity that often hinders a correct diagnostic definition. Intracellular deposition of TDP-43, a protein involved in RNA metabolism characterizes the pathology. Interestingly, this protein can be detected in serum, wherein cognate naturally-occurring auto-antibodies (anti-TDP-43 NAb) might be also present, albeit they have never been documented before. In this exploratory study, we quantified the levels of both anti-TDP-43 NAb and TDP-43 protein as putative accessible markers for improving the ALS diagnostic process by using ELISA in N = 70 ALS patients (N = 4 carrying TARDBP mutations), N = 40 age-comparable healthy controls (CTRL), N = 20 motor neuron disease mimics (MN-m), N = 20 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and N = 15 frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) patients. Anti-TDP-43 NAb were found to be significantly increased in ALS patients compared to all the other groups (p < 0.001). On the other hand, the distribution of serum levels of TDP-43 protein was highly variable among the various groups. Levels were increased in ALS patients, albeit the highest values were detected in MN-m patients. NAb and protein serum levels failed to correlate. For the first time, we report that serum anti-TDP-43 NAb are detectable in human serum of both healthy controls and patients affected by a variety of neurodegenerative disorders; furthermore, their levels are increased in ALS patients, representing a potentially interesting trait core marker of this disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact role of the NAb. This information might be extremely useful for paving the way toward targeting TDP-43 by immunotherapy in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/isolamento & purificação , Autoanticorpos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/sangue , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/imunologia , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/sangue , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/genética , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/imunologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão/genética , Corpos de Inclusão/imunologia , Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/sangue , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/genética , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/imunologia , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/patologia , Mutação/genética
20.
J Clin Neurol ; 17(1): 96-105, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study aimed to obtain optometric findings of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in different stages of the disease, and to determine the relation between ocular data and ALS-related features; that is, functional and cognitive impairment and staging. METHODS: The optometric protocol included tests of the ocular motility [broad-H test and Northeastern State University College of Optometry (NSUCO) test], near point of convergence (NPC), error refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, and binocular visual alignment, and an ocular symptoms questionnaire. The functional measures included the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-r) and Milano-Torino staging (MiToS), and cognitive impairment was assessed using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). Demographic and clinical features were also collected, including whether the patients used an eye-tracking communication device (ETCD). RESULTS: Two-hundred consecutive ALS patients (median age of 64 years, 118 males and 82 females) in different stages of disease were recruited. Nearly 70% of patients reported at least one ocular symptom, and the use of an ETCD was found to be significantly related to the presence of most symptoms. Moreover, the severely symptomatic group was characterized by significantly lower ALSFRS-r total and subscale scores, and higher MiToS. Abnormal NPC values were significantly related to lower ALSFRS-r total and bulbar-subscale scores. Patients with acceptable NSUCO test values exhibited significantly higher ECAS scores. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ocular alteration in patients in different stages of ALS supports the idea that this is a multisystem disorder and emphasizes the importance of optometric evaluations in multidisciplinary assessments to address ocular impairment early in the disease process.

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