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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439332

RESUMO

Phyllanthus emblica is a fruit widely consumed in subtropical areas, which is rich in polyphenols and other nutrients. There are increasing evidences that as a daily and nutritious fruit, it may have a positive role in controlling diabetic complications. According to the new study, its mechanisms include enhancing the functioning of insulin, reducing insulin resistance, activating the insulin-signaling pathway, protecting ß-cells, scavenging free radicals, alleviating inflammatory reactions, and reducing the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. Owing to its few side effects, and low price, it should be easily accepted by patients and has potential for preventing diabetes. Taken together, Phyllanthus emblica may be an ideal fruit for controlling diabetic complications. This review highlights the latest findings of the role of Phyllanthus emblica in anti-diabetes and its complications, especially clarifies the molecular mechanism of the chemical components related to this effect, and prospects some existing problems and future research directions.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 556885, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013395

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia has become a major threat to worldwide public health, having rapidly spread to more than 180 countries and infecting over 1.6 billion people. Fever, cough, and fatigue are the most common initial symptoms of COVID-19, while some patients experience diarrhea rather than fever in the early stage. Many herbal medicine and Chinese patent medicine can significantly improve these symptoms, cure the patients experiencing a mild 22form of the illness, reduce the rate of transition from mild to severe disease, and reduce mortality. Therefore, this paper summarizes the physiopathological mechanisms of fever, cough, fatigue and diarrhea, and introduces Chinese herbal medicines (Ephedrae Herba, Gypsum Fibrosum, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Asteris Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Codonopsis Radix, Atractylodis Rhizoma, etc.) and Chinese patent medicines (Shuang-huang-lian, Ma-xing-gan-shi-tang, etc.) with their corresponding therapeutic effects. Emphasis was placed on their material basis, mechanism of action, and clinical research. Most of these medicines possess the pharmacological activities of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and immunity-enhancement, and may be promising medicines for the treatment or adjuvant treatment of COVID-19 patients.

3.
Chin Med ; 15: 56, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514289

RESUMO

Quality consistency is one of the basic attributes of medicines, but it is also a difficult problem that natural medicines and their preparations must face. The complex chemical composition and comprehensive pharmacological action of natural medicines make it difficult to simply apply the commonly used evaluation methods in chemical drugs. It is thus urgent to explore the novel evaluation methods suitable for the characteristics of natural medicines. With the rapid development of analytical techniques and the deepening understanding of the quality of natural herbs, increasing numbers of researchers have proposed many new ideas and technologies. This review mainly focuses on the basic principles, technical characteristics and application examples of the chemical evaluation, biological evaluation methods and their combination in quality consistency evaluation of natural herbs. On the bases of chemical evaluation and clinical efficacy, new methods reflecting their pharmacodynamic mechanism and safety characteristics will be developed, and gradually towards accurate quality control, to achieve the goal of quality consistency. We hope that this manuscript can provide new ideas and technical references for the quality consistency of natural drugs and their preparations, thus better guarantee their clinical efficacy and safety, and better promote industrial development.

4.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683690

RESUMO

Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is a popular tropical fruit in southeast Asia. What is amazing is that its seeds (Momordicae Semen) and arils are traditional herbs with anti-tumor activity, and have protected human health for more than 1000 years. In recent years, its anti-tumor activity has received extensive attention and research. This manuscript summarized the chemical composition of saponins, fatty acids, volatile constituents, proteins, peptides, and other components from Momordicae Semen (MSE). The effect and mechanism of MSE and its extract on breast cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, esophagus cancer, melanomas, and human cervical epithelial carcinoma were discussed. In addition, its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological effects were also analyzed. We hope that this review will provide new ideas for the treatment of cancer and other diseases, and become a reference for the further research into complementary and alternative medicine.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Momordica/química , Clima Tropical , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
5.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450584

RESUMO

For the treatment of diseases, especially chronic diseases, traditional natural drugs have more effective therapeutic advantages because of their multi-target and multi-channel characteristics. Among many traditional natural medicines, resins frankincense and myrrh have been proven to be effective in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. In the West, frankincense and myrrh have been used as incense in religious and cultural ceremonies since ancient times; in traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, they are used mainly for the treatment of chronic diseases. The main chemical constituents of frankincense and myrrh are terpenoids and essential oils. Their common pharmacological effects are anti-inflammatory and anticancer. More interestingly, in traditional Chinese medicine, frankincense and myrrh have been combined as drug pairs in the same prescription for thousands of years, and their combination has a better therapeutic effect on diseases than a single drug. After the combination of frankincense and myrrh forms a blend, a series of changes take place in their chemical composition, such as the increase or decrease of the main active ingredients, the disappearance of native chemical components, and the emergence of new chemical components. At the same time, the pharmacological effects of the combination seem magically powerful, such as synergistic anti-inflammation, synergistic anticancer, synergistic analgesic, synergistic antibacterial, synergistic blood-activation, and so on. In this review, we summarize the latest research on the main chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of these two natural resins, along with chemical and pharmacological studies on the combination of the two.


Assuntos
Franquincenso/química , Resinas Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Franquincenso/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Resinas Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 28(6): 1209-12, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18800689

RESUMO

Wavelength conversion exploiting cascaded second harmonic and difference frequency generation (c(SHG/DFG)) in periodically polarized LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguides was experimentally researched. While wavelength converter was pumped with a pulsed wave, the pump pulse can be used to carry the information and wavelength conversion occurs between the pump wave and converted wave, thus wavelength conversion transferring the information from the pump wave to the converted waves includes two processes of second order nonlinear reaction: the first wavelength conversion from pump wave to SH wave occurs with SHG process, and the second wavelength conversion from SH wave to converted wave occurs with DFG process. In the first process the group velocities mismatching (GVM) for pulses at different wavelengths due to material property load the temporal walk-off between pump pulse and SH pulse located in the 1.5 microm band and in the 0.8 microm band, respectively, so that SH pulse slowly propagates compared with pump pulse, and SH pulse width is broadened along propagation length. As a result, in the second process the converted DF pulse generates waveform distortion owing to the broadening of SH pulse in the first process. Both the waveform and the spectrum of converted pulse in our experimental results testify to the fact that SH pulse possesses a narrow spectral width, which is consistent with a long SH pulse, and the spectral width of converted DF pulse is compressed but its temporal width is broadened correspondingly. Therefore the influence of walk-off between pulses demonstrates that the pulsed pumping wavelength conversion is disadvantageous to the transparence of the data format. However, pulsed pumping wavelength conversion also presents great potential that can be applied in future optical networks. Tunable wavelength conversion can be easily implemented by changing the wavelength of control CW, and single-to-multiple channel wavelength conversion can be realized by increasing the number of the CW lasing pump channels. This is very important and it enhances the flexibility in the management of the multi-channel WDM network. Finally, a tunable and single-to-dual channel wavelength converter based on the scheme of pulsed pumping wavelength conversion achieved by our experiment setup, and two channel converted pulses simultaneously replicate the bit rate carried on pump pulses. It is pointed out that the quality such the signal-to-noise ratio of converted pulse is affected by spectral width of control CW.

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