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1.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126035, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014637

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show that there is a link between Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and lung inflammation. Despite this, the molecular mechanisms are not entirely known. This study sought to determine whether exposure to BPA affected the development of ovalbumin (OVA) induced lung inflammation in adolescent female mice and whether the mechanism was related to mTOR-mediated autophagy pathway. Female 4-week-old C57BL/6 mice after one week of domestication were randomly divided into five groups (8/group): control group, OVA group, 0.1 µg mL-1 BPA + OVA group, 0.2 µg mL-1 BPA + OVA group and 0.4 µg mL-1 BPA + OVA group. BPA exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), induced the pathological changes in the lung, which also enhanced inflammatory cells and cytokine levels. In addition, BPA exposure affected expression of autophagy associated proteins and genes. This research results indicated that BPA aggravated OVA-induced lung inflammation and induced abnormal immune function in mice, and its mechanism was related to the activation of autophagy pathway by down-regulation expression of mTOR. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies to target autophagy may offer a new approach for severe asthma therapy.

2.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 6, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024822

RESUMO

Natural bone is a mineralized biological material, which serves a supportive and protective framework for the body, stores minerals for metabolism, and produces blood cells nourishing the body. Normally, bone has an innate capacity to heal from damage. However, massive bone defects due to traumatic injury, tumor resection, or congenital diseases pose a great challenge to reconstructive surgery. Scaffold-based tissue engineering (TE) is a promising strategy for bone regenerative medicine, because biomaterial scaffolds show advanced mechanical properties and a good degradation profile, as well as the feasibility of controlled release of growth and differentiation factors or immobilizing them on the material surface. Additionally, the defined structure of biomaterial scaffolds, as a kind of mechanical cue, can influence cell behaviors, modulate local microenvironment and control key features at the molecular and cellular levels. Recently, nano/micro-assisted regenerative medicine becomes a promising application of TE for the reconstruction of bone defects. For this reason, it is necessary for us to have in-depth knowledge of the development of novel nano/micro-based biomaterial scaffolds. Thus, we herein review the hierarchical structure of bone, and the potential application of nano/micro technologies to guide the design of novel biomaterial structures for bone repair and regeneration.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Regeneração Óssea , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Osso e Ossos , Humanos
3.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037698

RESUMO

The Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Wingless (Wg) signaling pathways play important roles in numerous biological processes in Drosophila. The Drosophila vestigial (vg) gene is selectively required for wing imaginal disc cell proliferation, which is essential for the formation of the adult wing and halter structures, and is regulated by Dpp and Wg signaling. Using a Drosophila invasion model of wing epithelium, we showed herein that inhibition of Dpp or Wg signaling promoted cells to migrate across the cell lineage restrictive anterior/posterior (A/P) compartment boundary. Being downstream of both Dpp and Wg signaling, vg can block cell migration induced by loss of either pathway. In addition, suppression of vg is sufficient to induce cell migration across the A/P boundary. Transcriptomic analysis revealed potential downstream genes involved in the cell migration after suppressing vg in the wing disc. We further demonstrated that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling promoted cell migration induced by vg suppression by upregulating Caspase activity. Taken together, our results revealed the requirement of Vg for suppressing cell migration and clarified how developmental signals collaborate to stabilize cells along the compartment boundary. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Pflugers Arch ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006095

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient alternative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) to improve metabolic health in older individuals. However, differences in adipose tissue metabolism between these two approaches are unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of HIIT and MICT on metabolic phenotypes in aged rats. HIIT significantly decreased fat mass, increased percent lean mass, decreased fat-to-lean ratio, reduced serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, increased serum interleukin-10 levels, and decreased perirenal adipose tissue leptin compared with rats in the sedentary (SED) group. HIIT also increased pregnenolone, cortisol, and corticosterone in both adipose tissue and serum. Both exercise modalities enhanced hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase expression compared with the SED group and decreased palmitic acid, stearic acid, octadecadienoic acid, urea, 1-heptadecanol, and α-tocopherol. MICT was related to glycerolipid metabolism, whereas HIIT was related to steroid hormone biosynthesis. Overall, HIIT showed more favorable regulation of anti-inflammatory activity than MICT.

5.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056244

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence showed that the claudin-6 (CLDN6) expression was abnormal in many cancers, while its expression and biological functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. The present study demonstrated that CLDN6 was upregulated in HCC tissues compared with tumour-adjacent tissues. CLDN6 silencing was significantly inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, downregulation of CLDN6 remarkably inhibited the activation of EGFR/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway. Interestingly, the effect of CLDN6 overexpression on HepG2 cell proliferation and invasion could be inhibited by EGFR/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway inhibitor (AG1478). SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: These findings suggested that CLDN6 may act as an oncogene in HCC and improve HepG2 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion may via EGFR/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME) are standard treatments of stage II/III locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), currently. Here, we evaluated the oncological outcomes in LARC patients treated with NACRT compared to TME alone, and determined whether tumor regression grade (TRG) and pathologic response after NACRT was related to prognosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective comparison of 358 LARC patients treated with either TME alone (non-NACRT group, n = 173) or NACRT plus TME (NACRT group, n = 185) during 2003-2013. Perioperative and oncologic outcomes, like overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and recurrence were compared using 1:1 propensity score matching analysis. RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were matched for the analysis. After a median follow-up of 45 months (8-97 months), the 5-year OS (NACRT vs non-NACRT: 75.42% vs 72.76%; P = 0.594) and 5-year DFS (NACRT vs non-NACRT: 74.25% vs 70.13%; P = 0.224) were comparable between NACRT and non-NACRT, whereas the 5-year DFS rate was higher in the NACRT group when only stage IIIb/IIIc patients were considered (NACRT vs. non-NACRT: 74.79% vs. 62.29%; P = 0.056). In the NACRT group of 185 patients, those with pCR/stage I (vs stage II/stage III disease) or TRG3/TRG4 disease (vs TRG0/TRG1/TRG2) had significantly better prognosis. CONCLUSION: NACRT might provide survival benefit in patients with stage IIIb/IIIc locally advanced rectal cancer.

7.
Sci Adv ; 6(5): eaaw8065, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064330

RESUMO

We report a dual-mode organic photodetector (OPD) that has a trilayer visible light absorber/optical spacer/near-infrared (NIR) light absorber configuration. In the presence of NIR light, photocurrent is produced in the NIR light-absorbing layer due to the trap-assisted charge injection at the organic/cathode interface at a reverse bias. In the presence of visible light, photocurrent is produced in the visible light-absorbing layer, enabled by the trap-assisted charge injection at the anode/organic interface at a forward bias. A high responsivity of >10 A/W is obtained in both short and long wavelengths. The dual-mode OPD exhibits an NIR light response operated at a reverse bias and a visible light response operated at a forward bias, with a high specific detectivity of ~1013 Jones in both NIR and visible light ranges. A bias-switchable spectral response OPD offers an attractive option for applications in environmental pollution detection, bioimaging process, wellness, and security monitoring in two distinct bands.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 251: 112554, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923541

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is tightly associated with inflammation response and oxidative stress. As a folk medicine applied in treatment of diarrhea, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza also possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities, which indicated that B. gymnorrhiza may exert anti-colitis effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate effect and mechanism of B. gymnorrhiza on experimental UC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extract of B. gymnorrhiza leaves (ABL) was used for investigation in the present study. Murine UC was established through access to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days. Meanwhile, mice accepted treatment with ABL (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (200 mg/kg) once daily. On the last day, disease activity index (DAI) including body weight loss, fecal character and degree of bloody diarrhea was evaluated, colon segments were obtained for length measurement and further analysis and feces were collected for intestinal microbiota analysis. RESULTS: ABL ameliorated DAI scores, colon length shortening and histopathological damage in DSS-induced colitis mice obviously. SOD activity, levels of MDA and GSH altered by colitis were restored remarkably after ABL treatment. ABL inhibited increases in levels of colonic COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-11 in colitis mice. Moreover, ABL prominently suppressed NF-κB p65 and IκB phosphorylation and down-regulated mRNA levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß elevated by colitis. As shown in microbiota analysis, ABL modulated composition of intestinal microbiota of colitis mice. CONCLUSION: ABL exhibited protective effect against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis through suppressing NF-κB activation and modulating intestinal microbiota.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of mobile application (app) interventions on weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials examining the use of mobile app interventions with outcomes on weight loss evaluated by body weight or other measures such as BMI or waist circumference. A random-effects model was applied to obtain weight mean differences and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Fourteen studies enrolling 2,129 patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Mobile app interventions could significantly reduce body weight (weight mean difference, -0.84 kg; 95% CI: -1.51 to -0.17 kg) and lower waist circumference (-1.35 cm; 95% CI: -2.16 to -0.55 cm) but may not decrease BMI (-0.08 kg/m2 ; 95% CI: -0.41 to 0.25 kg/m2 ). The reductions appeared to be more pronounced in patients with obesity or among studies using mobile app interventions combined with other behavior components. However, weight loss was not moderated by the functionalities of the mobile apps (all Pinteraction > 0.05) or by the intervention duration (all P > 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Mobile app interventions lead to weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes and are worth recommending for weight loss promotion.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 744, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937843

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
Plant Sci ; 291: 110346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928677

RESUMO

NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) that are important in plant abiotic stress responses. In this study we isolated a NAC gene from Capsicum annuum leaves, designated as CaNAC064. We characterized the amino acid sequence of CaNAC064 and found that it contain conserved domains of the NAC family, including a highly conserved N-terminus domain and a highly variable C-terminus domain. Expression analysis showed that the 40C, 400C, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments strongly induced the expression of CaNAC064 through silencing of CaNAC064 in pepper and overexpressing in Arabidopsis. CaNAC064-silenced pepper plants exhibited more serious wilting, higher MDA contents and chilling injury index, lower proline content, and more accumulation of ROS in the leaves after cold stress. The CaNAC064-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited lower MDA content, chilling injury index and relative electrolyte leakage content as compared to WT plants under cold stress. Transcriptional activation activity analysis indicated that CaNAC064 has transcriptional activation activity in the 691-1071 bp key region. We identified 45 proteins that putatively interact with CaNAC064 using the Yeast Two-Hybrid method. According to the Yeast Two-Hybrid and BIFC results, CaNAC064 interacted with low temperature-induced haplo-proteinase proteins in plant cell. These results suggested that CaNAC064 positively modulates plant cold-tolerance, laying the foundation for future investigations into the role of NACs as regulatory proteins of cold tolerance in plants.

12.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 23, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) is a recognized clinical phenomenon characterized by cognitive impairments in patients following anesthesia and surgery, yet its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory via activation of TrkB-full length (TrkB-FL) receptors. It has been reported that an abnormal truncation of TrkB mediated by calpain results in dysregulation of BDNF/TrkB signaling and is associated with cognitive impairments in several neurodegenerative disorders. Calpains are Ca2+-dependent proteases, and overactivation of calpain is linked to neuronal death. Since one source of intracellular Ca2+ is N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) related and the function of NMDARs can be regulated by neuroinflammation, we therefore hypothesized that dysregulation of BDNF/TrkB signaling mediated by NMDAR/Ca2+/calpain might be involved in the pathogenesis of POCD. METHODS: In the present study, 16-month-old C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to establish the POCD animal model. For the interventional study, mice were treated with either NMDAR antagonist memantine or calpain inhibitor MDL-28170. Behavioral tests were performed by open field, Y maze, and fear conditioning tests from 5 to 8 days post-surgery. The levels of Iba-1, GFAP, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NMDARs, calpain, BDNF, TrkB, bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, and dendritic spine density were determined in the hippocampus. RESULTS: Anesthesia and surgery-induced neuroinflammation overactivated NMDARs and then triggered overactivation of calpain, which subsequently led to the truncation of TrkB-FL, BDNF/TrkB signaling dysregulation, dendritic spine loss, and cell apoptosis, contributing to cognitive impairments in aging mice. These abnormities were prevented by memantine or MDL-28170 treatment. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our study supports the notion that NMDAR/Ca2+/calpain is mechanistically involved in anesthesia and surgery-induced BDNF/TrkB signaling disruption and cognitive impairments in aging mice, which provides one possible therapeutic target for POCD.

13.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-like' (NEDD4L) is considered a candidate gene for hypertension-both functionally and genetically-through the regulation of the ubiquitination of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). This study explores the relationship between genetic variation in NEDD4L and hypertension with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the southeastern Han Chinese population. METHODS: We recruited 623 CKD patients and measured ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and the rs4149601 and rs2288774 polymorphisms in NEDD4L were genotyped using qPCR. RESULTS: For rs4149601, significant differences in genotype frequencies in an additive model (GG vs GA vs AA) were observed between normotensive patients and hypertensive patients when hypertension was classified into ambulatory hypertension, clinical hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension (P = 0.038, 0.005 and 0.006, respectively). In a recessive model (GG+GA vs AA), the frequency of the AA genotype of rs4149601 in the hypertension groups were all higher than that in the normotensive groups. The genotype distribution of rs2288774 did not differ significantly between the normotensive and hypertensive patients. In both the full cohort and the propensity score matching (PSM) cohort, the AA genotype of rs4149601 (compared to the GG+GA genotype group) was independently correlated with ambulatory hypertension, clinical hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension by multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the AA genotype of rs4149601 associates with hypertension in CKD. Consequently, the rs4149601 A allele might be a risk factor for hypertension with CKD.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 138-155, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901897

RESUMO

Lycorine is a powerful anti-cancer agent against various cancer cell lines with minor side effects. However, the detailed mechanisms of its effects in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of lycorine against CRC both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular docking modeling was used to identify potential inhibitory targets of lycorine in CRC. Cell viability was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry. Autophagosomes were examined using transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. HCT116-derived xenografts were constructed to analyze the effect of lycorine in CRC in vivo. Using the CDOCKER algorithm, we determined that lycorine has four interactions with the conserved domain of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2). This prediction was further confirmed by the degradation of phosphorylated MEK2 and its downstream targets after lycorine treatment, and MEK2 overexpression abolished lycorine-induced autophagy-associated apoptosis. Additionally, we revealed that the combination of vemurafenib and lycorine had better effects in CRC models in vitro and in vivo than monotherapy. Our findings identified lycorine as an effective MEK2 inhibitor and suggested that the combination of lycorine and vemurafenib could be used to treat CRC.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967776

RESUMO

Bi-Sb-Te-based semiconductors possess the best room-temperature thermoelectric performance, but are restricted for application in the wearable field because of their inherent brittleness, rigidity, and nonscalable manufacturing techniques. Therefore, how to obtain thermoelectric materials with excellent thermoelectric properties and flexibility through the batch production process is a serious challenge. Here, we report the fabrication of flexible p-type thermoelectric Ag-modified Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films on flexible substrates using a facile approach. Their optimized power factors are ∼12.4 and ∼14.0 µW cm-1 K-2 at 300 and 420 K, respectively. These high-power factors mainly originate from the optimized carrier transport of the composite system, through which a high level of electrical conductivity is achieved, whereas a remarkably improved Seebeck coefficient is simultaneously obtained. Bending tests demonstrate the excellent flexibility and mechanical durability of the composite films, and their power factors decrease by only about 10% after bending for 650 cycles with a bending radius of 5 mm. A flexible thermoelectric module is designed and constructed using the optimized composite films and displays a power density of ∼1.4 mW cm-2 at a relatively small ΔT of 60 K. This work demonstrates the potential of inorganic thermoelectric materials to be made on flexible/wearable substrates for energy harvesting and management devices.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893497

RESUMO

Stem cells have been widely studied in cell biology and utilized in cell-based therapies, and fishing stem cells from marrow is highly challenging due to the ultralow content. Herein, a physically cross-linked DNA network-based cell fishing strategy is reported, achieving efficient capture, 3D envelop, and enzyme-triggered release of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). DNA network is constructed via a double rolling circle amplification method and through the intertwining and self-assembly of two strands of ultralong DNA chains. DNA-chain-1 containing aptamer sequences ensures specific anchor with BMSCs from marrow. Hybridization between DNA-chain-1 and DNA-chain-2 enables the cross-link of cell-anchored DNA chains to form a 3D network, thus realizing cell envelop and separation. DNA network creates a favorable microenvironment for 3D cell culture, and remarkably the physically cross-linked DNA network shows no damage to cells. DNA network is digested by nuclease, realizing the deconstruction from DNA network to fragments, and achieving enzyme-triggered cell release; after release, the activity of cells is well maintained. The strategy provides a powerful and effective method for fishing stem cells from tens of thousands of nontarget cells.

18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 317: 108944, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935364

RESUMO

Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a well-known donor graft source due to their potential for self-renewal and differentiation into multi-lineage cell types, including osteoblasts that are critical for fracture healing. Fasudil (FAS), a Rho kinase inhibitor, has been proven to induce the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) into neuron-like cells. However, its role in the osteogenesis of BMSCs remain uncertain. Herein, we for the first time studied the effects of FAS on osteogenic differentiation in a mouse fracture model and further explored the involved mechanisms in mouse BMSCs. The results showed that FAS stimulated bone formation in the fracture mouse model. Additionally, at 30 µM, FAS significantly promotes alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and the expression of osteogenic markers COL-1, RUNX2 and OCN in murine BMSCs. Blocking of P38 by SB202190 significantly reversed the effects of FAS, in vitro, suggesting that P38, but not ERK or JNK activation is required for FAS-induced osteogenesis. Collectively, our results indicate that FAS may be a promising agent for promoting fracture healing.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992044

RESUMO

Rational regulation on polysulfide behaviors is of great significance in pursuit of reliable solution-based lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery chemistry. Herein, we develop a unique polymeric zwitterion (PZI) to establish a smart polysulfide regulation in Li-S batteries. The zwitterionic nature of PZI integrates sulfophilicity and lithiophilicity in the matrix, fostering an ionic environment for selective ion transfer through the chemical interactions with lithium polysulfides (LiPS). When implemented as a functional interlayer in the cell configuration, PZI empowers strong obstruction against polysulfide permeation but simultaneously allows fast Li+ conduction, thus contributing to significant shuttle inhibition as well as the resultant facile and stable sulfur electrochemistry. The PZI-based cells realize excellent cyclability over 1000 cycles with a minimum capacity fading rate of 0.012% per cycle and favorable rate capability up to 5 C. Moreover, a high areal capacity retention of 5.3 mAh cm-2 after 300 cycles can be also obtained under raised sulfur loading and limited electrolyte, demonstrating great promise in developing high-efficiency and long-lasting Li-S batteries.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(1): 1292-1298, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820628

RESUMO

Greatly enhanced upconversion luminescence was demonstrated by integrating the core-shell upconversion nanorods with the Ag nanogratings. Both the Ag nanogratings and upconversion nanorods were fabricated/synthesized in a facile, cost-effective, high-throughput way. Experimental results showed that the upconversion luminescence intensity of Er3+ in the core-shell upconversion nanorods can be well tuned and enhanced by changing the shell thickness and the period of the Ag nanograting. The underlying physical mechanism for the upconversion luminescence enhancement was attributed to the plasmonically enhanced near infrared broadband absorption of the periodic Ag nanograting and the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanocrystals. The maximum enhanced factors of 523 nm, 544 nm (green emission), and 658 nm (red emission) of Er3+ ions excited at 980 nm are 3.8-, 5.5-, and 4.6-folds, respectively. Our fabrication approach and results suggest that such a simple integration is potentially useful for biosensing/imaging and anti-counterfeiting applications.

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