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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603794

RESUMO

Assembling genomes from single-cell sequencing data is essential for single-cell studies. However, single-cell assemblies are challenging due to (i) the highly non-uniform read coverage and (ii) the elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. In this study, we present a new framework called EPGA-SC for de novo assembly of single-cell sequencing reads. The EPGA assembler has designed strategies to solve the problems caused by sequencing errors, sequencing biases and repetitive regions. However, the extremely unbalanced and richer error types prevent EPGA to achieve high performance in single-cell sequencing data. In this study, we designed EPGA-SC based on EPGA. The main innovations of EPGA-SC are as follows: (i) classifying reads to reduce the proportion of false reads; (ii) using multiple sets of high precision paired-end reads generated from the high precision assemblies produced by other assembler such as SPAdes to overcome the impact of sequencing biases and repetitive regions; (iii) developing novel algorithms for removing chimeric errors and extending contigs. We test EPGA-SC with seven datasets. The experimental results show that EPGA-SC can generate better assemblies than most current tools in most time in term of MAX contig, N50, NG50, NA50 and NGA50.

2.
J Neurophysiol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596630

RESUMO

Cholinergic signaling coupled to sensory-driven neuronal depolarization is essential for modulating lasting changes in deep layer neural excitability and experience-dependent plasticity in the primary auditory cortex. However, the underlying cellular mechanism(s) associated with coincident cholinergic receptor activation and neuronal depolarization of deep layer cortical neurons remains unknown. Here, using in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings targeted to neurons in isolated brain slices containing the primary auditory cortex (AI), we investigated the effects of cholinergic receptor activation and neuronal depolarization on the electrophysiological properties of AI layer 5 intrinsic-bursting and regular-spiking neurons. Bath application of carbachol (5 µM; cholinergic receptor agonist) paired with supra-threshold intracellular depolarization led to persistent activity in these neurons. Persistent activity may involve similar cellular mechanisms and be generated intrinsically in both intrinsic-bursting and regular-spiking neurons as: 1) it persisted under the blockade of ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors, 2) was blocked by both atropine (10 µM; nonselective muscarinic antagonist) and flufenamic acid (100 µM; Ca2+-sensitive nonspecific cationic channel (CAN) blocker), and 3) was sensitive to the voltage-gated calcium channel blocker nifedipine (50 µM) and Ca2+-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Together, our results support a model through which coincident activation of AI layer 5 neuron muscarinic receptors and supra-threshold activation can lead to sustained changes in layer 5 excitability, providing new insight into the role of a calcium-CAN-dependent cholinergic mechanism of AI cortical plasticity. These findings also indicate that distinct streams of auditory processing in layer 5 intrinsic-bursting and regular-spiking neurons may run in parallel during learning-induced auditory plasticity.

3.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621697

RESUMO

Infections resulting from the attachment of bacteria and biofilm formation on the surface of medical implants give rise to a severe problem for medical device safety. Thus, the development of antibacterial materials that integrate bactericidal and antifouling properties is a promising approach to prevent biomaterial-associated infections. In this study, two types of dopamine-modified polymers, dopamine-terminated quaternary ammonium salt polymer (D-PQAs) with various lengths of N-alkyl chain (D-PQA4C, D-PQA8C, and D-PQA12C) and dopamine-terminated poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (D-PSBMA), were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Mixed polymer brushes of D-PQAs and D-PSBMA with various ratios were well-integrated onto the surface of a silicon wafer via a facile mussel-inspired adhesion. We demonstrate that the synergistic antibacterial effect depends on both the ratio of the two components and the surface structures of the mixed polymer brushes, originating from the interactions between D-PQAs and D-PSBMA. The N-alkyl chain length of D-PQAs influenced the distribution and orientation of the alkyl chain on the mixed polymer brushes. A chart of the antibacterial efficiency of the mixed polymer brushes was obtained to reveal the synergistic role of their cationic and zwitterionic chains to resist S. aureus. The dominant amount of antifouling D-PSBMA with a minor amount of bactericidal D-PQAs with a short N-alkyl chain length facilitated the synergistic antibacterial effect. The selected polymer brushes (PSBMA/PQA4C-10%, PSBMA/PQA4C-30%, and PSBMA/PQA8C-10%) could effectively prevent biofilm formation by S. aureus for a long time, while having good biocompatibility. This work may provide a universal design strategy for the preparation of anti-biofilm and biocompatible surfaces for biomedical applications.

4.
Future Oncol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664862

RESUMO

Aim: Circulation miRNAs have become increasingly appreciated in the diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer. This study aims to identify and evaluate plasma miRNA-30a-5p as an early noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer. Pateints & methods: Expression levels of plasma miRNA 30a-5p were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and area under the curve were used to differentiate malignant from benign tumors and from healthy controls. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to determine survival and prognosis. Results: Our results suggest that the level of miRNA-30a-5p in plasma might be a considerable early novel noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lung cancer. Conclusion: Prospective studies must be performed to confirm this new early novel noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lung cancer.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4664, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604935

RESUMO

Signal transduction systems enable organisms to monitor their external environments and accordingly adjust the cellular processes. In mast cells, the second messenger Ap4A binds to the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), disrupts its interaction with the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and eventually activates the transcription of genes downstream of MITF in response to immunostimulation. How the HINT1 protein recognizes and is regulated by Ap4A remain unclear. Here, using eight crystal structures, biochemical experiments, negative stain electron microscopy, and cellular experiments, we report that Ap4A specifically polymerizes HINT1 in solution and in activated rat basophilic leukemia cells. The polymerization interface overlaps with the area on HINT1 for MITF interaction, suggesting a possible competitive mechanism to release MITF for transcriptional activation. The mechanism depends precisely on the length of the phosphodiester linkage of Ap4A. These results highlight a direct polymerization signaling mechanism by the second messenger.

6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 215: 105289, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491707

RESUMO

Mifepristone (RU486), a clinical abortion agent and potential endocrine disruptor, binds to progestin and glucocorticoid receptors and has multiple functional importance in reproductive physiology. A long-term exposure of RU486 resulted in masculinization of female fish, however, the epigenetic landscape remains elusive. Recent studies demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) might play potential roles in epigenetic modulation of sex differentiation, ovarian cancer and germline stem cell survival. To further understand the influence of RU486 exposure on epigenetic regulation, we performed a comparative investigation on sex-biased gonadal lncRNAs profiles using control XX/XY and RU486-induced sex reversed XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by RNA-seq. In total, 962 sexually differentially expressed lncRNAs and their target genes were screened from the gonads of control and sex reversed fish. In comparison with the control XX group, sex reversal induced by RU486 treatment led to significant up-regulation of 757 lncRNAs and down-regulation of 221 lncRNAs. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that global lncRNA expression profiles in RU486-treated XX group clustered into the same branch with the control XY, whereas XX control group formed a separate branch. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the cis-target genes between RU486-XX and control-XX were concentrated in NOD - like receptor signaling pathway, Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and Biosynthesis of amino acids. Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate that lncRNAs showing intense fluctuation during RU486 treatment are also sexually dimorphic during early sex differentiation, which further proves the intimate relationship between lncRNAs and sex differentiation and sexual transdifferentiation. Taken together, our data strongly indicates that a long-term exposure of RU486 resulted in sex reversal of XX female fish and the altered expression of sexually dimorphic lncRNAs might partially account for the sex reversal via epigenetic modification.

7.
J Basic Microbiol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502316

RESUMO

Microcystis aeruginosa blooms are a worldwide serious environmental problem and bloom control with bacteria is promising. In this study, a Bacillus licheniformis strain Sp34 with potent algicidal and inhibitory effects on the microcystins synthesis against fast-growing M. aeruginosa was isolated from Dianchi Lake. Sp34 killed the bloom-causing algal strain M. aeruginosa DCM4 of Dianchi Lake with an initial Chlorophyll-a concentration of 2.0 mg/L at a cell density of no less than 1.35 × 105 CFU/ml. It can also efficiently kill some other harmful algal species, such as M. wesenbergii and Phormidium sp. The algicidal activity of Sp34 relied on the release of algicidal substances, which had good heat (-20°C to 121°C) and acid-base (pH 3-11) resistance. In addition, the high algicidal activity depended on the good growth of algae indicated by the significantly positive correlations between algal growth and algicidal ratio (p < .001). The algicidal effect of Sp34 involved causing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and morphological injury of algal cells, along with DNA damage and dysfunction of DNA-repair function, weakening the photosynthesis system, and inhibiting microcystin synthesis. In general, Sp34 can kill fast-growing M. aeruginosa and inhibit algal microcystin synthesis efficiently, so, it is a promising biocontrol agent to mitigate cyanobacterial blooms.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12870, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477786

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 10829-10836, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368693

RESUMO

Developing noble-metal-based catalysts with ultralow loading to achieve excellent performance for selective hydrogenation of alkynes under mild reaction conditions is highly desirable but still faces huge challenges. To this end, a SO3H-anchored covalent organic framework (COF-SO3H) as the support was deliberately designed, and then ultralow-content Pd (0.38 wt %) was loaded by a wet-chemistry immersion dispersion method. The resulting Pd0.38/COF-SO3H composite exhibits outstanding performance for the selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene with 97.06% conversion and 93.15% selectivity to styrene under mild reaction conditions (1 bar of H2, 25 °C). Noticeably, the turnover frequency value reaches as high as 3888 h-1, which outperforms most of reported catalysts for such use. Moreover, such a catalyst also exhibits excellent activity for a series of other alkynes and high stability without obvious loss of catalytic performance after five consecutive cycles.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369384

RESUMO

One of the current research directions for single-cell RNA sequencing data is to accurately identify different cell types through unsupervised clustering methods. However, scRNA-seq data analysis is challenging because of their high noise, high dimensionality and sparsity. Moreover, the impact of multiple latent factors on gene expression heterogeneity and on the ability to accurately identify cell types remains unclear. How to overcome these challenges to reveal the true between-cell difference has become the key to the analysis of scRNA-seq data. For these reasons, unsupervised learning for cell populations discovery based on scRNA-seq data analysis has become an important research area. A cell similarity assessment method is the key to accurately identify cell types. Here, we present BioRank, a new cell similarity assessment method that using annotated gene sets and gene rank. In order to evaluate the performances, we cluster cells by two classical clustering algorithms based on the similarity between cells obtained by BioRank. BioRank can be used by any clustering algorithm that requires a similarity matrix. Applying BioRank to twelve published scRNA-seq datasets, the results show that our method is better than or at least as well as several popular similarity assessment methods and single cell clustering methods.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 58(17): 11500-11507, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415153

RESUMO

Transition-metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been regarded as one of the most intriguing electrocatalysts because of its low cost and diversity in functional organic groups and metal centers. Different from the common strategies of tuning the ratio of metal centers in multivariate MOFs, here, ultralow-content Fe2O3 is decorated on the surface of monometallic Ni-MOF-74 based on the fast "phenol-iron (Fe)" surface reaction between Fe2+ and the surface hydroxyl group in Ni-MOF-74. Benefiting from this flexible method, the Fe loading can be finely modulated and thus a series of Fe-decorated Ni-MOF-74 with different Fe contents are prepared. The optimized 0.6 wt % Fe2O3@Ni-MOF-74 with the Fe loading of 0.6 wt % only needs the overpotential of 264 mV to deliver 10 mA cm-2, which obviously outperforms Fe-free Ni-MOF-74 (323 mV) and other Fe2O3@Ni-MOF-74 and is even superior to the commercial IrO2 benchmark (300 mV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results disclose that Fe decoration can obviously modulate the electronic structure of Ni center in Ni-MOF-74, thereby resulting in enhanced oxygen evolution reaction activity. This work opens up a new avenue to fabricate excellent MOF-based electrocatalysts for direct utilization in an electrocatalytic process.

12.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386102

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The recent advance in genome engineering technologies based on CRISPR/Cas9 system is enabling people to systematically understand genomic functions. A short RNA string (the CRISPR guide RNA) can guide the Cas9 endonuclease to specific locations in complex genomes to cut DNA double-strands. The CRISPR guide RNA is essential for gene editing systems. Recently, the GuideScan software is developed to design CRISPR guide RNA libraries, which can be used for genome editing of coding and noncoding genomic regions effectively. However, GuideScan is a serial program and computationally expensive for designing CRISPR guide RNA libraries from large genomes. Here, we present an efficient guide RNA library designing tool (MultiGuideScan) by implementing multiple processes of GuideScan. MultiGuideScan speeds up the guide RNA library designing about 9-12 times on a 32-process mode comparing to GuideScan. MultiGuideScan makes it possible to design guide RNA libraries from large genomes. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: MultiGuideScan is available at GitHub: https://github.com/bioinfomaticsCSU/MultiGuideScan. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

13.
ChemSusChem ; 12(20): 4623-4628, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407864

RESUMO

Most studies are devoted to the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates to construct desirable electrocatalysts in situ by high-temperature pyrolysis. The emergence of heterostructures invokes new opportunities to use the full potential of pristine MOFs as efficient catalysts in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, a MOF surface-reaction strategy is developed to synthesize MOF-based heterostructures without pyrolysis. Uniform Fe(OH)3 nanosheets are grown controllably on the Co-MOF-74 surface by a fast "phenol-Fe" reaction that takes advantage of the hydroxyl sites in Co-MOF-74. The resulting Fe(OH)3 @Co-MOF-74 heterostructure delivers an excellent performance in the OER with a low overpotential of 292 mV at 10 mA cm-2 . Notably, the introduction of Fe can improve the intrinsic activity of the original Co atom significantly. The turnover frequency in Fe(OH)3 @Co-MOF-74 (1.209 s-1 ) is more than 25 times higher than that in Co-MOF-74 (0.048 s-1 ). This work presents a fresh concept for the fundamental design of advanced pure-MOF-based heterostructures and, thereby, provides a new avenue for the fabrication of other energy-conversion and -storage materials.

14.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 51(8): 814-825, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314060

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) AFAP1-AS1 in pancreatic cancer is negatively correlated with survival and prognosis. However, the effects of oridonin and lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration of pancreatic cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Surgery is the only potentially curative method for pancreatic cancer, but postoperative recurrence and metastasis are common. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of oridonin and lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 silencing on pancreatic cancer cells. The pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cells were transfected with siAFAP1-AS1 and its negative control (siNC). After that, oridonin was used to treat the siAFAP1-AS1-transfected cells. The expression of lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 was downregulated in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1. The apoptosis and cell cycle progression of pancreatic cancer cells were evaluated by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining. Metastasis and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cells were detected by transwell migration assay, real-time cell analysis, and western blot analysis. Cells were transfected with the lentiviral siAFAP1-AS1 and siNC, and tumorigenesis was evaluated in BALB/C nude mice. Immunohistochemical examination was used to verify the effects of oridonin and siAFAP1-AS1 on pancreatic cancer. The results demonstrated that the combination of oridonin and siAFAP1-AS1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, arrested cell cycle progression, prevented the migration, regulated EMT-related protein expression in BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cells, and inhibited pancreatic cancer cell tumorigenicity and EMT in nude mice.

15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105766, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352324

RESUMO

IL-9 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases. However, its role in tumorigenesis has not been well studied. In this study, we found that IL-9 expression was significantly increased and associated with poor progression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ectopic expression of IL-9 in NSCLC cells did not affect cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro, but markedly promoted tumor growth in vivo. Immune-profile analysis showed no significant changes in the frequencies of infiltrated immune cells in the tumor site, neither in nude mice nor in immune-competent mice. However, we found that VEGF and microvessel density (MVD) were significantly increased in xenografts. IL-9 could promote cell growth and tube formation of HUVEC cells in vitro. In addition, correlation analysis implied a significant positive relationship between the density of IL-9 and VEGF, as well as MVD in human NSCLC tissues. Finally, we found that IL-9 stimulated tumor angiogenesis via STAT3 signaling. Together, our findings demonstrate a promoting role of IL-9 in lung cancer development, probably through promoting tumor angiogenesis. IL-9 thus may represent a new prognostic marker and therapeutic target for NSCLC.

16.
Org Lett ; 21(16): 6370-6373, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353914

RESUMO

A one-pot approach has been developed for the synthesis of polysubstituted dibenzofuran acrylate derivatives from (E)-2-(2-nitrovinyl)phenols, sulfur ylides, and alkynes. This protocol was carried out under mild reaction condition without any precious catalysts in generally moderate to good yields. Additionally, a plausible mechanism for the transformation was proposed.

17.
Genomics ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323298

RESUMO

AT-hook motif nuclear localized (AHL) genes have diverse but poorly understood biological functions. We identified and analyzed 37 AHL genes in maize. We also discovered four and one additional AHLs in rice and sorghum, respectively, besides those reported earlier. The maize AHLs were classified into two clades (A and B) and three distinct types (I, II, and III) as also reported in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic and ortholog analyses showed that, while the evolutionary classification was conserved in plants, expansion of the AHL gene family in maize was accompanied with new biological functions. Gene structure analysis showed that, while all but one Type-I AHLs lacked an intron, origin of Type-II and Type-III AHLs was associated with the gain of introns suggesting evolutionarily distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns and, likely, neofunctionalization. Gene duplication analysis revealed that AHLs in maize expanded via dispersive duplication further supporting their functional diversity. To discern these functions, we analyzed 71 transcriptomes from diverse tissues and developmental stages of maize and classified AHLs into eight groups with distinct temporal/spatial expression profiles. Coexpression analysis implicated 5 AHLs and 33 novel genes in networks specific to endosperm, seed, root, leaf, and reproductive tissues indicating their role in the development of these organs. Major processes coregulated by AHLs include pollen development, drought response, senescence, and wound response. We also identified interactions of AHL proteins in coregulating important processes including stress response. These novel insights into the role of AHLs in plant development provide a platform for functional analyses in maize and related grasses.

18.
Anal Chem ; 91(17): 10996-11003, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334636

RESUMO

Microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED) is becoming a powerful tool in determining the crystal structures of biological macromolecules and small organic compounds. However, wide applications of this technique are still limited by the special requirement for radiation-tolerated movie-mode camera and the lack of automated data collection methods. Herein, we develop a stage-camera synchronization scheme to minimize the hardware requirements and enable the use of the conventional electron cryo-microscope with a single-frame CCD camera, which ensures not only the acquisition of ultrahigh-resolution diffraction data but also low cost in practice. This method renders the structure determination of both peptide and small organic compounds at ultrahigh resolution up to ∼0.60 Šwith unambiguous assignment of nearly all hydrogen atoms. The present work provides a widely applicable solution for routine structure determination of MicroED and demonstrates the capability of the low-end 120 kV microscope with a CCD camera in solving ultrahigh resolution structures of both organic compounds and biological macromolecules.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9984, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292482

RESUMO

Many complex networks in the real world have community structures - groups of well-connected nodes with important functional roles. It has been well recognized that the identification of communities bears numerous practical applications. While existing approaches mainly apply statistical or graph theoretical/combinatorial methods for community detection, in this paper, we present a novel geometric approach which  enables us to borrow powerful classical geometric methods and properties. By considering networks as geometric objects and communities in a network as a geometric decomposition, we apply curvature and discrete Ricci flow, which have been used to decompose smooth manifolds with astonishing successes in mathematics, to break down communities in networks. We  tested our method on networks with ground-truth community structures, and experimentally confirmed the effectiveness of this geometric approach.

20.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(5): e12810, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325389

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in the occurrence and development of many human diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens and multiorgan involvement. Study of miRNAs involved in SLE provides new insights into the pathogenesis of SLE and might lead to the identification of new therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-183 injection on the progression of SLE by using MRL/lpr mouse model. The expression levels of miR-183 and mTOR mRNA were detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay. The effect of miR-183 on the course of spontaneous disease progression in the MRL/lpr mice was examined by intraperitoneal injection of miR-183 into mice and followed by monitoring lifespan, anti-dsDNA antibody levels, urinary albumin levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, and Tregs and Th17 cell population. We found that miR-183 injection resulted in reduction of anti-DNA antibody and immune complex component levels, restoration of Tregs and Th17 cell population and prolongation of survival. Our findings suggest that miR-183 injection may serve as an effective therapeutic treatment for delaying or easing pathologic features of SLE.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica/terapia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Adulto , Albuminúria/urina , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia
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