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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 181-186, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074707

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus in children under 5 years old in China (excluding China Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan data, the same below) from 2005 to 2018. Method: Data on other infectious diarrhea in the country from 2005 to 2018 were downloaded from the National Notifiable Disease Report System was to build a database for report cases of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years of age, and descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the data. Result: In 2005-2018, a total of 820 588 cases of rotavirus infection in children under 5 years old were reported nationwide, with male 500 944 cases, and with an average annual incidence of 63.7/100 000. The reported incidence showed a fluctuating upward trend increased from 8.4/100 000 to 178.1/100 000. The number of reporting provinces increased from 17 to 30. The reported incidence showed a peak of season from November to following February. The reported cases of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 months of age was 13.1%(107 845 cases), and the high-incidence age ranged from 6 months to 2 years old, accounting for 70.3% (576 874 cases), with a peak of 11-13 months (163 947 cases). The top three provinces (cities) reporting the incidence rate were Zhejiang (535.2/100 000), Guangdong (334.3/100 000) and Beijing (317.3/100 000), the provinces with the low reported case rates were Shanxi (0.9/100 000), Heilongjiang (1.6/100 000) and Liaoning (2.5/100 000), but there was no case reported in Tibet; The report cases of south region (745 526 cases) were 9.9 times north region (74 935 cases).The cases of rotavirus infection and other diarrhea pathogens were detected simultaneously accounted for 1.8% (15 030 cases) and mainly were positive for rotavirus and adenovirus (90.1%, 13 544 cases). Conclusion: The rate of rotavirus infection in children has increased rapidly since the age of 6 months, and 84.4% of the reported cases were infants before the age of 2 years.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 13-17, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914563

RESUMO

Public health physician is one of the four statutory types of physicians in China, but there is no consensus on their connotation. The main problems are that public health physician is confused with those who perform public health tasks, the relationship between public health physician and clinician and the connotation of prescription right is not clear, and there is limitation in public health education and relevant laws and regulations. Public health physician is positioned as professionals who monitor, investigate, evaluate, and intervene in population health-related issues. It is suggested to retain the practicing qualification of public health physicians and highlight the attribute of public health physicians' prescribing the prescriptions for community health. Encourage public health physicians to obtain qualification for clinicians to individual prescription, Encourage clinicians to access to public health physician qualification. Improve public health school education, take the pilot of public health physician standardization training, cultivate "prevention and treatment combined" physician.


Assuntos
Papel do Médico , Saúde Pública , China , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 849-853, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357810

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the internship of students majoring in preventive medicine in 6 colleges and universities in China, and provide reference suggestions for the improvement of internship arrangement. Methods: By using the method of combined clustering and convenient sampling, the fifth grades students majoring in preventive medicine in six universities in the eastern, central and western China were surveyed by using questionnaires to collect the information of their attitudes (to) and suggestions for clinical and public health internships. Results: A total of 596 students were surveyed. In terms of the benefits of clinical internship and public health internship, students who thought that the internship was fruitful accounted for >88%, and more students thought that reform is needed in clinical internship compared with public health internship. In clinical internship, the students through that the time arrangement was not appropriate enough (95, 39.58%), the content should be more detailed and in-depth (73, 30.42%) and the content did not conform to the professional direction (54, 22.50%). In public health internship, the students thought that the time arrangement was not appropriate (77, 45.56%), the content should be more detailed and standardized (65, 38.46%) and the types of internship bases should be more diversified (20, 11.83%). Conclusions: The undergraduates majoring in preventive medicine felt to be benefited from clinical practice and public health internships and thought they are of necessity. At the same time, there are still many problems which needs to be improved in the two types of internships. It is necessary to make joint efforts from students, teachers, colleges and practice bases to promote the continuous improvement of undergraduate internship.


Assuntos
Atitude , Internato e Residência , Medicina Preventiva/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , China , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(10): 1291-1297, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453425

RESUMO

The process of globalization increases the risk of global transmission of infectious diseases, resulting in pressure for country's prevention and control of imported infectious disease. Based on the risk assessment of disease importation and local transmission, a strategy that conducting importation prevention and routine prevention and control before the importation of disease and taking emergency control measures after the importation of disease was developed. In addition, it is important to take part in global infectious disease response action, aid the countries with outbreak or epidemic to actively decrease the risk of disease importation.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Viagem , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Saúde Global , Humanos , Medição de Risco
5.
J Viral Hepat ; 25(1): 88-96, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834100

RESUMO

We describe the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among women of reproductive age residing in areas of China that are highly endemic for chronic HBV, and provide evidence useful for decision-makers to guide strategies for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HBV, and assess the impact of perinatal transmission PMTCT by projecting HBsAg prevalence trends without interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional HBV serological survey of women, 15-49 years of age, residing in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan provinces. Demographic and other subject-level data were collected in face-to-face interviews, after which we obtain blood specimens. Specimens were tested for HBV sero-markers by ELISA (Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy), and HBV DNA was tested with PCR (Hunan Sansure Biotech). Weighted HBsAg and HBV (either HBsAg+ or anti-HBc+ indicating either present or past infection) prevalences were 11.82% and 57.16%, respectively. Among the HBsAg-positive women, 27% were also HBeAg positive. The proportion of individuals with HBV DNA loads >105 IU/mL declined with increasing age. Among HBsAg-negative women, 0.9% had occult HBV infection. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection among reproductive women in these highly endemic provinces is high, posing a threat to maternal health and risk of mother-to-child transmission. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission remains critically important.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 33(4): 217-223, 2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427135

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. (2) Another 45 SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI, n=5), LPS control group (LC, n=20), and BMSCs-treated group (BT, n=20) according to the random number table. Rats in groups LC and BT were injected with LPS (5 mg/kg) via tail vein to induce sepsis; rats in group SI were injected with the same amount of normal saline to simulate the damage. At post injury hour (PIH) 1, rats in group BT were given 1 mL BMSCs (2×10(6)/mL) via tail vein injection; rats in another two groups were injected with equal volume of phosphate buffer saline. Five rats in group SI at PIH 24 and in groups LC and BT at PIH 6, 12, 24, and 48 were sacrificed to harvest lung tissue for pathological observation with HE staining. In addition, rats in group SI at PIH 24 and in groups LC and BT at PIH 24 and 48 were simultaneously performed with intraperitoneal injection of low-glucose DMEM. Then peritoneal fluid was harvested to culture peritoneal macrophages. Flow cytometer was used to assess the positive expression of cell makers of macrophages including CD68 (making gate), CD11c, and CD206 in group SI at PIH 24 and in groups LC and BT at PIH 24 and 48. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and LSD test. Results: (1) The third passage of cells showed uniform fiber-like shape similar to fibroblasts. These cells showed positive expressions of CD29, CD44, CD90 and weak positive expression of CD45. They were able to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. These cells were identified as BMSCs. (2) At PIH 24, the structure of pulmonary alveoli of rats in group SI was clear and complete with no congestion or inflammatory cell infiltration. At PIH 6, the structure of pulmonary alveoli of rats in groups LC and BT was clear with a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration, slight congestion and pulmonary interstitial thickening. At PIH 12, the inflammatory responses in lung tissue of rats in group LC were more severe than those in group BT with a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration, serious congestion, and obvious pulmonary interstitial thickening. The pathological results of rats in group BT at PIH 12 was consistent with the results at PIH 6. At PIH 24, the pathological results of rats in groups LC and BT were similar to the results at PIH 12. At PIH 48, the structure of pulmonary alveoli tissue of rats in group LC was still severely disrupted, with a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration and congestion in lung tissue, but pulmonary interstitial thickening was slightly alleviated than before. The condition of rats in group BT nearly recovered to that in group SI. (3) At PIH 24, the positive expression rate of CD11c in peritoneal macrophages of rats in group LC [(83±10)%] was close to that in group BT [(87±7)%, P>0.05], and they were both significantly higher than the rate in group SI [(55±12)%, with P values below 0.01]. The positive expression rate of CD11c in peritoneal macrophages of rats in group LC [(59±11)%] at PIH 48 was close to that in group SI at PIH 24 (P>0.05), and they were both significantly higher than the rate in group BT [(20±11)%] at PIH 48 (with P values below 0.01). At PIH 24, the positive expression percentages of CD206 in peritoneal macrophages of rats were similar among the three groups (with P values above 0.05). The positive expression percentage of CD206 in peritoneal macrophages of rats in group SI at PIH 24 was close to that in group BT at PIH 48 (P>0.05), and they were both significantly lower than the percentage in group LC at PIH 48 (with P values below 0.01). Conclusions: BMSCs can reduce the pathological inflammatory responses in the lung of rats with sepsis and inhibit peritoneal macrophages from polarizing into M1 phenotype, whereas they can not promote macrophages to polarize into M2 phenotype.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea , Macrófagos Peritoneais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Sepse , Adipócitos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Fibroblastos , Macrófagos , Osteogênese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40148, 2017 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28091522

RESUMO

Under irradiation, chemical species can redistribute in ways not expected from equilibrium behavior. In oxide-dispersed ferritic alloys, the phenomenon of irradiation-induced Cr redistribution at the metal/oxide interfaces has drawn recent attention. Here, the thermal and irradiation stability of the FeCr/Y2O3 interface has been systematically studied. Trilayer thin films of 90 nm Fe - 20 at.% Cr (1st layer)/100 nm Y2O3 (2nd layer)/135 nm Fe - 20 at.% Cr (3rd layer) were deposited on MgO substrates at 500 °C. After irradiation, Cr diffuses towards and enriches the FeCr/Y2O3 interface. Further, correlated with Cr redistributed into the oxide, an amorphous layer is generated at the interface. In the Y2O3 layer, the original cubic phase is observed to transform to the monoclinic phase after irradiation. Meanwhile, nanosized voids, with relatively larger size at interfaces, are also observed in the oxide layer. First-principles calculations reveal that Cr substitution of Y interstitials in Y2O3 containing excess Y interstitials is favored and the irradiation-induced monoclinic phase enhances this process. Our findings provide new insights that may aid in the development of irradiation resistant oxide-dispersed ferritic alloys.

8.
Plant Genome ; 9(2)2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898817

RESUMO

Tanshinones and phenolic acids are the major bioactive constituents in the traditional medicinal crop ; however, transcription factors (TFs) are seldom investigated with regard to their regulation of the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here a complete overview of the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor family in is provided, including phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs, and gene expression profiles of different organs (root, stem, leaf, flower) and root tissues (periderm, phloem, xylem). In total, 170 AP2/ERF genes were identified and divided into five relatively conserved subfamilies, including AP2 (25 genes), DREB (61 genes), ethylene responsive factor (ERF; 79 genes), RAV (4 genes), and Soloist (1 gene). According to the distribution of bioactive constituents and the expression patterns of AP2/ERF genes in different organs and root tissues, the genes related to the biosynthesis of bioactive constituents were selected. On the basis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, coexpression analysis, and the prediction of -regulatory elements in the promoters, we propose that two genes ( and ) regulate tanshinone biosynthesis and two genes ( and ) participate in controlling phenolic acid biosynthesis. The genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis belong to the ERF-B3 subgroup. In contrast, the genes predicted to regulate phenolic acid biosynthesis belong to the ERF-B1 and ERF-B4 subgroups. These results provide a foundation for future functional characterization of AP2/ERF genes to enhance the biosynthesis of the bioactive compounds of .


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Estruturas Vegetais/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 50(7): 611-4, 2016 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27412837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in China from 2004 to 2013. METHODS: Data of mump cases occurring between 2004 and 2013 were gathered from the national notifiable disease reporting system in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan); only cases classified as "final card" , laboratory confirmed, or clinical diagnosis were included. Descriptive epidemiology techniques were used to analyze features of sex, age, trends over time, and geography. RESULTS: Average incidence of mumps between 2004 to 2013 was 24.20/100 000. Peaks were in 2011 and 2012, with incidence 33.9/100 000 (454 385/1.340 million) and 35.6/100 000 (479 518/1.347 million). Two seasonal peaks occurred regularly in years, one from April to July in the first year, and the other from November to January in the next year. During the study period, provinces with the highest incidence were Ningxia, Tibet, Xinjiang, and Guangxi; incidences were 72.1/100 000 (4 425/6.13 million), 48.5/100 000 (1 396/3 million), 51.7/100 000 (10 887/21.04 million), and 40.8/100 000 (19 179/46.99 million), respectively. Guangdong (28 078), Sichuan (21 924), Guangxi (21 616), and Zhejiang (20 000) provinces reported the highest number of mumps cases. Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai showed a consistently low incidence. Mumps cases occurred primarily among children aged 5-9 years, with incidence ranging from 118.2/100 000 to 281.4/100 000. In 2004-2008, the peak age was 6-8 years (174.1/100 000) and in 2009-2013, peak age was 5-7 years (234.5/100 000). CONCLUSION: The highest incidences of mumps in China were reported in 2011 and 2012, with children of school age constituting the majority of cases.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Pequim , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Caxumba/virologia , Tibet
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 900-3, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In order to understand the current management status on education/training and needs for training among new employees working at the provincial CDC in China during 2012-2014, so as to provide basis for setting up related programs at the CDC levels. METHODS: Based on data gathered through questionnaire surveys run by CDCs from 32 provincial and 5 specifically-designated cities, microsoft excel was used to analyze the current status on management of education and training, for new employees. RESULTS: There were 156 management staff members working on education and training programs in 36 CDCs, with 70% of them having received intermediate or higher levels of education. Large differences were seen on equipment of training hardware in different regions. There were 1 214 teaching staff with 66 percent in the fields or related professional areas on public health, in 2014. 5084 new employees conducted pre/post training programs, from 2012 to 2014 with funding as 750 thousand RMB Yuan. 99.5% of the new employees expressed the needs for further training while. 74% of the new staff members expecting a 2-5 day training program to be implemented. 79% of the new staff members claimed that practice as the most appropriate method for training. CONCLUSIONS: Institutional programs set for education and training at the CDCs need to be clarified, with management team organized. It is important to provide more financial support on both hardware, software and human resources related to training programs which are set for new stuff members at all levels of CDCs.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , China , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(3): 10081-6, 2015 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26345945

RESUMO

We investigated the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with sepsis in severely burned patients. A total of 182 patients with burn areas lager than 30% of the body surface area were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 103 patients with sepsis (sepsis group) and 79 patients without sepsis (control group). An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine PAI-1 polymorphism 4G/5G distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of the 4G/4G genotype and the 4G allele frequency in the sepsis group were 42.7 and 62.1% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Sepsis patients had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the 5G/5G genotype, PAI-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the 4G/4G genotype (P < 0.05). The study indicates that the 4G/5G promoter polymorphism of PAI-1 gene may be related to the susceptibility to burn sepsis and that the 4G/4G genotype may be an important genetic risk factor of burn sepsis. Additionally, PAI-1 concentrations in the serum are increased in patients with burn sepsis.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/etiologia , Adulto , Alelos , Queimaduras/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(1): 2735-41, 2015 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25867422

RESUMO

We explored the safety of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) for healing burns in children. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: the experimental group received external rhGM-CSF gel, and the control group received rhGM-CSF gel matrix components, applied to the burn surface. Neither group was given any other drugs that promote wound healing. Each day we recorded the pulse, body temperature, and respiration status in the two groups. We detected the blood routine, urine routine, and hepatic and renal function before the patients received drug treatment and after 72 h. The wound scab and healing states in the two groups were recorded every 4 days to evaluate wound healing rate and time taken for complete healing. Adverse reactions and their rate of occurrence were also recorded. The median time of healing was 15 days in the experimental group and 19 days in the control group (log-rank χ(2) = 5.139, P < 0.05). After 10 days, the experimental group healing rate was consistently higher than that of the control group (significantly different using intuitive analysis), suggesting the experimental group method was more effective. There were no obvious adverse reactions. There was no significant difference between the blood routine, urine routine, and liver and kidney function in the two groups before the treatment and after 3 days (P > 0.05). Compared with saline treatment of severe burns, rhGM-CSF can effectively shorten the healing time without significant adverse reactions, and is an effective and safe treatment for burns in children.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Queimaduras/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Géis , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Função Renal , Contagem de Leucócitos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Chem Soc Rev ; 42(2): 439-49, 2013 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23038606

RESUMO

In this tutorial article, the recent development of polymer assisted deposition (PAD) for the growth of a wide range of materials, in particular in thin films, is reviewed. Specifically, we describe the unique chemistry and processes of PAD for the deposition of metals, metal-oxides, metal-nitrides, metal-carbides, and their derived composites. Many examples are given not only to illustrate the powerfulness of PAD for high quality coatings, but also to give readers an opportunity to evaluate this technique for specific applications. The challenging issues related to PAD, based on the authors' experience, are also discussed in this review article.

15.
J Int Med Res ; 39(5): 1757-65, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22117976

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate whether the maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood is an independent prognostic marker of mortality after traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Multivariate analysis showed the maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood was an independent predictor of death versus survival 1 month after injury and was inversely associated with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood > 6.7 mm immediately after non-surgical resuscitation predicted 1-month mortality with 83.9% sensitivity and 67.1% specificity; its predictive value was similar to that of the GCS score. Addition of maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood to the GCS score did not significantly improve predictive performance. Hence, the maximum thickness of subarachnoid blood is a new independent prognostic marker of mortality and might become an additional, valuable tool for risk stratification and decision making in the acute phase of traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Radiografia , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/patologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 2: 428, 2011 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21847102

RESUMO

The formation of carbon nanotube and superconductor composites makes it possible to produce new and/or improved functionalities that the individual material does not possess. Here we show that coating carbon nanotube forests with superconducting niobium carbide (NbC) does not destroy the microstructure of the nanotubes. NbC also shows much improved superconducting properties such as a higher irreversibility and upper critical field. An upper critical field value of ~5 T at 4.2 K is much greater than the 1.7 T reported in the literature for pure bulk NbC. Furthermore, the aligned carbon nanotubes induce anisotropy in the upper critical field, with a higher upper critical field occurring when the magnetic field is parallel to the carbon nanotube growth direction. These results suggest that highly oriented carbon nanotubes embedded in superconducting NbC matrix can function as defects and effectively enhance the superconducting properties of the NbC.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 21(16): 165603, 2010 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20351410

RESUMO

Porous metal (Pd and Co) and semiconductor (ZnO) nanowires, porous metal (Pt and Ni) nanotubes, and unique multiple Pt nanowires are prepared from a novel nanoconfined surfactant templated electrodeposition approach. More specifically, the overall diameter of nanowires or nanotubes is defined by the pore channels of membranes. Surfactant assembled structure nanoconfined within the pores of membranes is used to generate the porosity and to control the texture of the nanowires or nanotubes. As compared to solid nanowires and nanotubes, the porous nanowires and nanotubes exhibit unique properties. For example, porous cobalt nanowires show higher coercivity.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Galvanoplastia/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Metais/química , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Tensoativos/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
J Phys Chem B ; 111(26): 7497-500, 2007 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17571878

RESUMO

Epitaxial ferromagnetic SrRuO3 thin films with a room-temperature resistivity of 300 microOmega.cm have been successfully grown on LaAlO3(001) substrates at a processing temperature in the range of 550-750 degrees C by a polymer-assisted deposition technique. X-ray diffraction analysis shows good epitaxial quality of SrRuO3 thin films, giving values of the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.42 degrees from the rocking curve for the (002) reflection and 1.1 degrees from the in-plane phi scan for the (204) reflection. Both the resistivity and the magnetization versus temperature measurements show that the SrRuO3 films are ferromagnetic with a transition temperature of 160 K. The spontaneous magnetization near the ferromagnetic transition follows the scaling law, and the low-temperature magnetization follows the Bloch law.

19.
MMWR Suppl ; 55(1): 35-8, 2006 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16645581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During July 9--14, 2004, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among workers at an electronics factory in Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China; 199 cases were reported. A case-control investigation was initiated to identify the agent and the mode of transmission. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 142 workers and food handlers and cultured for enteric pathogens. A questionnaire concerning meals and foods eaten in the factory cafeteria during July 11--13 was administered to 92 ill workers and 100 controls. RESULTS: Of approximately 2,000 workers who worked during the outbreak, 197 (10%) had illness consistent with the case definition. Salmonella enteritidis was identified from 44 (31%) of 142 stool samples collected from ill workers. Ill workers were more likely than controls to have eaten breakfast in the factory cafeteria during July 11--13. Of eight foods served at breakfast in the factory cafeteria, three were associated with illness: cake, bread (on July 12 only), and congee (i.e., rice porridge). Stratification of bread and congee exposure by cake consumption indicated that only bread eaten on July 12 was associated with gastroenteritis. The cake was baked on July 11, and a mixture that included raw eggs was poured on top; the cake was then stored at room temperature and served for breakfast on 3 consecutive days (July 11--13). The bread was stored together with the cake on July 11 and 12. No leftover food was tested. DISCUSSION: The investigation indicated that an outbreak of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis resulted from consumption of an unusual food vehicle (i.e., cake) that had been contaminated from a more typical source (i.e., raw eggs). The bread was stored at room temperature together with cake on which a mixture made from raw eggs had been poured. The bread was probably contaminated by contact with the cake. CONCLUSION: Food handlers should be instructed that intact fresh eggs can harbor S. enteritidis, foods made from eggs must be cooked, and prepared food must be stored under refrigeration.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ovos/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Indústrias , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi ; 16(6): 323-5, 1996 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9387756

RESUMO

The effect of Heart-protecting Musk Pill (HMP) on blood perfusion of the ischemic myocardium by intravenous dipyridamole 99mTc-MIBI single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in 17 patients with coronary heart disease was observed. Results showed that sublingual administration of HMP prior to injection of dipyridamole could remit the cardiac symptoms induced by dipyridamole, such as angina, chest distress, etc. With a remission rate of 85%. HMP could also improve the SPECT image defect significantly, 8 of 11 cases with reversible image defects and 4 of 6 irreversible image defects were improved. It suggested that HMP could improve the blood perfusion of the ischemic myocardium, the total effective rate was 70.6%. No adverse reaction was found.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/uso terapêutico , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
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