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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
2.
Xenobiotica ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573401

RESUMO

1. Voriconazole is known to display highly variable pharmacokinetics affecting treatment efficacy and safety. This study aimed to identify the factors causing the variation of voriconazole concentration in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 2. The data of patients was collected, including clinical characteristics and voriconazole concentrations. A total of 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 3 candidate genes (CYP2C19, ABCC2, ABCG2) related to voriconazole metabolism were genotyped by MassArray method. The correlation between polymorphisms and voriconazole concentration was analyzed. 3. A total of 244 voriconazole concentrations of 43 patients were included in this study. The voriconazole concentration was significantly correlated with patients' total bile acid (p = 0.001) and cyclosporin A (p < 0.001). The median concentration of the CYP2C19 normal metabolizers was remarkably lower than poor metabolizers (0.86 vs 2.27 µg/mL). The median concentration of ABCC2 rs2273697 GG genotype carriers was significantly higher than that of GA genotype carriers (p = 0.026). 4. The variability of voriconazole concentration is partially explained by total bile acid, metabolic types of CYP2C19. The voriconazole concentration of CYP2C19 normal metabolizers is likely to be lower than 1.0 µg/mL and thus at risk of infection due to inadequate treatment.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652797

RESUMO

In 2014, Yang proposed a method to enhance the current EMV credit card protocol (EPMAR). However, the protocol ignores the exceeding of a credit quota caused by multiple offline transactions, with the result that the amount spent can exceed the risk control scope. In this paper, we proposed an EMV-compatible offline mobile payment protocol with mutual authentication (EOPMA) to enhance EPMAR. In EOPMA, we use the reverse hash chain technique to guarantee the payment, which solves the problem of credit quotas getting exceeded because of multiple offline payments. During a transaction, in addition to payment for merchandise, an offline authorization certificate for the transaction is sent to the merchant. The merchant can verify the correctness of the transaction in real time. Our protocol is compatible with the EMV standard, which is applicable to the retail environment of numerous merchants and effectively, making EMV transactions more secure and reliable. We use numerical analysis to examine the security and performance of the protocols. We formally check the correctness of EOPMA by using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

4.
Mol Cells ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659886

RESUMO

Periodontitis is characterized by the loss of periodontal tissues, especially alveolar bone. Common therapies cannot satisfactorily recover lost alveolar bone. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) possess the capacity of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation and are likely to recover lost alveolar bone. In addition, periodontitis is accompanied by hypoxia, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a master transcription factor in the response to hypoxia. Thus, we aimed to ascertain how hypoxia affects runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), a key osteogenic marker, in the osteogenesis of PDLSCs. In this study, we found that hypoxia enhanced the protein expression of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and RUNX2 ex vivo and in situ. VEGF is a target gene of HIF-1α, and the increased expression of VEGF and RUNX2 proteins was enhanced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 µmol/L), an agonist of HIF-1α, and suppressed by 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1, 10 µmol/L), an antagonist of HIF-1α. In addition, VEGF could regulate the expression of RUNX2, as RUNX2 expression was enhanced by human VEGF (hVEGF165) and suppressed by VEGF siRNA. In addition, knocking down VEGF could decrease the expression of osteogenesis-related genes, i.e., RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and type I collagen (COL1), and hypoxia could enhance the expression of ALP, COL1, and osteocalcin (OCN) in the early stage of osteogenesis of PDLSCs. Taken together, our results showed that hypoxia could mediate the expression of RUNX2 in PDLSCs via HIF-1α-induced VEGF and play a positive role in the early stage of osteogenesis of PDLSCs.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109493, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586902

RESUMO

Afatinib (Afa), a second-generation irreversible epidermal growth factor inhibitor for the development of non-small cell lung cancer, has low bioavailability and adverse reactions. Nanoscaled drug delivery systems offer promising alternatives to address these defects and improve therapeutic outcomes. In the present study, a Tf contained, redox-sensitive ligand was synthesized and used for the preparation of afatinib loaded, Tf modified redox-sensitive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (Tf-SS-Afa-LPNs). Subsequently, studies of biological experiments in vitro and in vivo were performed to investigate the therapeutic effect of the system in lung cancer. The results showed that Tf-SS-Afa-LPNs has particle size of 103.5 ± 4.1 nm and zeta potential of -21.2 ± 2.4 mV. Significantly higher drug release was observed in the presence of glutathione (GSH). The area under the plasma concentration - time curve (AUC), peak concentration (Cmax) and terminal half life (T1/2) of Tf-SS-Afa-LPNs were 866.56 mg/L.h, 25.62 ± 3.21 L/kg/h, and 43.25 ± 2.31 h. Tf-SS-Afa-LPNs exhibited the most remarkable in vivo anti-tumor efficiency efficacy, which inhibited the tumor volume from 919 mm3 to 212 mm3. Tf-SS-Afa-LPNs is a promising platform for the lung cancer treatment.

7.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635062

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of several organic acids and their derivatives against Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. Butyric acid, valeric acid, monopropionin, monobutyrin, monovalerin, monolaurin, sodium formate, and ProPhorce-a mixture of sodium formate and formic acid (40:60 w/v)-were tested at 8 to 16 concentrations from 10 to 50,000 mg/L. The tested bacteria included G- bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni) and G+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus suis). Antimicrobial activity was expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tested compounds that prevented growth of tested bacteria in treated culture broth. The MICs of butyric acid, valeric acid, and ProPhorce varied among bacterial strains with the lowest MIC of 500-1000 mg/L on two strains of Campylobacter. Sodium formate at highest tested concentrations (20,000 mg/L) did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Enterococcus faecalis, but sodium formate inhibited the growth of other tested bacteria with MIC values from 2000 to 18,800 mg/L. The MIC values of monovalerin, monolaurin, and monobutyrin ranged from 2500 to 15,000 mg/L in the majority of bacterial strains. Monopropionin did not inhibit the growth of all tested bacteria, with the exception that the MIC of monopropionin was 11,300 mg/L on Clostridia perfringens. Monolaurin strongly inhibited G+ bacteria, with the MIC value of 10 mg/L against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The MIC tests indicated that organic acids and their derivatives exhibit promising antimicrobial effects in vitro against G- and G+ bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobial drugs. The acid forms had stronger in vitro antimicrobial activities than ester forms, except that the medium chain fatty acid ester monolaurin exhibited strong inhibitory effects on G+ bacteria.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222772, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this research, an meta-analysis was performed for assessment of the associations between O6-methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter hypermethylation possessing low-grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), cervical cancer (CC), and clinicopathological characters of CC. METHODS: Literature selection were conducted through searching PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases (up to November 2018). An assessment of associations between MGMT methylation and LSIL, HSIL, CC risk and clinicopathological characteristics was performed through pooled odds ratios (ORs) with relevant 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses, meta-regressions and Galbraith plots were conducted to conduct an exploration on the possible sources of heterogeneity. The genome-wide DNA methylation array studies were extracted from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases for validation of these outcomes. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis of 25 published articles, MGMT hypermethylation gradually elevated the rates among control group (12.16%), LSIL (20.92%), HSIL (36.33%) and CC (41.50%) specimens. MGMT promoter methylation was significant associated with the increased risk of LSIL by 1.74-fold (P<0.001), HSIL by 3.71-fold (P<0.001) and CC by 7.08-fold (P<0.001) compared with control. A significant association between MGMT promoter methylation with FIGO stage was also found (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.79-4.41, p<0.001). The results of GEO datasets showed that 5 CpG sites in MGMT with a great diagnostic value for the screening of cervical cancer. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis indicated the association between MGMT promoter hypermethylation and squamous intraepithelial lesion and cervical cancer. MGMT methylation detection might have a potential value to be an epigenetic marker for the clinical diagnosis of cervical cancer.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15134, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641209

RESUMO

A novel and traceable quantum steganography scheme based on pixel value differencing (PVD) is proposed. In the proposed scheme, a quantum cover image is divided into non-overlapping blocks of two consecutive pixels. Then, by a series of reversible logic circuits, we calculate the difference value based on the values of the two pixels in each block and classify it as one of a set of continuous ranges. The secret image and operator information are embedded in the cover image by using the new obtained difference value to replace the original one. The number of bits of secret image that can be embedded in a block is determined, and the number of bits of operator information is decided by the range of the difference value belongs to. Moreover, when the embedded data is extracted from a stego image, it is not necessary to refer to the original cover image. The performance of the proposed scheme is based on the analysis of several categories of simulation results, such as visual quality, capacity, and robustness.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652012

RESUMO

Red yeast rice has been utilized for colouring food, brewing wine and preserving meat, which is also used as a folk medicine for centuries. In this study, a water-soluble non-starch polysaccharide from red yeast rice (RYRP) was extracted by using ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. By using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to optimize the parameters for extracting the RYRP, the maximum extraction yield (3.37%±0.78%) was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions as follows: ratio of water to raw material (40 mL/g), extraction temperature (62°C), extraction time (75 min) and ultrasonic power (200 W). Moreover, monosaccharide composition analysis showed that RYRP was consisted of mannose, glucosamine, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 0.152:0.015:1:0.149. The molecular weight distribution analysis showed that the average molecular weight of the RYRP fraction was about 3.49 × 103 Da. Furthermore, RYRP exhibited significant antioxidant activities in vitro and the gastrointestinal-protective effect in vivo using gastrointestinal disorders (GD) model mice. RYRP could be explored as a potential source in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

11.
Immunol Invest ; 48(8): 809-821, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405308

RESUMO

Aims The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a pivotal role in regulating the innate and the acquired immune systems. The present study aimed to investigate the association of Crohn's disease (CD) with AhR polymorphisms in a cohort of patients from Southeast China. Methods An improved multiple ligase detection reaction technique was applied to examine the polymorphisms of rs2158041, rs2066853, and rs10249788 in 310 patients with CD and 573 controls. Results Compared to the controls, the variant allele (T) and genotype (CT+TT) of rs2158041 were less frequent in patients with CD (both p < 0.05). Similar conclusions were drawn from patients with ileal CD and with stricture CD as compared to the controls (all p < 0.0083). However, no significant differences were observed in allele and genotype frequencies of rs2066853 and rs10249788 between patients with CD and the controls (all p > 0.05). Although rs2158041 and rs10249788 were in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs2066853, respectively, only the frequency of haplotype (TG) formed by rs2158041 and rs2066853 was significantly lower in patients with CD than that in the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions AhR (rs2158041) might be a susceptible locus for CD, especially for the two subtypes: ileal CD and stricture CD.

12.
Neurosci Lett ; 712: 134449, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470044

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often focus on the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuitry, but recent studies have found abnormal spontaneous brain activity in regions outside the CSTC circuitry in patients with OCD using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Researchers have not clearly determined whether changes in spontaneous brain activity within and beyond the CSTC circuitry coexist in medication-free patients with OCD. To address this question, we recruited 64 medication-free patients with OCD and 60 matched healthy controls (HCs) to investigate their spontaneous brain activity by measuring the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting-state functional connectivity. Patients with OCD showed increased fALFF values in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and decreased fALFF values in the right rolandic operculum compared with HCs. Furthermore, patients with OCD exhibited significantly increased functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and the left cerebellum and reduced negative functional connectivity between the right rolandic operculum and the left precuneus. These findings provided new insights into the pathophysiological model of OCD, which may include CSTC circuitry and regions outside this circuitry.

13.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2303-2311, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 1997, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the same receptor or its ligand have been approved for use in oncology. However, no studies have summarized head-to-head trials of these mAbs. METHODS: Systematic search of the biomedical literature and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized studies comparing mAbs targeting the same receptor or its ligand that have been completed and published, completed and unpublished, or ongoing. We extracted trial characteristics including phase, indication, enrollment or target enrollment, randomization, primary endpoint and sponsor. RESULTS: Twenty-two approved cancer mAbs had at least one other approved mAb targeting the same receptor or its ligand, totaling 41 different oncology indications. These include 5 anti-CD20 mAbs, 5 anti-PD1/PDL1 mAbs, 4 anti-HER2 mAbs, 3 anti-EGFR mAbs, 3 anti-VEGF mAbs and 2 anti-IL6/IL6R mAbs. Seventeen were completed and published and 14 were unpublished or ongoing trials. The completed and published trials enrolled 11,373 patients and tested 13 mAbs (13/22, 59%). Additionally, 13 (76%) contained drugs manufactured by the same company and 13 (76%) reached conclusions felt to be favorable to the sponsor. Of the 14 ongoing/completed unpublished trials, there is a total target enrollment of 3404 patients with 9 mAbs tested. Of these, 86% (12/14) are testing mAbs manufactured by the same company and 71% (10/14) are sponsored by the company that made the drug being tested. CONCLUSIONS: Most trials test drugs manufactured or sponsored by the same company. An overview of clinical trials agenda may lead to more uniform testing, helping clinicians make better evidence-informed prescribing decisions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(11): 2073-2081, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401712

RESUMO

Obstructive nephropathy is a common cause for chronic kidney disease. Surgery, which is adopted to promptly relieve the obstruction, is the most important method to save damaged kidneys. However, earlier studies have shown that renal function will continue to deteriorate until the terminal stage after the obstruction' relief. The aim of this study is to explore the renal fibrosis and investigate the effect of losartan on renal fibrosis after the obstruction' relief using an improved mouse model of relief for unilateral ureteral obstruction (RUUO). Experiments carried out using C57BL/6 mice (n = 30) were randomly divided into RUUO + Losartan group, RUUO group and sham group. Using an improved mouse RUUO model, this study revealed that the mouse kidney for 3- or 7-day unilateral ureteral obstruction undergoing the RUUO surgery was still in a state of injury and fibrosis, while losartan could effectively ameliorate renal fibrosis by upregulating the expression of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) in kidney after the surgery of RUUO.

15.
Ren Fail ; 41(1): 497-506, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215300

RESUMO

Objectives: To improve the mouse model of relief for unilateral ureteral obstruction (RUUO) and explore the pathological process of renal fibrosis after the obstruction was relieved. Methods: C57BL/6 mice in model group were randomly divided into RUUO group, improved RUUO group, and UUO group. After leaving Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO) for 3 days, the obstruction was released by reimplantation way in RUUO group and in reimplantation + catheter way in improved RUUO group. C57BL/6 mice in observation group were randomly divided into 1d RUUO group, 3d RUUO group, 7d RUUO group, and 14d RUUO group. Three days after UUO, the obstruction was released by reimplantation + catheter in four groups. We detected the renal volume, H&E, Masson staining, and immunohistochemistry of kidney pathology on the seventh day after RUUO in model group and on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after RUUO in observation group. Results: Comparing with mice in RUUO group, mice in improved RUUO group had lower renal volume, tubular damage score, and collagen area percentage. After the obstruction was relieved, the renal volume decreased gradually within 2 weeks. The tubular damage score in 7d RUUO group was lower than that in 1d RUUO and 3d RUUO group. However, the tubular damage score in 14d RUUO group was higher than that in 7d RUUO group. The tendency of collagen area percentage and α-SMA IOD value were consistent with the tubular damage score. Conclusions: Using the method of reimplantation + catheter, a reliable mice model of RUUO can be got. After RUUO, the de-obstructed kidneys are still in damage and fibrosis state.

16.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137594

RESUMO

Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the rice with Monascus. It is commonly used in food colorants, dyeing, and wine making in China and its neighboring countries. Nowadays RYR has two forms on the market: common RYR is used for food products, the other form is functional RYR for medicine. However, some researchers reported that commercial lovastatin (structure is consistent with monacolin K) is illegally added to common RYR to meet drug quality standards, so as to imitate functional RYR and sell the imitation at a higher price. Based on current detection methods, it is impossible to accurately distinguish whether functional RYR is adulterated. Therefore, it is especially important to find a way to authenticate functional RYR. In the current review, the advances in history, applications, components (especially monacolins, monacolins detection methods), quality standards, authentication methods and perspectives for the future study of RYR are systematically reviewed.

17.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21(3): 473-481, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcomes of implant-supported full-arch immediate prosthesis over 6 months of functions and analyze the risk factors of prosthetic complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients who were treated with implant-supported full-arch restoration under immediate loading protocol between April 2008 and June 2016, and who wore the immediate prosthesis for more than 6 months. Medical charts were reviewed for the patients' general information, implant information, prosthetic information, and details of any prosthetic complications. Prosthetic complications were classified as follows: class I, prosthesis loosening; class II, fewer than three artificial teeth fractured; class III, three or more artificial teeth fractured; and class IV, resin base fractures. A cox proportional hazards ratio model was adopted to analyze the potential risk factors for class IV complications. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients (mean age, 56.73 ± 10.19 years) and 144 prostheses were included. The average wearing time for the immediate prosthesis was 21.9 months, and 62 (54.39%) patients experienced prosthetic complications, 30 of whom suffered from complications more than once. The most common complications were class II complications (12.3%) during the first 6 months of functioning and class IV complications (28.1%) during the entire function period. Class II complications were more common in the anterior region, while class IV complications occurred more often in the posterior region. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that a prosthesis in the maxilla (HR = 3.37, P = .001) and fiber reinforcement (HR = 0.39, P = .021) were significantly related to class IV complications. CONCLUSIONS: Implant-supported full-arch immediate prosthesis functioning over 6 months have a high prevalence of prosthetic complications. Fiber-reinforcement could reduce the prevalence of class IV complications when acrylic immediate prosthesis functioned longer than 6 months. Avoiding using the anterior teeth of the immediate prosthesis to tear pliable but strong food may prevent tooth fracture.

18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 749-759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130109

RESUMO

The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and its link to microcephaly triggered a public health concern. To examine antibody response in a patient infected with ZIKV, we used single-cell PCR to clone 31 heavy and light chain-paired monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to ZIKV envelope (E) proteins isolated from memory B cells of a ZIKV-infected patient. Three mAbs (7B3, 1C11, and 6A6) that showed the most potent and broad neutralization activities against the African, Asian, and American strains were selected for further analysis. mAb 7B3 showed an IC50 value of 11.6 ng/mL against the circulating American strain GZ02. Epitope mapping revealed that mAbs 7B3 and 1C11 targeted residue K394 of the lateral ridge (LR) epitope of the EDIII domain, but 7B3 has a broader LR epitope footprint and recognizes residues T335, G337, E370, and N371 as well. mAb 6A6 recognized residues D67, K118, and K251 of the EDII domain. Interestingly, although the patient was seronegative for DENV infection, mAb 1C11, originating from the VH3-23 and VK1-5 germline pair, neutralized both ZIKV and DENV1. Administration of the mAbs 7B3, 1C11, and 6A6 protected neonatal SCID mice infected with a lethal dose of ZIKV. This study provides potential therapeutic antibody candidates and insights into the antibody response after ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Imunização Passiva , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Testes de Neutralização , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1585-1596, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096368

RESUMO

In recent years, haze pollution has become a serious environmental problem affecting cities in China. Reducing PM2.5 concentrations through urban planning is a promising method that has been a focus of recent multidisciplinary research. Most existing studies only analyze the relationship between urban planning factors and PM2.5 concentration, and it is difficult to accurately reflect residents' actual air pollution exposure without considering their space-time behaviors. This study uses satellite remote sensing and location service data to measure PM2.5 pollution exposure in Wuhan metropolitan area and explores the effects of urban spatial structure, land use, spatial form, transportation, and green space on pollution exposure. The results show that spatial structure, building density, road density, and green space coverage have a significant impact on PM2.5 pollution exposure. In addition, this study proposes corresponding implications for urban planning to improve public respiratory health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Planejamento de Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Cidades , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Saúde Pública , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
20.
J Affect Disord ; 253: 184-192, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses support the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in Western cultures. However, there are no adequately powered multicentre studies in China. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of treatment with CBT combined with medication and medication alone in OCD patients in China. METHODS: OCD patients (N = 167) were recruited from outpatient clinics at three large tertiary psychiatric hospitals and one general hospital in China. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either CBT combined with medication (n = 92) or medication alone (n = 75) for a 24-week treatment period. Participants' symptoms and social functioning were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Clinical Global Impression Scale for Severity (CGI-S) at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks, and the effectiveness of the two treatments compared using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: At 24 weeks, both groups showed large within-group effects in all measures. Significantly more patients receiving combined therapy than medication alone had a decrease in symptom severity of at least 35% (based on Y-BOCS total score). The CGI-S and GAF scores decreased in both groups, and significant differences were found between the groups. LIMITATIONS: Study limitations included lack of consideration of medication types and dosages, and the absence of a CBT-only arm. CONCLUSIONS: CBT combined with medication may be effective in alleviating symptoms and social functioning impairment associated with OCD, and is more effective than medication alone in China, particularly for the treatment of compulsive behaviours.

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