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1.
Mol Neurodegener ; 17(1): 6, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral tracers are important tools for mapping brain connectomes. The feature of predominant anterograde transneuronal transmission offers herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) strain H129 (HSV1-H129) as a promising candidate to be developed as anterograde viral tracers. In our earlier studies, we developed H129-derived anterograde polysynaptic tracers and TK deficient (H129-dTK) monosynaptic tracers. However, their broad application is limited by some intrinsic drawbacks of the H129-dTK tracers, such as low labeling intensity due to TK deficiency and potential retrograde labeling caused by axon terminal invasion. The glycoprotein K (gK) of HSV-1 plays important roles in virus entry, egress, and virus-induced cell fusion. Its deficiency severely disables virus egress and spread, while only slightly limits viral genome replication and expression of viral proteins. Therefore, we created a novel H129-derived anterograde monosynaptic tracer (H129-dgK) by targeting gK, which overcomes the limitations of H129-dTK. METHODS: Using our established platform and pipeline for developing viral tracers, we generated a novel tracer by deleting the gK gene from the H129-G4. The gK-deleted virus (H129-dgK-G4) was reconstituted and propagated in the Vero cell expressing wildtype H129 gK (gKwt) or the mutant gK (gKmut, A40V, C82S, M223I, L224V, V309M), respectively. Then the obtained viral tracers of gKmut pseudotyped and gKwt coated H129-dgK-G4 were tested in vitro and in vivo to characterize their tracing properties. RESULTS: H129-dgK-G4 expresses high levels of fluorescent proteins, eliminating the requirement of immunostaining for imaging detection. Compared to the TK deficient monosynaptic tracer H129-dTK-G4, H129-dgK-G4 labeled neurons with 1.76-fold stronger fluorescence intensity, and visualized 2.00-fold more postsynaptic neurons in the downstream brain regions. gKmut pseudotyping leads to a 77% decrease in retrograde labeling by reducing axon terminal invasion, and thus dramatically improves the anterograde-specific tracing of H129-dgK-G4. In addition, assisted by the AAV helper trans-complementarily expressing gKwt, H129-dgK-G4 allows for mapping monosynaptic connections and quantifying the circuit connectivity difference in the Alzheimer's disease and control mouse brains. CONCLUSIONS: gKmut pseudotyped H129-dgK-G4, a novel anterograde monosynaptic tracer, overcomes the limitations of H129-dTK tracers, and demonstrates desirable features of strong labeling intensity, high tracing efficiency, and improved anterograde specificity.

2.
JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014624

RESUMO

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the neuropathogenesis remains largely elusive due to a lack of informative animal models. In this study, we developed a congenital murine CMV (cMCMV) infection mouse model with high survival rate and long survival period that allowed long-term follow-up study of neurodevelopmental disorders. This model involves in utero intracranial injection and mimics many reported clinical manifestations of cCMV infection in infants, including growth restriction, hearing loss, and impaired cognitive and learning-memory abilities. We observed that abnormalities in MRI/CT neuroimaging were consistent with brain hemorrhage and loss of brain parenchyma, which was confirmed by pathological analysis. Neuropathological findings included ventriculomegaly and cortical atrophy associated with impaired proliferation and migration of neural progenitor cells in the developing brain at both embryonic and postnatal stages. Robust inflammatory responses during infection were shown by elevated inflammatory cytokine levels, leukocyte infiltration, and activation of microglia and astrocytes in the brain. Pathological analyses and CT neuroimaging revealed brain calcifications induced by cMCMV infection and cell death via pyroptosis. Furthermore, antiviral treatment with ganciclovir significantly improved neurological functions and mitigated brain damage as shown by CT neuroimaging. These results demonstrate that this model is suitable for investigation of mechanisms of infection-induced brain damage and long-term studies of neurodevelopmental disorders, including the development of interventions to limit CNS damage associated with cCMV infection.

3.
J Virol ; : JVI0147621, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730396

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent/latent infection after primary infection, and host factor(s) plays a key role in regulating HCMV infection status. The spread of reactivated HCMV via the hematogenous or neural route usually results in severe diseases in newborns and immunocompromised individuals. As the primary reservoirs in vivo, cells of myeloid lineage have been utilized extensively to study HCMV infection. However, the molecular mechanism of HCMV latency/reactivation in neural cells is still poorly understood. We previously showed that HCMV infected T98G cells maintain a large number of viral genomes and support HCMV reactivation from latency upon cAMP/IBMX treatment. Here we employed iTRAQ-based proteomics to characterize cellular protein changes during HCMV latency and reactivation in T98G cells. A total of 168 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified, including 89 proteins in latency and 85 proteins in reactivation. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a few biological pathways were associated with HCMV latency or reactivation. Moreover, we validated 16 DEPs by both mRNA and protein expression profiles and further evaluated the effects of ApoE and PI3K pathway on HCMV infection. ApoE knockdown reduced HCMV loads and virus release, whereas overexpressing ApoE hampered HCMV latent infection, indicating a role in HCMV latency establishment/maintenance. Blocking the PI3K pathway by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, induced HCMV reactivation from latency in T98G cells. Overall, this comparative proteomic analysis delineates the cellular protein changes during HCMV latency and reactivation and provides a road map to advance our understanding of the mechanism(s) in the context of neural cells. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a highly transmissible beta-herpesvirus that has a prevalence of 60%-90% worldwide. This opportunist pathogen poses a significant threat to newborns and immunosuppressed individuals. One major obstacle for developing effective therapeutics is a poor understanding of HCMV latency/reactivation mechanisms. This study presents, for the first time, a systemic analysis of host cell protein expression changes during HCMV latency establishment and reactivation processes in neural cells. We showed that ApoE was downregulated by HCMV to facilitate latent infection. Also, the proteomic analysis has associated a few PI3K pathway-related proteins with HCMV reactivation. Altogether, this study highlights multiple host proteins and signaling pathways that can be further investigated as potential druggable targets for HCMV-related diseases, especially brain disorders.

4.
Protein Cell ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714519

RESUMO

Many people affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders have sensory processing deficits, such as hypersensitivity to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli. Like FXS in humans, loss of Fmr1 in rodents also cause sensory, behavioral, and cognitive deficits. However, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory impairment, especially vision impairment, remain unclear. It remains elusive whether the visual processing deficits originate from corrupted inputs, impaired perception in the primary sensory cortex, or altered integration in the higher cortex, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we used a genetic knockout mouse model (Fmr1KO), in vivo imaging, and behavioral measurements to show that the loss of Fmr1 impaired signal processing in the primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, Fmr1KO mice showed enhanced responses to low-intensity stimuli but normal responses to high-intensity stimuli. This abnormality was accompanied by enhancements in local network connectivity in V1 microcircuits and increased dendritic complexity of V1 neurons. These effects were ameliorated by the acute application of GABAA receptor activators, which enhanced the activity of inhibitory neurons, or by reintroducing Fmr1 gene expression in knockout V1 neurons in both juvenile and young-adult mice. Overall, V1 plays an important role in the visual abnormalities of Fmr1KO mice and it could be possible to rescue the sensory disturbances in developed FXS and autism patients.

5.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(11): 1546-1555, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448599

RESUMO

Objective: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens a surging number of community groups within society, including women actively breastfeeding. Breastfeeding involves intimate behaviors, a major transmission route of SARS-CoV-2, and is integral to the close mother-baby relationship highly correlated with maternal psychological status. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three pregnant women and puerperae with either confirmed or suspected diagnoses of COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the mothers and neonates were recorded. The presence of SARS-CoV-2, IgG, and IgM in breast milk, maternal blood, and infant blood, together with feeding patterns, was assessed within 1 month after delivery. Feeding patterns and maternal psychological status were also recorded in the second follow-up. Results: No positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 was found in neonates. All breast milk samples were negative for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The presence of IgM for SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk was correlated with IgM presence in the maternal blood. The results of IgG detection for SARS-CoV-2 were negative in all breast milk samples. All infants were in a healthy condition in two follow-ups, and antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. The rate of breast milk feeding increased during two follow-ups. All mothers receiving a second follow-up experienced negative psychological factors and status. Conclusions: Our findings support the feasibility of breastfeeding in women infected with SARS-CoV-2. The additional negative psychological status of mothers due to COVID-19 should also be considered during the puerperium period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Laboratórios , Mães , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917368

RESUMO

Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent sensory disabilities worldwide with huge social and economic burdens. The leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children is congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Though the implementation of universal screening and early intervention such as antiviral or anti-inflammatory ameliorate the severity of CMV-associated diseases, direct and targeted therapeutics is still seriously lacking. The major hurdle for it is that the mechanism of CMV induced SNHL has not yet been well understood. In this review, we focus on the impact of CMV infection on the key players in inner ear development including the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways. Investigations on these interactions may gain new insights into viral pathogenesis and reveal novel targets for therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/virologia , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Animais , Citomegalovirus/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
7.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504601

RESUMO

We previously reported that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes the cellular protein WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) to facilitate capsid nuclear egress. Here, we further show that HCMV infection results in WDR5 localization in a juxtanuclear region, and that its localization to this cellular site is associated with viral replication and late viral gene expression. Furthermore, WDR5 accumulated in the virion assembly compartment (vAC) and co-localized with vAC markers of gamma-tubulin (γ-tubulin), early endosomes, and viral vAC marker proteins pp65, pp28, and glycoprotein B (gB). WDR5 co-immunoprecipitated with multiple virion proteins, including MCP, pp150, pp65, pIRS1, and pTRS1, which may explain WDR5 accumulation in the vAC during infection. WDR5 fractionated with virions either in the presence or absence of Triton X-100 and was present in purified viral particles, suggesting that WDR5 was incorporated into HCMV virions. Thus, WDR5 localized to the vAC and was incorporated into virions, raising the possibility that in addition to capsid nuclear egress, WDR5 could also participate in cytoplasmic HCMV virion morphogenesis.Importance Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a large (∼235-kb) genome that contains over 170 ORFs and exploits numerous cellular factors to facilitate its replication. In the late phase of HCMV infection cytoplasmic membranes are reorganized to establish the virion assembly compartment (vAC), which has been shown to necessary for efficient assembly of progeny virions. We previously reported that WDR5 facilitates HCMV nuclear egress. Here, we show that WDR5 is localized to the vAC and incorporated into virions, perhaps contributing to efficient virion maturation. Thus, findings in this study identified a potential role for WDR5 in HCMV assembly in the cytoplasmic phase of virion morphogenesis.

9.
Neurosci Bull ; 37(5): 701-719, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367996

RESUMO

Anterograde viral tracers are powerful and essential tools for dissecting the output targets of a brain region of interest. They have been developed from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain H129 (H129), and have been successfully applied to map diverse neural circuits. Initially, the anterograde polysynaptic tracer H129-G4 was used by many groups. We then developed the first monosynaptic tracer, H129-dTK-tdT, which was highly successful, yet improvements are needed. Now, by inserting another tdTomato expression cassette into the H129-dTK-tdT genome, we have created H129-dTK-T2, an updated version of H129-dTK-tdT that has improved labeling intensity. To help scientists produce and apply our H129-derived viral tracers, here we provide the protocol describing our detailed and standardized procedures. Commonly-encountered technical problems and their solutions are also discussed in detail. Broadly, the dissemination of this protocol will greatly support scientists to apply these viral tracers on a large scale.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Encéfalo , Neurônios
10.
J Neurosci Methods ; 350: 109021, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316318

RESUMO

Cell tracking is a useful technique to monitor specific cell populations for their morphology, development, proliferation, migration, interaction, function, and other properties, both in vitro and in vivo. Using different materials and methodologies to label the target cells directly or indirectly, the dynamic biological processes in living organisms can be visualized with appropriate detection techniques. Viruses, with the unique ability to deliver exogenous genes into host cells, have been used as vectors to mediate gene transfer. Genetic labeling of target cells by viral vectors endows the cells to express reporter genes with high efficiency and specificity. In conjunction with corresponding imaging techniques, cells labeled with different genetic reporters mediated by different viral vectors can be monitored across spatial and temporal scales to fulfill various purposes and address different questions. In the present review, we introduce the basic principle of viral vectors in cell tracking and highlight the examples of cell tracking in various research areas.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células , Vetores Genéticos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Genes Reporter , Vetores Genéticos/genética
11.
Oncogene ; 40(1): 46-54, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051598

RESUMO

Chronic BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection is recognized as a potential oncogenic factor of urothelial carcinoma (UC) in renal transplant recipients. Recent studies have reported a positive correlation among BKPyV integration, persistent overexpression of viral large T antigen (TAg), and malignancy, yet little is known about the specific integration mechanisms and the impacts of viral integration. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and viral capture-based sequencing on high-grade immunohistochemically TAg-positive UCs in two renal transplant recipients. A total of 181 integration sites, including the three found by WGS, were identified by viral capture-based sequencing, indicating its enhanced sensitivity and ability in identifying low-read integration sites in subpopulations of the tumor cells. The microhomologies between human and BKPyV genomes were significantly enriched in the flanking regions of 84.5% the integration sites, with a median length of 7 bp. Notably, 75 human genes formed fusion sequences due to viral insertional integration. Among them, the expression of 15 genes were statistically associated with UC based on GEO2R expression analysis. Our results indicated a multisite and multifragment linear integration pattern and a potential microhomology or nonhomologous end joining integration mechanism at the single-nucleotide level. We put forward a potential selection mechanism driven by immunity and centered on viral integration in the carcinogenesis of BKPyV.


Assuntos
Vírus BK/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos Virais de Tumores/metabolismo , Vírus BK/genética , Quebra Cromossômica , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Integração Viral
13.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226275

RESUMO

PURPOSES: To understand the pathogenesis in rat corneal endothelial cells (RCECs) induced by murine cytomegalovirus infection in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In vitro, cultured RCECs were infected with murine cytomegalovirus strain K181-eGFP (MCMV-eGFP). In vivo, experimental rats received intracameral injection of MCMV-eGFP. Replicating viruses and morphology change of RCECs in vivo were evaluated at several time points. RESULTS: In vitro, RCECs became necrosis at 6hpi. MCMV-eGFP began replicating at 12hpi. In vivo, the inflammatory reactions appeared at 12hpi, peaked at 72hpi and gradually subsided. Replicating MCMV-eGFP appeared in RCECs in vivo from 24hpi to 72hpi. RCECs enlarged after 12hpi and capsids in the nuclei were visible at 72hpi. A monocyte was found on a corneal endothelium at 120hpi. CONCLUSIONS: RCECs were sensitive to MCMV in vitro. Replication of MCMV-eGFP in vivo began at 24hpi and ended after 72hpi, later than the inflammatory reactions.

14.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760235

RESUMO

Conditioned context-induced retrieval of drug withdrawal memory contributes to drug relapse. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is an important brain region that is involved in conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory. However, the upstream pathways of the activation of the BLA by conditioned context remains to be studied. The present results show that the CA1 of dorsal hippocampus is an upstream brain region of the activation of the BLA during conditioned context-induced morphine withdrawal memory retrieval; the indirect connection from the CA1 of dorsal hippocampus to the BLA is enhanced in mice with conditioned place aversion (CPA); the postrhinal cortex (POR) is a brain region that connects the CA1 of dorsal hippocampus and the activation of the BLA during conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine-withdrawal memory. These results suggest that a conditioning-strengthened indirect circuit from the CA1 of dorsal hippocampus to the BLA through the POR participates in morphine withdrawal memory retrieval.

15.
Neuron ; 107(6): 1029-1047, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755550

RESUMO

Viral tracers are important tools for neuroanatomical mapping and genetic payload delivery. Genetically modified viruses allow for cell-type-specific targeting and overcome many limitations of non-viral tracers. Here, we summarize the viruses that have been developed for neural circuit mapping, and we provide a primer on currently applied anterograde and retrograde viral tracers with practical guidance on experimental uses. We also discuss and highlight key technical and conceptual considerations for developing new safer and more effective anterograde trans-synaptic viral vectors for neural circuit analysis in multiple species.


Assuntos
Conectoma/métodos , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico/métodos , Sinapses/fisiologia , Vírus/genética , Animais , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Vírus/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824837

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has great potential to be applied as a viral tool for gene delivery or oncolysis. The broad infection tropism of HSV-1 makes it a suitable tool for targeting many different cell types, and its 150 kb double-stranded DNA genome provides great capacity for exogenous genes. Moreover, the features of neuron infection and neuron-to-neuron spread also offer special value to neuroscience. HSV-1 strain H129, with its predominant anterograde transneuronal transmission, represents one of the most promising anterograde neuronal circuit tracers to map output neuronal pathways. Decades of development have greatly expanded the H129-derived anterograde tracing toolbox, including polysynaptic and monosynaptic tracers with various fluorescent protein labeling. These tracers have been applied to neuroanatomical studies, and have contributed to revealing multiple important neuronal circuits. However, current H129-derived tracers retain intrinsic drawbacks that limit their broad application, such as yet-to-be improved labeling intensity, potential nonspecific retrograde labeling, and high toxicity. The biological complexity of HSV-1 and its insufficiently characterized virological properties have caused difficulties in its improvement and optimization as a viral tool. In this review, we focus on the current H129-derived viral tracers and highlight strategies in which future technological development can advance its use as a tool.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1/metabolismo , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico/métodos , Animais , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
17.
J Virol ; 94(12)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238587

RESUMO

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) senses double-stranded DNA and synthesizes the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds to mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA) and initiates MITA-mediated signaling, leading to induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and other antiviral effectors. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a widespread and opportunistic pathogen, antagonizes the host antiviral immune response to establish latent infection. Here, we identified HCMV tegument protein UL94 as an inhibitor of the cGAS-MITA-mediated antiviral response. Ectopic expression of UL94 impaired cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)- and DNA virus-triggered induction of type I IFNs and enhanced viral replication. Conversely, UL94 deficiency potentiated HCMV-induced transcription of type I IFNs and downstream antiviral effectors and impaired viral replication. UL94 interacted with MITA, disrupted the dimerization and translocation of MITA, and impaired the recruitment of TBK1 to the MITA signalsome. These results suggest that UL94 plays an important role in the immune evasion of HCMV.IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus, encodes more than 200 viral proteins. HCMV infection causes irreversible abnormalities of the central nervous system in newborns and severe syndromes in organ transplantation patients or AIDS patients. It has been demonstrated that HCMV has evolved multiple immune evasion strategies to establish latent infection. Previous studies pay more attention to the mechanism by which HCMV evades immune response in the early phase of infection. In this study, we identified UL94 as a negative regulator of the innate immune response, which functions in the late phase of HCMV infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Núcleo Celular/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/virologia , GMP Cíclico/imunologia , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/virologia , DNA/imunologia , DNA/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Transporte Proteico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
J Med Virol ; 92(5): 476-478, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056235

RESUMO

The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) since December 2019 in Wuhan, the major transportation hub in central China, became an emergency of major international concern. While several etiological studies have begun to reveal the specific biological features of this virus, the epidemic characteristics need to be elucidated. Notably, a long incubation time was reported to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to adjustments in screening and control policies. To avoid the risk of virus spread, all potentially exposed subjects are required to be isolated for 14 days, which is the longest predicted incubation time. However, based on our analysis of a larger dataset available so far, we find there is no observable difference between the incubation time for SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), highlighting the need for larger and well-annotated datasets.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , COVID-19 , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Latência Viral
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