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1.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-12, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903827

RESUMO

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known as an acute catastrophic neurological disease that continues to be a serious and significant health problem worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear despite decades of study focusing on early brain injury (EBI) and delayed brain injury (DBI). Neuroinflammation is a well-recognized consequence of SAH and may be responsible for EBI, cerebral vasospasm, and DBI. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response by recognizing damage-associated molecular patterns derived from the SAH. TLR4 is the most studied Toll-like receptor and is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It can be activated by the extravasated blood components in myeloid differentiation primary response-88/Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-ß (MyD88/TRIF)-dependent pathway after SAH. Transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF), that regulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes are initiated by the activation of TLR4, which cause the brain damage after SAH. TLR4 may therefore be a useful therapeutic target for overcoming EBI and DBI in post-SAH neuroinflammation, thereby improving SAH outcome. In the present review, we summarized recent findings from basic and clinical studies of SAH, with a primary focus on the biological characteristics and functions of TLR4 and discussed the mechanisms associated with TLR4 signaling pathway in EBI and DBI following SAH.

2.
Radiat Res ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910121

RESUMO

More effective boron-containing compounds are needed for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Here, borate esters were synthesized by heating and dehydrating nucleotides adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), the nucleoside (inosine) or glycerol in the presence of boric acid (H3BO3). Borate ester products were compared to clinical boron agent boronophenylalanine (BPA) and several other borate esters for neutron-sensitization effects using the A549 cell line. Cells were incubated with boron agent solutions (2.3 mM) for 5 h, then washed, resuspended in fresh media, and irradiated with a neutron dose of 0.33 Sv followed by cell survival assessment using the CCK-8 method. Calculated radiosensitization values (control group cell survival rate/boron agent-treated experimental group cell survival rate) were 3.9 ± 0.2 (ATP borate ester), 2.4 ± 0.1 (BPA), 2.1 ± 0.1 (ADP borate ester), 1.9 ± 0.2 (AMP borate ester), 1.7 ± 0.3 (glycerin borate ester), 1.4 ± 0.1 (inosine borate ester), 1.3 ± 0.3 (triethanolamine borate ester) and 1.3 ± 0.5 (H3BO3). Borate esters derived from nucleotides ATP, ADP or AMP exhibited significantly higher sensitization values than did those derived from glycerol, inosine or triethanolamine. Notably, due to its relatively higher water solubility and degree of tumor cell enrichment, ATP borate ester exhibited the highest sensitization rate overall, significantly exceeding rates obtained for BPA and borate esters of ADP and AMP. Flow cytometric determinations of boron agent-treated cell survival at 24 h postirradiation revealed long-term apoptosis rates of 4.8-6.6 ± 0.2% (nucleotide borate ester groups) and 5.6 ± 0.3% (BPA group) compared to 3.9 ± 0.1% (irradiation control group without boron agent) and 2.6 ± 0.2% (blank control group). Significant differences between experimental and control groups demonstrated that nucleotide borate esters and BPA induced long-term radiosensitization effects. In particular, postirradiation percentages of ATP borate ester-treated cells progressing to DNA replication prophase (G1 phase) increased significantly, while percentages of cells progressing to S phase significantly decreased, demonstrating cellular DNA replication inhibition. Meanwhile, boron content values of tumor tissue, measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and expressed as tumor-to-normal tissue boron ratios (T/N), were not significantly different between nucleotide borate ester- and BPA-fed groups of tumor-bearing mice. However, tumor tissue boron concentrations of nucleotide borate ester-fed mice (0.81-0.88 ± 0.04 µg/g) significantly exceeded those of BPA-fed mice (0.52 ± 0.05 µg/g) and thus provided greater tumor tissue boron enrichment for achieving a stronger neutron radiation-sensitizing effect. In conclusion, nucleotide borate esters, especially ATP borate ester, exhibited superior neutron radiosensitization effects than did other representative borate ester compounds and significantly greater long-term radiation effects as well. Thus, nucleotide borate esters have several advantages over other borate esters for BNCT and therefore warrant further study.

3.
Brain Res ; 1726: 146509, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Microglial activation plays a crucial role in the pathology of ischemic stroke. Recently, we demonstrated that fingolimod (FTY720) exerted neuroprotective effects via immunomodulation in ischemic white matter damage induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which was accompanied by robust microglial activation. In this study, we assessed the pro-angiogenic potential of FTY720 in a murine model of acute cortical ischemic stroke. METHODS: The photothrombotic (PT) method was used to induce cortical ischemic stroke in mice. We evaluated cortical damage, behavioral deficits, microglial polarization, and angiogenesis to identify the neuroprotective effects and possible molecular mechanisms of FTY720 in acute ischemic stroke. RESULTS: In vivo, a reduction in neuronal loss and improved motor function were observed in FTY720-treated mice after PT stroke. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that robust microglial activation and the associated neuroinflammatory response in the peri-infarct area were ameliorated by FTY720 via its ability to polarize microglia toward the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, both in vivo and in vitro, angiogenesis was enhanced in the microglial M2 phenotype state. Behaviorally, a significant improvement in the FTY720-treated group compared to the control group was evident from days 7 to 14. CONCLUSIONS: Our research indicated that FTY720 treatment promoted angiogenesis via microglial M2 polarization and exerted neuroprotection in PT ischemic stroke.

4.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 373-380, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional status and the quality of life in patients with gastric cancer has become one of the important goals of current clinical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status in hospitalized gastric cancer patients by using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to analyze the influence of nutritional status on the patients' quality of life (QOL). METHODS: We reviewed the pathological diagnosis of gastric cancer for 2322 hospitalized patients using PG-SGA to assess their nutritional status and collected data on clinical symptoms, the anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), and hand-grip strength (HGS). We also collected laboratory data (prealbumin, albumin, hemoglobin) within 48 h after the patient was admitted to the hospital. The 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used for QOL assessment in all patients. RESULTS: By using PG-SGA, we found 80.4% of the patients were malnourished (score ≥ 4) and 45.1% of the patients required urgent nutritional support (score ≥ 9). In univariate analysis, old age (> 65 years, p < 0.001), female (p = 0.007), residence in a village (p = 0.004), a lower level of education (p < 0.001), and self-paying (p < 0.001) were indicated as risk factors of patients with gastric cancer to be suffering from severe malnutrition. There was a negative correlation between PG-SGA and various nutritional parameters (p < 0.05). The quality of life was significantly different in gastric cancer patients with different nutritional status (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition of hospitalized patients with gastric cancer in China is common and seriously affects the patients' quality of life. The nutritional status should be evaluated in a timely manner and reasonable nutritional intervention should be provided as soon as possible. The PG-SGA was fit for using as a clinical nutrition assessment method, being worthy of clinical application.

5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 3817-3826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824179

RESUMO

Background: Escherichia coli strains are the most commonly isolated bacteria in hospitals. The normally harmless commensal E. coli can become a highly adapted pathogen, capable of causing various diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals, by acquiring a combination of mobile genetic elements. Our aim was to characterize E. coli strains from a hospital in western China to determine their virulence and antimicrobial resistance potential. Methods: A total of 97 E. coli clinical isolates were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College from 2015 to 2016. Microbiological methods, PCR, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were used in this study. Results: The frequency of occurrence of the virulence genes fimC, irp2, fimH, fyuA, lpfA, hlyA, sat, and cnf1 in the E. coli isolates was 93.81, 92.78, 91.75, 84.54, 41.24, 32.99, 28.86, and 7.22%, respectively. Ninety-five (97.9%) isolates carried two or more different virulence genes. Of these, 44 (45.4%) isolates simultaneously harbored five virulence genes, 24 (24.7%) isolates harbored four virulence genes, and 17 (17.5%) isolates harbored six virulence genes. In addition, all E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant and had a high degree of antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion: These results indicate a high frequency of occurrence and heterogeneity of virulence gene profiles among clinical multidrug resistant E. coli isolates. Therefore, appropriate surveillance and control measures are essential to prevent the further spread of these isolates in hospitals.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816867

RESUMO

With the development of nanotechnology, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been used to improve the flexural strength of geopolymers. However, the reinforcing mechanism of rGO nanosheets on the flexural strength of geopolymers remains unclear. Here, this reinforcing mechanism was investigated from the perspectives of hydration and chemical composition. The effect of the reduction degree on rGO-reinforced geopolymers was also studied using isothermal calorimetry (IC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tests. Results show that the hydration degree and flexural strength of geopolymers effectively increase due to rGO addition. After alkali reduction at a temperature of 60 °C, rGO nanosheets have maximum reinforcement on the flexural strength of geopolymers with an increment of 51.2%. It is attributed to the promotion of slag hydration, as well as the simultaneous formation of calcium silicate hydrate with low Ca/Si ratio (C-S-H(I)) and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) phases due to the inhibiting effect of rGO nanosheets on Al substitution on the end-of-chain silicates of C-S-H and C-A-S-H gels. In addition, different reduction degrees have almost no effect on the chemical composition of rGO-reinforced geopolymers, while excessive reduction impairs the improving effect of rGO nanosheets on the hydration process and flexural strength of geopolymers due to significant structural defects.

7.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(7): 1367-1373, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850888

RESUMO

A new type of composite photocatalyst material was successfully prepared through the ultrasound-assisted coprecipitation method precipitate of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanomaterials on peach wood activated carbon (PAC). The optimization of ZnS@PAC demonstrates excellent photocatalytic performance by using the response surface method (RSM), which is essential for improving photocatalytic performance. In this model it was found that the photocatalytic degradation of enrofloxacin (ENR) increased with microwave heating power and ZnS concentration, whereas it decreased with increasing activation time. The RSM model predicts that under certain conditions (microwave heating power 800 W, activation time 3 h, ZnS 0.5 mol·L-1), the maximum degradation rate of ENR in livestock and poultry wastewater is 97.81%. By empirical testing under the optimum conditions with 97.35% degradation the accuracy of the designed model was proven using RSM and the mechanism of the photocatalytic process was studied.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Antibacterianos , Biomassa , Gado , Sulfetos , Águas Residuárias , Compostos de Zinco
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749261

RESUMO

Stem xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity (KS ) represents the potential for plant water transport normalized by xylem cross section, length, and driving force. Variation in KS has implications for plant transpiration and photosynthesis, growth and survival, and also the geographic distribution of species. Clarifying the global-scale patterns of KS and its major drivers is needed to achieve a better understanding of how plants adapt to different environmental conditions, particularly under climate change scenarios. Here, we compiled a xylem hydraulics dataset with 1,186 species-at-site combinations (975 woody species representing 146 families, from 199 sites worldwide), and investigated how KS varied with climatic variables, plant functional types, and biomes. Growing-season temperature and growing-season precipitation drove global variation in KS independently. Both the mean and the variation in KS were highest in the warm and wet tropical regions, and lower in cold and dry regions, such as tundra and desert biomes. Our results suggest that future warming and redistribution of seasonal precipitation may have a significant impact on species functional diversity, and is likely to be particularly important in regions becoming warmer or drier, such as high latitudes. This highlights an important role for KS in predicting shifts in community composition in the face of climate change.

9.
Thromb Res ; 183: 69-75, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670229

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disorder characterized by immune-mediated platelet destruction, leading to lower platelet count. Thalidomide is considered as a novel immunomodulatory drug for treating several autoimmune diseases. Whether thalidomide can ameliorate ITP remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the effect of thalidomide on ITP mouse model. ITP mouse model was established through intraperitoneal injection of rat anti-mouse integrin GPIIb/CD41 immunoglobulin. Thalidomide (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally injected into mice followed by antibody injection. Then, peripheral blood and plasma was isolated for analysis of platelet count and the level of IFN-γ and IL-17 in plasma. Meanwhile, spleen was extracted to measure the expression of CD68, a macrophage marker. In addition, macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was cultured and treated with thalidomide followed by analysis of cell viability, apoptosis as well as cell cycle. Thalidomide prevented antiplatelet antibody-mediated platelet destruction in ITP mouse model. Compared with vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline), thalidomide significantly inhibited the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17 in ITP mouse and reduced the expression of CD68 in spleen. After thalidomide treatment, the cell viability of RAW264.7 cell was significantly reduced and the cell number in S phase was also significantly decreased. In addition, the expression of cyclin E2 was significantly reduced. In conclusion, thalidomide prevents antiplatelet antibody-mediated platelet destruction in ITP mouse possibly through reducing the number of macrophages, suggesting that it might be a novel approach for treating ITP.

10.
Chin J Integr Med ; 25(12): 917-921, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the ultrastructure characteristics of patients with dampness-heat of Pi (Spleen)-Wei (Stomach) syndrome (DHPW) and Pi-qi deficiency syndrome (PQD), both of which are Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-correlated gastric diseases (HPCG), and implicate a helpful hint for the clinical microcosmic syndrome differentiation. METHODS: Fourteen gastric mucosa samples from 6 chronic gastritis (CG) and 6 active peptic ulcer (including 8 DHPW, 4 PQD) as well as 2 healthy volunteers were collected and tested for Hp infection. The ultrastructure of gastric mucosa was observed under the transmission electron microscope (TEM). RESULTS: Among 14 gastric mucosa samples, 8 of them were Hp positive (6 DHPW and 2 PQD), which were all accordance with the results screened by supermicro-pathological method. Under TEM, the normal gastric mucosa, with tidy microvilli and abundant in mucus granules, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum distributed evenly, and with smooth nucleus membrane. But in those specimens of DHPW with Hp infection, microvilli were presented with burr shape. Especially, those samples from dampness-heat syndrome with predominant heat type (DHSH) patients were more obvious, with microvilli damaged, mitochondria concentrated and distributed in disorder, secretory tubule extended. In dampness-heat syndrome with predominant dampness type (DHSD) patients, mucus granules aggregated obviously, mitochondria swelled and blurred, and rough endoplasmic reticulum crowded. For 2 samples of DHPW without Hp infection, their microvilli were intact, with mitochondria increased and gathered but well-distributed, and secretory tubule extended mildly. In 2 PQD patients with Hp positive, the specimens of microvilli were sparse, and their mucus granules and mitochondria were decreased, with fractured crests and vacuole, secretory tubules extension to nucleus membrane, and rough endoplasmic reticulum extension in a pool-like way, and nucleus condensed. The 2 samples from PQD patients without Hp infection were characterized with intact microvilli, decreased mitochondria, fractured crest and extended rough endoplasmic reticulum in a pool-like way. CONCLUSION: It's obviously different in ultrastructure of DHPW and PQD patients under TEM, which may give a helpful hint for the microcosmic syndrome differentiation of HPCG.

11.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate resting state functional connectivity alterations within the main brain networks in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and their associations with disease duration, disability and cognitive dysfunction progression. METHODS: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), clinical and neuropsychological evaluations were obtained from 41 NMOSD patients and 41 healthy controls. Seed-voxel functional connectivity was analyzed in seven major hubs, including the default mode network, dorsal attention network, visual network, sensorimotor network, cerebellar network, thalamic network and reward-emotion network. Abnormalities of functional connectivity and correlations with disease duration, scores of the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) were further explored. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, NMOSD patients showed increased functional connectivity in the default mode network, dorsal attention network and thalamic network, while decreased in the visual network and cerebellum networks. At the regional level, increased functional connectivity involved the right superior temporal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, bilateral middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus, whereas functional connectivity was decreased in the right parahippocampal gyrus and left precuneus. Functional connectivity reduction in the right parahippocampal gyrus positively correlated with disease duration (r = 0.488, p = 0.001) and negatively correlated with MoCA scores (r = -0.330, p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated functional alterations in the rs-fMRI of NMOSD, which provide a novel insight into the large-scale selective functional reorganization and could be useful to reveal the characteristics of the physiological mechanism.

12.
Am J Pathol ; 189(12): 2469-2486, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476285

RESUMO

Many studies have recognized that circular RNAs (circRNAs) can be promising targets for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by acting as competing endogenous RNAs for miRNAs. This study intends to uncover the implication of a novel circRNA, circ_000926 in RCC, and how it affects tumorigenesis. Microarray-based circRNA/gene expression profiling of RCC was used to identify differentially expressed circRNAs/genes in RCC and normal tissues. miRNAs targeting the screened circRNAs/genes were predicted online, followed by analyzing circ_000926 expression in RCC. The crosstalk among circ_000926, miRNA-411 (miR-411), and CDH2 was then validated. The expression of circ_000926, miR-411, and cadherin 2 (CDH2) was up-regulated or down-regulated in RCC cells to unearth their effects on the biological behaviors of RCC cells. circ_000926 was highly expressed in RCC tissues and cell lines, whereas CDH2 was verified to be a target of miR-411. As a competing endogenous RNA, circ_000926 could directly bind to miR-411 to up-regulate CDH2. Down-regulation of circ_000926 resulted in inhibited growth, migration, and invasion abilities of RCC cells, as well as suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor growth. However, the inhibition of miR-411 or elevation of CDH2 reversed the antitumor effects induced by silencing circ_000926. Down-regulation of circ_000926 exerts an inhibitory effect on RCC progression through miR-411-dependent CDH2 inhibition, highlighting a potential target for RCC treatment.

13.
Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 1655-1664, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370073

RESUMO

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is widely used for induction of complete remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). ATRA also regulates protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Therapeutic use of ATRA reportedly interferes with hemostatic function in APL patients, including effects on coagulation or other vascular cells, although effects of ATRA on platelets remain unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect of therapeutic-relevant doses of ATRA on platelet function. Human platelets were preincubated with ATRA (0-20 µM) for 1 hour at 37°C, followed by analysis of aggregation, granule secretion, receptor expression by flow cytometry, platelet spreading, or clot retraction. Additionally, ATRA (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into mice and tail bleeding time and arterial thrombus formation were evaluated. ATRA inhibited platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate release induced by collagen (5 µg/mL) or thrombin (0.05 U/mL) in a dose-dependent manner without affecting P-selectin expression or surface levels of glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, GPVI, or αIIbß3. ATRA-treated platelets demonstrated reduced spreading on immobilized fibrinogen or collagen and reduced thrombin-induced clot retraction together with reduced phosphorylation of Syk and PLCγ2. In addition, ATRA-treated mice displayed significantly impaired hemostasis and arterial thrombus formation in vivo. Further, in platelets stimulated with either collagen-related peptide or thrombin, ATRA selectively inhibited phosphorylation of PKCßI (Ser661) and PKCδ (Thr505), but not PKCα or PKCßII phosphorylation (Thr638/641). In conclusion, ATRA inhibits platelet function and thrombus formation, possibly involving direct or indirect inhibition of PKCßI/δ, indicating that ATRA might be beneficial for the treatment of thrombotic or cardiovascular diseases.

14.
Orthop Surg ; 11(4): 604-612, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of osteotomy adjacent to the articular surface of the metatarsal head combined with basal opening wedge osteotomy for severe hallux valgus. METHODS: The double osteotomy procedure was carried out in 56 patients (72 feet) with severe hallux valgus deformity, with an average follow-up of 25 months from March 2010 to February 2019. Hallux valgus angle (HVA), distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and distal articular set angle (DASA) were measured for all patients via weight-bearing anteroposterior (AP) X-ray images. In addition, the American Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale was used for evaluating the function of the hallux. RESULTS: The HVA, IMA, and DMAA reduced from 49.30 ± 6.60, 19.33 ± 4.70, and 29.85 ± 10.96 to 13.19 ± 6.10, 5.97 ± 3.13, and 5.63 ± 3.44, respectively (P < 0.01). DASA decreased from 4.33 ± 2.34 to 4.08 ± 1.91 and did not show a statistically significant difference (P = 0.48). Among the 72 feet, 69 feet healed normally, and 3 feet had bone resorption at the osteotomy edges. No cases of bone sclerosis, bone necrosis, bone nonunion, or ankylosis were observed. On average, the AOFAS score improved from 34.66 ± 12.07 (preoperative) to 88.78 ± 5.73 (postoperative). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed double osteotomy procedure can maintain the match metatarsophalangeal joints without ischemic necrosis of bones, and is demonstrated to be safe, effective, and feasible for correcting severe hallux valgus.

15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6788-6795, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates skeletal muscle development; however, its functions in internal organs have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the morphological, molecular, and biological characteristics of the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and tongue of homozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN-/- ), heterozygous MSTN mutant (MSTN+/- ), and wild-type (WT) piglets. RESULTS: The heart and liver were lighter in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- piglets, while the tongue was heavier in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the tongue was longer in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets, and myofibers of the tongue were significantly larger in the former piglets than in the latter ones (P < 0.01). mRNA expression of MSTN in all organs was significantly lower in MSTN-/- and MSTN+/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, mRNA expression of follistatin, which is closely related to MSTN, in the heart and liver was significantly higher in MSTN-/- piglets than in MSTN+/- and WT piglets (P < 0.05). In addition, protein expression of MSTN in the heart, kidneys, and tongue was significantly lower in MSTN-/- piglets than in WT piglets (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MSTN is widely expressed and has marked effects in multiple internal organs. Myostatin has crucial functions in regulating internal organ size, especially the tongue. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Miostatina/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/genética , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Folistatina/genética , Folistatina/metabolismo , Mutação , Miostatina/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Suínos/metabolismo
16.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 8(17): e1900661, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389191

RESUMO

Despite the good prognosis of the low-risk thyroid cancer, there are no truly effective treatments for radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. Herein, a novel theranostic nanoplatform, as well as a smart doxorubucin (DOX) delivery system is fabricated. Gelatin-stabilized polypyrrole nanoparticles are reported for the first time. The combination of gelatin-stabilized polypyrrole and cyclodextrin-DOX complexes enabling three-stimuli-controlled drug delivery, including the enzyme-sensitive, pH-sensitive and photothermal-sensitive drug release, exhibiting a new way to equip photothermal agents with precisely controlled drug delivery. Anti-galectin-3 antibodies are utilized as the targeting molecules of nanoparticles in the first time, which surprisingly increase intracellular DOX uptake by enhanced clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showing galectin-3 can be employed as a highly efficient target of drug delivery systems. The nanoparticles achieve excellent photoacoustic imaging effect, enabled chemo-photothermal combined therapy with pinpointed drug delivery. Compared to free DOX, these multifunctional nanoparticles decrease the heart damage, but greatly increase the tumor/heart ratio of DOX concentration by 12.9-fold. The tumors are completely eradicated without any recurrence after the in vivo combined therapy. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is also the first report to apply photoacoustic imaging-guided chemo-photothermal therapy for thyroid cancer, showing great potential to solve the dilemma in thyroid cancer therapy.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 294(35): 13186-13197, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331936

RESUMO

The prototypical kinase c-Src plays an important role in numerous signal transduction pathways, where its activity is tightly regulated by two phosphorylation events. Phosphorylation at a specific tyrosine by C-terminal Src kinase inactivates c-Src, whereas autophosphorylation is essential for the c-Src activation process. However, the structural consequences of the autophosphorylation process still remain elusive. Here we investigate how the structural landscape of c-Src is shaped by nucleotide binding and phosphorylation of Tyr416 using biochemical experiments, hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS, and atomistic molecular simulations. We show that the initial steps of kinase activation involve large rearrangements in domain orientation. The kinase domain is highly dynamic and has strong cross-talk with the regulatory domains, which are displaced by autophosphorylation. Although the regulatory domains become more flexible and detach from the kinase domain because of autophosphorylation, the kinase domain gains rigidity, leading to stabilization of the ATP binding site and a 4-fold increase in enzymatic activity. Our combined results provide a molecular framework of the central steps in c-Src kinase regulation process with possible implications for understanding general kinase activation mechanisms.

18.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 72, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic gastritis has been demonstrated to be a key cause of gastric cancer (GC), and control of gastric inflammation is regarded as an effective treatment for the clinical prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. However, there remains an unmet need to identify the dominant regulators of gastric oncogenesis-associated inflammation in vivo. METHODS: The mouse model for the study of inflammation-associated GC was induced by Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) intragastric administration in Bcl6b-/- and wildtype mice on a C57BL/6 background. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), the demethylation drug, was intraperitoneally injected to restore Bcl6b expression. Human GC tissue array was used to analyse patient survival based on BCL6B and CD3 protein expression. RESULTS: Bcl6b was gradually downregulated by its own promoter hypermethylation in parallel to an increasing inflammatory response during the progression of BaP-induced gastric carcinogenesis in mice. Moreover, knockout of Bcl6b dramatically worsened the severity of gastric cancer and aggravated the inflammatory response in the BaP-induced mice GC model. Re-activation of Bcl6b by 5-Aza impeded inflammatory amplification and BaP-induced GC development, prolonging survival time in wildtype mice, whereas no notable curative effect occurred in Bcl6b-/- mice with 5-Aza treatment. Finally, significant negative correlations were detected between the mRNA levels of BCL6B and inflammatory cytokines in human GC tissues; patients harbouring BCL6B-negetive and severe-inflammation GC tumours were found to exhibit the shortest survival time. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic inactivation of Bcl6b promotes gastric cancer through amplification of the gastric inflammatory response in vivo and offers a new approach for GC treatment and regenerative medicine.

19.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 214, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) is a devastating cerebrovascular disorder, which could benefit from collateral circulation. Proteins associated with acute LVO pathogenesis and endothelial function may appear in blood samples of AIS patients due to LVO, thus permitting development of blood-based biomarkers for its diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS: This study is a single-center, retrospective, observational case-control trial. Consecutive patients who presented at the Department of Neurology of Tongji Hospital were recruited from July 2016 to April 2018. In the discovery phase, a proteomic approach with iTRAQ-based LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the altered proteomic pattern in plasma from patients with AIS due to LVO. In the validation study, Western blots was used to identify biomarkers associated with stroke diagnosis as well as their prognostic value associated with different collateral statuses. RESULTS: For this exploratory study, the proteomic analysis of plasma from 40 patients with AIS due to LVO and 20 healthy controls revealed seven differentially expressed proteins with a 1.2/0.83-fold or greater difference between groups. The four elevated proteins, PPBP (1.58 ± 0.78 vs 0.98 ± 0.37; P < 0.001), THBS1 (1.13 ± 0.88 vs 0.43 ± 0.26; P < 0.001), LYVE1 (1.61 ± 0.55 vs 0.97 ± 0.50; P < 0.001), and IGF2 (1.19 ± 0.42 vs 0.86 ± 0.24; P < 0.001), were verified by Western blots analysis in an independent cohort including 33 patients and 33 controls. A strong interaction was observed between the four-protein panel and the diagnosis of AIS due to LVO (AUC 0.947; P < 0.001). Furthermore, IGF2, LYVE1, and THBS1 were closely associated with collateral status (IGF2 0.115, 95% CI 0.016-0.841, P = 0.033; LYVE1 0.183, 95% CI 0.036-0.918, P = 0.039; THBS1 4.257, 95% CI 1.273-14.228, P = 0.019), and proved to be independent predictors of good outcome (IGF2 0.115, 95% CI 0.015-0.866, P = 0.036; LYVE1 0.028, 95% CI 0.002-0.334, P = 0.005; THBS1 3.294, 95% CI 1.158-9.372, P = 0.025) at a 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The identified 4-biomarker panel could provide diagnostic aid to the existing imaging modalities for AIS due to LVO, and the prognostic value of IGF2, LYVE1, and THBS1 was proved in predicting functional outcomes related to collateral status. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03122002. Retrospectively registered April 20, 2017. URL of trial registry record: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03122002?term=NCT+03122002&rank=1.

20.
Microorganisms ; 7(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146495

RESUMO

Although spice extracts are well known to exhibit antibacterial properties, there is lack of a comprehensive evaluation of the antibacterial effect of spices against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the present study, ethanolic extracts from a total of 67 spices were comprehensively investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activities by agar well diffusion against two common food-borne bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis, with multi-drug resistance. Results showed that S. aureus was generally more sensitive to spice extracts than S. enteritidis. Of the 67 spice extracts, 38 exhibited antibacterial activity against drug-resistant S. aureus, while only four samples were effective on drug-resistant S. enteritidis. In addition, 11 spice extracts with inhibition zones greater than 15 mm were further verified for their broad-spectrum antibacterial properties using another 10 drug-resistant S. aureus strains. It was found that five spice extracts, including galangal, fructus galangae, cinnamon, yellow mustard seed, and rosemary, exhibited the highest antibacterial capacity. Further cytotoxicity of these 11 spices was determined and LC50 values were found to be more than 100 µg/mL except for galangal, rosemary, and sage, whose LC50 values were 9.32 ± 0.83, 19.77 ± 2.17, and 50.54 ± 2.57, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant activities (ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values) and total phenolic content (TPC) of spice extracts were determined to establish possible correlations with the antibacterial activity. Although the antibacterial effect was positively correlated with the antioxidant activities and TPC, the correlation was weak (r < 0.5), indicating that the antibacterial activity could also be attributed to other components besides antioxidant polyphenols in the tested spice extracts. In conclusion, dietary spices are good natural sources of antibacterial agents to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with potential applications as natural food preservatives and natural alternatives to antibiotics in animal feeding.

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