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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 860817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529554

RESUMO

Through empirical studies or laboratory tests, previous studies have shown that sport-confidence, attention, and emotion regulation are key factors in archery performance. The present study aims to further identify the effects and pathways of sport-confidence, attention, and cognitive reappraisal (a specific emotion regulation strategy) on real-world archery performance by constructing a hypothesized model to provide a basis for scientific training of athletes to improve sport performance. A survey design was utilized on a sample of 61 athletes (12 international-level athletes, 30 national-level athletes, and 19 first-class athletes) from the Chinese National Archery Team to test the model. The measurement and hypothesized models were tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that the model fit well and explained 33.6% of the variance in archery performance. Sport-confidence (total effects = 0.574, p < 0.001) and attention (total effects = 0.344, p = 0.009) were important predictive indicators of archery performance, while the relationship between cognitive reappraisal and archery performance showed considerable complexity (direct effects = -0.268, p = 0.020; total effects = -0.007, p = 0.964). We conclude that the development of sport-confidence and attention of archery athletes should be strengthened, but athletes who use cognitive reappraisal in archery competition should be mindful of its potential appropriation of cognitive resources and should be directed to improve sport-confidence or develop a positive orientation to arouse excitement.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522201

RESUMO

Two lactic acid bacterial strains (IMAU80584T and IMAU92037) were isolated from naturally fermented dairy products (kurut and yoghurt) in China and Russia. Based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene it was revealed that these strains belonged to Lentilactobacillus rapi. However, phylogenetic tree analyses of two housekeeping genes, rpoA (encoding RNA polymerase alpha subunit) and pheS (encoding phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit), and 88 core genes, indicated the two strains were separated into an independent monophyletic branch from L. rapi DSM 19907T, forming an infra-specific subgroup. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between IMAU80584T and L. rapi DSM 19907T were 93.1 and 52.8 %, respectively. Strains IMAU80584T and IMAU92037 are distinguished from L. rapi DSM 19907T because they have different polar lipids and fatty acids. The novel subgroup strains could not ferment gluconate potassium. The DNA G+C content of strain IMAU80584T was 42.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9t and summed feature 5 (C18 : 0 ante and/or C18 : 2 ω6c and/or C18 : 2 ω9c). Therefore, based on the results of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, IMAU80584T and IMAU92037 could be considered as a novel subspecies in the species L. rapi with the proposed name Lentilactobacillus rapi subsp. dabitei subsp. nov. The type strain is IMAU80584T (=GDMCC 1.2566T=JCM 34647T).


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Ácido Láctico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lactobacillus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(8): 2187-2194, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531735

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of emodin on the serum metabolite profiles in the chronic constriction injury(CCI) model by non-target metabolomics and explored its analgesic mechanism. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into a sham group(S), a CCI group(C), and an emodin group(E). The rats in the emodin group were taken emodin via gavage once a day for fifteen days(50 mg·kg~(-1)) on the first day after the CCI surgery. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) and thermal withdrawal threshold(TWL) in each group were performed before the CCI surgery and 3,7, 11, and 15 days after surgery. After 15 days, blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta. The differential metabolites were screened out by non-target metabolomics and analyzed with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) and ingenuity pathway analysis(IPA). From the third day after CCI surgery, the MWT and TWL values were reduced significantly in both CCI group and emodin group, compared with the sham group(P<0.01). At 15 days post-surgery, the MWT and TWL values in emodin group increased significantly compared with the CCI group(P<0.05). As revealed by non-target metabolomics, 72 differential serum metabolites were screened out from the C-S comparison, including 41 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated ones, while 26 differential serum metabolites from E-C comparison, including 10 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated ones. KEGG analysis showed that the differential metabolites in E-C comparison were enriched in the signaling pathways, such as sphingolipid metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. IPA showed that the differential metabolites were mainly involved in the lipid metabolism-molecular transport-small molecule biochemistry network. In conclusion, emodin can exert an analgesic role via regulating sphingolipid metabolism and arginine biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Emodina , Neuralgia , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Arginina , Emodina/farmacologia , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esfingolipídeos
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 294: 115360, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568116

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jianpi Huayu decoction (JHD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation used to treat a variety of malignant tumors including HCC, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Exosomes in the tumor microenvironment mediate intercellular signaling among cancer cells, but precise contributions to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression are still elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this work, the main objective was to examine the mechanisms underlying anti-tumor effects of JHD and the potential contributions of exosomal signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LC-MS/MS was used for quality control of JDH preparation, while nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and western blotting were used for verification of exosomes. In vitro assays included CCK8, wound healing assay, transwell invasion assay, qRT-PCR and western blotting were performed to investigate the effects of JHD on HCC cells and the molecular mechanism. Furthermore, the effects of JHD on subcutaneous tumor model of nude mice were also determined. RESULTS: JHD inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cultured HCC cells. Further, exosomes isolated from EMT-induced HCC cells promoted the migration, invasion and EMT of other cultured HCC cells, while exosomes isolated from EMT-induced HCC cells after JHD treatment had little effect. In addition, JHD reduced the expression of exosomal miR-23a-3p in cultured HCC cells. miR-23a-3p was significantly up-regulated in tumor compared with that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues of patients with HCC. HCC patients with high miR-23a-3p expression had poor overall survival after hepatectomy. Meanwhile, miR-23a-3p enhanced HCC cell proliferation, EMT, and expression of Smad signaling proteins. More importantly, overexpression of miR-23a-3p can reverse the inhibition of EMT and Smad signaling pathway caused by JHD treatment. In vivo assays, treatment with JHD also reduced the growth of HCC-derived tumors in nude mice, reduced the expression of miR-23a-3p in serum exosomes and the level of EMT in tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: the antitumor effects of JHD on HCC are mediated at least in part by inhibition of EMT due to downregulation of exosome-mediated intercellular miR-23a-3p transfer and subsequent blockade of Smad signaling. Disrupting this exosomal miR-23a-3p/Smad signaling pathway may be an effective treatment.

5.
J Oncol ; 2022: 7823433, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518787

RESUMO

Background: Studies have shown that Jianpi Huayu Decoction (JPHYD) can inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, but the mechanism of its effect was not clear at present. Methods: We assessed the effect of JPHYD using liver cancer cells as in vitro cell model and xenograft tumor as in vivo model. CCK8, EdU, wound-healing, and transwell assays were performed to assess the cell growth, migration, and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2 and MHCC97H. Western blot assay was performed to observe the protein level of E-cadherin, Smad7, N-cadherin, Snail, Smad3, Vimentin, and Zeb1. qRT-PCR assay was used to observe the expression of miR-21-5p in clinical liver cancer tissue samples and in HepG2 and MHCC97H cells. Animal tumorigenesis experiments and in vivo imaging experiments were performed to assess the results of in vitro experiments. Results: We found that JPHYD could inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and JPHYD decreased the level of N-cadherin, Snail, Vimentin, Smad3, and Zeb1 and increased E-cadherin and Smad7 proteins. The expression of miR-21-5p was increased while that protein of Smad7 was decreased in HCC tissues. The vivo experiments also showed that miR-21-5p could promote the migration of HCC cells. JPHYD decreased miR-21-5p expression. The same results have been found in animal studies. Conclusion: Our results indicated that JPHYD inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition by increasing Smad7 expression and inhibiting miR-21-5p. Therefore, blocking the occurrence and development of EMT may be a new mechanism of JPHYD's anti-liver cancer effect.

6.
Front Surg ; 9: 871823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433823

RESUMO

Background: Microsatellite has been proved to be an important prognostic factor and a treatment reference in colon cancer. The transcriptome profile and tumor microenvironment of different microsatellite statuses are different. Metastatic colon cancer patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) are sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), but not fluorouracil. Efforts have been devoted to identify the predictive factors of immunotherapy. Methods: We analyzed the transcriptome profile of different microsatellite statuses in colon cancer by using single-cell and bulk transcriptome data from publicly available databases. The immune cells in the tumor microenvironment were analyzed by the ESTIMATION algorithm. The microsatellite-related gene signature (MSRS) was constructed by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and its prognostic value and predictive value of response to immunotherapy were assessed. The prognostic value of the MSRS was also validated in another cohort. Results: The MSI-H cancers cells were clustered differentially in the dimension reduction plot. Most of the immune cells have a higher proportion in the tumor immune microenvironment, except for CD56 bright natural killer cells. A total of 238 DEGs were identified. Based on the 238 DEGs, a neural network was constructed with a Kappa coefficient of 0.706 in the testing cohort. The MSRS is a favorable prognostic factor of overall survival, which was also validated in another cohort (GSE39582). Besides, MSRS is correlated with tumor mutation burden in MSI-H colon cancer. However, the MSRS is a barely satisfactory factor in predicting immunotherapy with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.624. Conclusion: We developed the MSRS, which is a robust prognostic factor of overall survival in spite of a barely satisfactory immunotherapy predictor. Further studies may need to improve the predictive ability.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 791802, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418956

RESUMO

Bacterial drug resistance caused by overuse and misuse of antibiotics is common, especially in clinical multispecies infections. It is of great significance to discover novel agents to treat clinical bacterial infections. Studies have demonstrated that autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a signal molecule in quorum sensing (QS), plays an important role in communication among multiple bacterial species and bacterial drug-resistance. Previously, 14 AI-2 inhibited compounds were selected through virtual screening by using the AI-2 receptor protein LuxP as a target. Here, we used Vibrio harveyi BB170 as a reporter strain for the preliminary screening of 14 inhibitors and compound Str7410 had higher AI-2 QS inhibition activity (IC50 = 0.3724 ± 0.1091 µM). Then, co-culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Str7410 on multispecies infection in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Str7410 significantly inhibited the formation of mixed bacterial biofilms. Meanwhile, the combination of Str7410 with meropenem trihydrate (MEPM) significantly improved the susceptibility of mixed-species-biofilm cells to the antibiotic. In vivo, Str7410 significantly increased the survival rate of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans N2 co-infected by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Str7410 reduced virulence factor (pyocyanin and elastase) production and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by downregulating the expression of QS-related genes in strain PAO1 in co-culture with S. aureus ATCC 25923. Compound Str7410 is a candidate agent for treating drug-resistant multispecies infections. The work described here provides a strategy for discovering novel antibacterial drugs.

8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 187, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of heavily calcified lesions (HCLs) is associated with higher complication rates and worse clinical outcomes. Cutting balloon (CB) has been widely used for HCLs, but patients' prognosis had not been fully clarified. The study aimed to compare 3-year clinical outcomes between patients with HCLs that are treated with CBs and those with non-HCLs. METHOD: Patients who underwent PCI in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital from June 2015 to September 2018 were retrospectively included. HCL was defined as radiopaque and high-pressure undilatable lesions. CBs were routinely used in combination with non-compliant balloons for the HCLs. Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) and target vessel failure (TVF) were assessed at 3-year follow-up. RESULT: Among 2432 patients included in the study, 210(8.6%) had HCLs with a procedural success rate of 91.0%. The patients with HCLs had a higher incidence of MACE (23.3% vs. 10.8%, P < 0.001) than those with non-HCLs. By propensity score matching, 172 patients with HCLs were 1:1 paired to those with non-HCLs, and their PCI vessels were exactly matched. The MACE and TVF were significantly higher in the patients with HCLs than those with non-HCLs (MACE: 21.5% vs. 13.4%, P = 0.036; TVF: 19.8% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.008). In the Cox regression analysis, HCL is independently associated with higher risks of MACE [HR: 1.72(1.01-2.94), P = 0.047], TVF [HR: 2.10(1.15-3.81), P = 0.015] and repeat revascularization [HR: 2.20(1.07-4.52), P = 0.032]. CONCLUSION: Patients with HCLs undergoing PCI using CBs in combination with non-compliant balloons had higher risks of complications, procedural failure, and worse clinical outcomes at 3 years than those with non-HCLs.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 193, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of beta-blockers in acute myocardial infarction patients without heart failure and with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≥ 50%) is unknown. Our study aimed to retrospectively analyze the associations of beta-blockers on such patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter, retrospective study. After screening 5,332 acute myocardial infarction patients, a total of 2519 patients without heart failure and with LVEF ≥ 50% were included. The patients were divided into two groups: the prescribed (n = 2049) and unprescribed (n = 470) beta-blockers group. The propensity score inverse probability treatment weighting was used to control confounding factors. We analyzed the associations between beta-blockers and outcomes in the short-term (1-year) and long-term (median, 3.61 years). RESULTS: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were all-cause rehospitalization, cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, new-onset heart failure rehospitalization. This study shows no statistically significant association between discharged with beta-blockers and all-cause mortality, either in the short-term [IPTW Adjusted, HR 1.02; 95%CI 0.43-2.40; P = 0.966] or long-term [IPTW Adjusted, HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.70-1.94; P = 0.547]. Discharged with beta-blockers was significantly associated with a reduced risk of short-term recurrent myocardial infarction [IPTW Adjusted, HR 0.44; 95%CI 0.20-0.97; P = 0.043], but there was no long-term relationship [IPTW Adjusted, HR 1.11; 95%CI 0.61-2.03; P = 0.735]. Other outcomes, such as new-onset heart failure rehospitalization and all-cause rehospitalization, were not observed with meaningful differences in either the short- or long-term. The results of sensitivity analysis were consistent with this. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-blockers might be associated with a reduced risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure and with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction, in the short term. Beta-blockers might not be related to all-cause mortality in those patients, either in the short-term or long-term. Clinical trial registration Influence of Beta-blockers on Prognosis in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated with Normal Ejection Fraction, NCT04485988, Registered on 24/07/2020. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
J Pharm Sci ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461804

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop a thermosensitive in situ gel delivery system based on Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188 for ocular administration of vancomycin to treat systemic diseases. The vancomycin thermosensitive in situ gel was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, rheological and drug release analyses. Additionally, pharmacokinetic studies and irritation tests of the gel were conducted after ocular administration in rabbits. The gel maintained a flowing liquid state under non-physiological conditions (25°C) to facilitate administration, and it transformed into a semi-solid state under physiological conditions (dilution with tears, 34°C), which prolonged its retention time in the eye. The gel erosion and drug release tests showed an excellent linear relationship between the cumulative drug release rate and the cumulative gel erosion rate, indicating a zero-order kinetic process. The pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the peak concentration, area under the curve, and bioavailability of the vancomycin thermosensitive in situ gel were 1.44, 1.98 and 1.93 times greater, respectively, that the values of vancomycin eye drops. Therefore, thermosensitive in situ gel may serve as a drug delivery system that can overcome the limitations of existing formulations of small-molecule peptides.

11.
Internet Interv ; 28: 100541, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474759

RESUMO

Background: Public health emergencies may lead to severe psychological stress, especially for healthcare workers, including frontline healthcare workers and public health workers. However, few stress management interventions have been implemented for healthcare workers even though they require more comprehensive interventions than the general public. Self-Help Plus (SH+) is a novel psychological self-help intervention developed by the World Health Organization. It is accessible, scalable, and cost-effective and has the potential to be quickly applied to help people cope with stress and adversity. The major objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of SH+ interventions on the alleviation of stress levels and mental health problems among healthcare workers. Methods: A randomized controlled trial of SH+ will be conducted to investigate the stress level and mental health status of Chinese healthcare workers and control subjects in Guangzhou. Assessments will be performed before (baseline), at the end of (1 month), and 2 months after (3 months) the intervention. After completing the baseline screening questionnaire, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups in a 1:1 ratio by block randomization. During the 1-month intervention period, the intervention group will receive the SH+ intervention and the control group will receive information about mental health promotion. The intervention will be delivered by the research assistant via social media platforms. The primary outcome is the level of stress, which will be measured by a 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Secondary outcomes including mental health symptoms will also be collected. Discussion: Given the potential for multiple COVID-19 waves and other infectious disease pandemics in the future, we expect that SH+ will be an effective stress management intervention for healthcare workers. The findings from this study will facilitate the application of SH+, and the trial is expected to be extended to a larger population in the future.

12.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 43(10): e2200007, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344233

RESUMO

The stimuli-responsiveness of injectable hydrogel has been drastically developed for the controlled release of drugs and has achieved encouraging curative effects in a variety of diseases including wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and tumors. The gelation, swelling, and degradation of such hydrogels respond to endogenous biochemical factors (such as pH, reactive oxygen species, glutathione, enzymes, glucose) and/or to exogenous physical stimulations (like light, magnetism, electricity, and ultrasound), thereby accurately releasing loaded drugs in response to specifically pathological status and as desired for treatment plan, and thus improving therapeutic efficacy effectively. This paper gives a detailed introduction of recent progresses in responsive injectable hydrogels and focuses on the design strategy of various stimuli-sensitivities and their resultant alteration of gel dissociation and drug liberation behavior. Their application in disease treatment is also discussed.

13.
Clin Cardiol ; 45(5): 509-518, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The duration of beta-blocker therapy in patients without heart failure (HF) or left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear. HYPOTHESIS: Continuous beta-blocker therapy is associated with an improved prognosis. METHODS: This is a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. One thousand four hundred and eighty-three patients eventually met the inclusion criteria. The study groups included the continuous beta-blocker therapy group (lasted ≥6 months) and the discontinuous beta-blocker therapy group (consisting of the no-beta-blocker therapy group and the beta-blocker therapy <6 months group). The inverse probability treatment weighting was used to control confounding factors. The study tried to learn the role of continuous beta-blocker therapy on outcomes. The median duration of follow-up was 13.0 months. The primary outcomes were cardiac death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The secondary outcomes were all-cause death, stroke, unstable angina, rehospitalization for HF, and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Compared with discontinuous beta-blocker therapy, continuous beta-blocker therapy was associated with a reduced risk of unstable angina, recurrent MI, and MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32-0.82; p = 0.006); but this association was not available for cardiac death (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.24-1.36; p = 0.206). When compared to the subgroups of no-beta-blocker therapy and beta-blocker therapy <6 months, respectively, continuous beta-blocker therapy was still observed to be associated with a reduced risk of unstable angina, recurrent MI, and MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous beta-blocker therapy was associated with a reduced risk of unstable angina or recurrent MI or MACE in patients without HF or left ventricular systolic dysfunction after AMI.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Angina Instável , Estudos de Coortes , Morte , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
14.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249580

RESUMO

While the detrimental effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression is well-established, the underlying mechanisms linking the two continue to be inadequately understood. This study investigated the mediating role of family functioning and the moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity in the association between interparental conflict and adolescent depression. The samples included 651 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 13.27 years; 56.5% girls) from a two-wave longitudinal study with data spanning 1 year. The findings from path modeling analyses provided evidence for the mediating role of family functioning; these findings indicated that interparental conflict can damage family functioning, which in turn exacerbates the risk of adolescent depression. The moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity was also demonstrated by interactions between interparental conflict and cultural beliefs about adversity, as well as, family functioning and cultural beliefs about adversity. The results indicated a buffering role of cultural beliefs about adversity on the deleterious effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression. They also suggested that lower levels of family functioning was associated with increased depression among adolescents were lower in cultural beliefs about adversity.

15.
Carbohydr Res ; 513: 108527, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240551

RESUMO

iNKT cells are a special type of T cell that acts as a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems, with the capacity to stimulate a wide range of cell types. The glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (αGC) is a robust agonist of iNKT cells and induces the secretion of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines. αGC and its analogs are widely used as adjuvants to enhance immune responses against viral, parasitic, and bacterial pathogens. This review first discusses the challenges of using free αGC as a vaccine adjuvant to treat infectious diseases. We next present strategies to realize the potential of the adjuvant effect of iNKT cell glycolipids, including (1) the use of Th1- or Th2-biasing αGC analogs, (2) covalent conjugation of glycolipid with antigen, (3) particulate vehicle-assisted delivery of glycolipid, (4) glycolipid-loaded cellular systems, (5) glycolipid combination with other immunostimulants, and (6) usage as mucosal adjuvants. Finally, we discuss future approaches for the development of iNKT cell agonists used as vaccine adjuvants against infectious diseases.


Assuntos
/farmacologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1288, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277484

RESUMO

Consensus on the cause of recent midlatitude circulation changes toward a wavier manner in the Northern Hemisphere has not been reached, albeit a number of studies collectively suggest that this phenomenon is driven by global warming and associated Arctic amplification. Here, through a fingerprint analysis of various global simulations and a tropical heating-imposed experiment, we suggest that the suppression of tropical convection along the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone induced by sea surface temperature (SST) cooling trends over the tropical Eastern Pacific contributed to the increased summertime midlatitude waviness in the past 40 years through the generation of a Rossby-wave-train propagating within the jet waveguide and the reduced north-south temperature gradient. This perspective indicates less of an influence from the Arctic amplification on the observed mid-latitude wave amplification than what was previously estimated. This study also emphasizes the need to better predict the tropical Pacific SST variability in order to project the summer jet waviness and consequent weather extremes.

17.
Environ Epigenet ; 8(1): dvac002, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317219

RESUMO

Acetaminophen is used by nearly two-thirds of pregnant women. Although considered safe, studies have demonstrated associations between prenatal acetaminophen use and adverse health outcomes in offspring. Since DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth may act as an early indicator of later health, assessments on whether DNAm of newborns is associated with gestational acetaminophen use or its metabolites are needed. Using data from three consecutive generations of the Isle of Wight cohort (F0-grandmothers, F1-mothers, and F2-offspring) we investigated associations between acetaminophen metabolites in F0 serum at delivery with epigenome-wide DNAm in F1 (Guthrie cards) and between acetaminophen use of F1 and F2-cord-serum levels with F2 cord blood DNAm. In epigenome-wide screening, we eliminated non-informative DNAm sites followed by linear regression of informative sites. Based on repeated pregnancies, indication bias analyses tested whether acetaminophen indicated maternal diseases or has a risk in its own right. Considering that individuals with similar intake process acetaminophen differently, metabolites were clustered to distinguish metabolic exposures. Finally, metabolite clusters from F1-maternal and F2-cord sera were tested for their associations with newborn DNAm (F1 and F2). Twenty-one differential DNAm sites in cord blood were associated with reported maternal acetaminophen intake in the F2 generation. For 11 of these cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, an indication bias was excluded and five were replicated in F2 with metabolite clusters. In addition, metabolite clusters showed associations with 25 CpGs in the F0-F1 discovery analysis, of which five CpGs were replicated in the F2-generation. Our results suggest that prenatal acetaminophen use, measured as metabolites, may influence DNAm in newborns.

18.
Acta Biomater ; 142: 113-123, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189382

RESUMO

With the increased emergence and threat of multi-drug resistant microorganisms, MXenes have become not only an emerging class of two-dimensional functional nanomaterials, but also potential nanomedicines (i.e., antimicrobial agents) that deserve further exploration. Very recently, Ti3C2 MXene was observed to offer a unique membrane-disruption effect and superior light-to-heat conversion efficiency, but its antibacterial property remains unsatisfactory due to poor MXene-bacteria interactions, low photothermal therapy efficiency, and occurrence of bacterial rebound in vivo. Herein, the cationic antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Cip) is combined with Ti3C2 MXene, and a hybrid hydrogel was constructed by incorporating Cip-Ti3C2 nanocomposites into the network structure of a Cip-loaded hydrogels to effectively trap and kill bacteria. We found that the Cip-Ti3C2 nanocomposites achieved an impressive in vitro bactericidal efficiency of >99.99999% (7.03 log10) for the inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy. In an MRSA-induced murine abscess model, the hybrid hydrogel simultaneously achieved high-efficiency sterilization and long-term inhibition effects, avoiding the rebound of bacteria after photothermal therapy, and thus maximized the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of Ti3C2 MXene-based systems. Overall, this work provides a strategy for efficiently combating localized bacterial infection by rationally designing MXene-based hybrid hydrogels. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Two-dimensional Ti3C2 MXene was recently regarded as a promising functional nanomaterial, however, its antibacterial applications are limited by the poor MXene-bacteria interactions, low photothermal therapy efficiency, and the occurrence of bacterial rebound in vivo. This work aims to construct a Ti3C2 MXene-based hybrid hydrogel for chemo-photothermal therapy and enhance the antimicrobial performance via a combination of the high-efficiency sterilization of ciprofloxacin-Ti3C2 nanocomposites with the long-term inhibition effect of ciprofloxacin hydrogel. The present study provides an example of efficient MXene-based antimicrobials to treat localized bacterial infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced skin abscess.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Abscesso , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Titânio/farmacologia
19.
Chemistry ; 28(23): e202104282, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137468

RESUMO

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in energy-storage applications owing to the relatively higher energy density and longer cycling life. However, they still need further improvement especially on the energy density to satisfy the increasing demands on the market. In this respect, the irreversible capacity loss (ICL) in the initial cycle is a critical challenge due to the lithium loss during the formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the anode surface. The strategy of prelithiation was then proposed to compensate for the ICL in the anode and recover the energy density. Here, various methods of the prelithiation are summarized and classified according to the basic working mechanism. Further, considering the critical importance and promising progress of prelithiation in both fundamental research and real applications, this Review article is intended to discuss the considerations involved in the selection of prelithiation reagents/strategies and the electrochemical performance in full-cells. Moreover, insights are provided regarding the practical application prospects and the challenges that still need to be addressed.

20.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(8): 1236-1249, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119450

RESUMO

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a lethal malignancy with a 1 year survival rate of less than 20%. Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel is recommended as a critical therapeutic approach toward ATC. However, harsh side-effects on patients and unsatisfactory intratumoral concentrations hamper the effectiveness of systemic chemotherapy. In this work, an in situ spontaneously forming micelle-hydrogel system (iMHS) with programmable-release characteristics was developed for sequential chemotherapy. Taking advantage of the diffusion rate of the hydrophobic drug in the micellar network and the degradation of the hydrogel matrix, iMHS supported sequential chemotherapy via programmatic release. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the superiority of sequential release from iMHS over other approaches, regardless of the genetic profile (e.g., different BRAF, TP53, and TERT promoter mutations, etc.). Additionally, iMHS presented the significant ability to prevent local tumor recurrence in a post-surgical model. Overall, iMHS may serve as a promising strategy for the enhanced localized treatment of ATC via the programmable release of chemotherapy drugs with implied translational value.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Micelas , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/genética , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
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