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1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 712703, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858254

RESUMO

Cyberchondria is considered "the anxiety-amplifying effects of online health-related searches." During the COVID-19 pandemic, people are likely to search health-related information online for reassurance because of fear and related physical symptoms, while cyberchondria may be triggered due to the escalation of health anxiety, different online seeking behavior preference, information overload, and insufficient e-health literacy. This study aimed to investigate the status and influencing factors of cyberchondria in residents in China during the epidemic period of COVID-19. The participants were 674 community residents of Nanyang city surveyed from February 1 to 15, 2020. We administered online measures, including the Chinese Short Form of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (C-CSS-12), Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI), eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and COVID-19-related online information seeking behavior questionnaire. In our study, the average C-CSS-12 total score of residents was 30.65 ± 11.53 during the virus epidemic; 25% of participants scored 22 or below, 50% scored 23 to 38, and 21.9% scored 39 to 60. The SHAI total score (ß = 0.598 > 0, P < 0.001), the use of general search engines (ß = 1.867 > 0, P = 0.039), and searching for information on how to diagnose COVID-19 (ß = 2.280 > 0, P = 0.020) were independent risk factors for cyberchondria, while searching lasting less than 10 min each (ß = -2.992 < 0, P = 0.048), the use of traditional media digital platforms (ß = -1.650 < 0, P = 0.024) and professional medical communication platforms (ß = -4.189 < 0, P = 0.007) were independent protective factors. Our findings showed that nearly a quarter of the participants scored 39 or higher on the C-CSS-12 in Nanyang city during the pandemic, which should be taken seriously. Health anxiety and COVID-19-related online information seeking behavior including online duration, topics and choice on different information channels were important influencing factors of cyberchondria. These findings have implications for further research and clinical practice on cyberchondria in China.

2.
Biomed Opt Express ; 12(11): 6730-6745, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858677

RESUMO

Resin embedding of multi-color labeled whole organs is the primary step to preserve structural information for visualization of fine structures in three dimensions. It is essential to study the morphological characteristics, spatial and positional relationships of the millions of neurons, and the intricate network of blood vessels with fluorescent labels in the brain. However, the current resin embedding method is inadequate because of incompatibilities with fluorescent dyes, making it difficult to reconstruct a variety of structures for the interpretation of their complex spatial relationships. We modified the resin embedding method for large biological tissues labeled with multiple fluorescent dyes and proteins through different labeling strategies. With TrueBlack as the background fluorescence inhibitor in the glycol methacrylate (GMA) embedding, we referred to the method as GMA-T (Glycol methacrylate with TB). In the GMA-T embedded mouse brains, structures labeled with fluorescent proteins and dyes were visualized in millimeter-scale networks with sub-cellular resolution, allowing quantitative analysis of different anatomical structures in the same brain, including neurons and blood vessels. In combination with high-resolution whole-brain imaging, it is possible to obtain a variety of fluorescence labeled structures in just a few days. We quantified the distribution and morphology of the tdTomato-labeled vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) neurons and the BSA-FITC labeled blood vessels in the same brain. These results demonstrated that VIP neurons and blood vessels have their own unique distribution patterns and morphological characteristics among cortical regions and different layers in cerebral cortex, and there was no significant correlation between VIP neurons and vessels. This approach provides a novel approach to study the interaction among different anatomical structures within large-volume biological samples labeled with multiple fluorescent dyes and proteins, which helps elucidating the complex anatomical characteristics of biological organs.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108316, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768129

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previously, we reported the octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O) had better antitumor and immunomodulatory effects than Rh2 in H22 tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, this study further explored the effects of Rh2-O on splenic lymphocytes in H22 tumor-bearing mice and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Wild type and Tlr4-/- mice were selected to establish the H22 tumor-bearing mice model. After the treatment of Rh2-O (10 mg/kg by gavage) for 15 days, the sizes of tumor were measured. Subsequently, the splenic lymphocytes were isolated and the activities (eg. cell proliferation, cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion) were evaluated. Then, the proteins and mRNA expression levels of TRAF6 and NF-ĸB p65 in splenic lymphocytes were examined. RESULTS: The results showed that Rh2-O administration enhanced the proliferative capacity and cytotoxicity of splenic lymphocytes, and the effects were Tlr4-associated. Compared to WT mice, the up-regulation of cytokines secretion (eg. IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) in isolated splenic lymphocytes after Rh2-O administration was lower in Tlr4-/- mice. Moreover, the results showed Rh2-O increased the expression of TRAF6 and the level of endonuclear NF-ĸB p65, which was inhibited in Tlr4-/- mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Rh2-O could exert immunomodulatory effects on splenic lymphocytes with the partial participation of TLR4 in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

4.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771119

RESUMO

High content of citric acid in lemon juice leads to poor sensory experience. The study aimed to investigate the dynamics changes in organic acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of lemon juice fermented with Issatchenkia terricola WJL-G4. The sensory evaluation of fermented lemon juice was conducted as well. Issatchenkia terricola WJL-G4 exhibited a potent capability of reducing the contents of citric acid (from 51.46 ± 0.11 g/L to 8.09 ± 0.05 g/L within 60 h fermentation) and increasing total phenolic level, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities compared to those of unfermented lemon juice. A total of 20 bioactive substances, including 10 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoid compounds, were detected both in fermented and unfermented lemon juice. The lemon juice fermented for 48 h had better sensory characteristics. Our findings demonstrated that lemon juice fermented with Issatchenkia terricola exhibited reduced citric acid contents, increased levels of health-promoting phenolic compounds, and enhanced antioxidant activities.

5.
Ann Hum Biol ; : 1-19, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hmong-Mien speaking Miao, also called Hmong, is the sixthlargest ethnic group in mainland China. However, the fine-scale genetic profiles and population history of Miao populations in southwest China, especially in Guizhou province, remain uncharacterised due to a scarcity of samples of genome-wide data from different tribes. AIM: To further investigate the population substructure and admixture history of the Guizhou Miao minority. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We collected 29 samples from three Miao tribes of Guizhou province in southwest China and genotyped about 700,000 genome-wide SNPs of each sample. We analysed newly generated data in together with published modern/ancient East Asian populations datasets via a series of population genetic methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE, Fst, TreeMix, f-statistics, qpWave, and qpAdm. RESULTS: PCA and ADMIXTURE results showed that the three studied Guizhou Miao groups consistently fell on the Hmong-Mien-related genetic cline and were relatively genetically homogeneous, displayingd a genetic affinity with neighbouring Tai-Kadai speaking populations such as Dong. These results were further confirmed by the observed genetic clade in Fst, TreeMix, outgroup-f3 -statistics, and f4 -statistics. Furthermore, f4 -based allele sharing patterns illustrated that compared with Hunan Miao in central China, Guizhou Miao shared more alleles with Hmong-Mien-speaking Vietnam Hmong and Tai-Kadai-speaking CoLao, Dong, while exhibiting less northeast Asian-related ancestry. Admixture-f3 and f4 statistics revealed the North-South admixture pattern for the studied Guizhou Miao. A qpAdm-based two-way admixture model further revealed that the studied Guizhou Miao harboured 44%∼55.4% indigenous Austronesian-speaking Atayal-related ancestry and 44.6%∼56% Late Neolithic Yellow River farmer-related ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The population structure within Hmong-Mien-related populations showed a geographic correlation. Hmong-Mien speaking Hunan Miao, Guizhou Miao, and Vietnam Hmong presented closer genetic relationships although they dwelt in different regions, suggesting the preservation of the original Hmong-related genetic diversity. The results based on genome-wide SNPs data generally matched the migration history for the Miao population. Our study contributes to a better knowledge of Miao populations and the population structure in southwest China.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847219

RESUMO

Researchers have begun to examine whether centralized or decentralized (or federal) political systems have better handled the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we probe beneath the surface of China's political system to examine the balance between centralized and decentralized authority in China's handling of the pandemic. We show that after the SARS epidemic of 2003, China adjusted the central-local balance of authority over systems to handle both the detection and early response phases of health emergencies. In an attempt to overcome problems revealed by SARS, it sought both to centralize early infectious disease reporting and to decentralize authority to respond to local health emergencies. But these adjustments in the central-local balance of authority after SARS did not change "normal times" authority relations and incentive structures in the political system. As a result, local leaders had both the authority and the incentive to prioritize tasks that determine their political advancement at the cost of containing the spread of COVID-19. China's efforts to balance central and local authority shows just how difficult it is to get it right, especially in the early phase of a pandemic.

7.
Diabetes ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810178

RESUMO

GRP75, defined as a major component of both mitochondrial quality control system and mitochondria-associated membrane, plays a key role in mitochondrial homeostasis. In this study, we assessed the roles of GRP75, other than as a component, in insulin action in both in vitro and in vivo models with insulin resistance. We found that GRP75 was downregulated in HFD-fed mice, and induction of Grp75 in mice could prevent HFD induced obesity and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, GRP75 influenced insulin sensitivity by regulating mitochondrial function through its modulation of mitochondrial-supercomplex turnover rather than MAM communication: GRP75 was negatively associated with respiratory-chain complex activity and was essential for mitochondrial-supercomplex assembly and stabilization. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction in Grp75-knockdown cells might further increase mitochondrial fragmentation, thus trigger cytosolic mitochondrial DNA release and activate the cGAS/STING-dependent pro-inflammatory response. Therefore, GRP75 can serve as a potential therapeutic target of insulin resistant-related diabetes or other metabolic diseases.

8.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131470, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740051

RESUMO

This research demonstrated a novel and ecofriendly method for producing regenerated starch (RS)/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) composite films with a nearly 1.4-fold improvement in tensile strength than traditional gelatinized starch (GS) films. Pure starch was dissolved in 14 wt% urea/4 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at 0 °C. Then, RS films and their biocomposite films containing MFC were prepared by dialyzing and solution-casting method. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of RS increased by 44.8% and 82.4%, compared with that of GS film, respectively. Owing to the adequate dispersion, lower viscosity-average molecular weight, higher amylose content, lower crystallinity and smaller crystal grain size, RS/MFC composite films exhibited significantly improved mechanical properties. The novel strategy used in this study will be helpful in preparing regenerated starch materials with excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability as alternatives to petrochemical plastics for the development of sustainable materials.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769707

RESUMO

Introduction: Although smoking prevalence has recently declined, the smoking prevalence in China remains high. Extensive research has demonstrated ways that social media can assist in quitting smoking. WeChat is the most commonly used social media platform in China but has not been used for smoking cessation. A process evaluation of a novel WeChat-based smoking cessation intervention was conducted to measure its efficacy of content delivery, participant satisfaction, engagement, and likelihood of recommendation to others. Methods: A three-week, three-arm, single-blind randomized control trial was established. WeChat was used to recruit 403 participants and to deliver intervention messages and process evaluation surveys to them. Recruitment advertisements were posted on an official WeChat account and were forwarded to WeChat Moments. Intervention messages were delivered once a day during weekdays, using the WeChat broadcasting messages function, with two messages being sent each time. Process evaluation surveys were organized using Wenjuanwang and were delivered via WeChat. Process assessments were conducted every Friday to assess intervention message receipt, satisfaction level, engagement level, and recommendation to others. The receipt of intervention messages was measured by a self-reported question indicating which messages were read each week. Satisfaction was measured by a five-item Likert scale survey. Engagement was measured by a one-item Likert scale survey. Recommendation to others was measured by one self-reported question. Results: Participants read an average of 4.76 (out of 10), 5.80 (out of 10), and 4.25 (out of 6) messages at week 1, week 2, and week 3, respectively. The second messages were less likely to be read compared to the first messages (52.3% vs. 61.6%, respectively). Moreover, within each single week, the number of participants who read the intervention messages gradually decreases over time. Picture-based intervention messages tended to be less likely to be read than video-based intervention messages. Total program satisfaction scores ranged between 5 and 25, and the overall scores for satisfaction for each week were 21.55, 22.27, and 22.76, respectively. No significant differences were found in all the satisfaction indicators between groups. More than 60% of participants reported being either highly engaged or somewhat engaged each week. In addition, most participants (93.0% at week 1, 95.8% at week 2, and 96.2% at week 3) reported that they were willing to recommend our program to others. Discussion: A WeChat-based smoking cessation intervention for Chinese smokers was implemented and evaluated. For future studies, one should consider sending messages of a higher importance as the first message of a given day. Smokers had a higher rate of reading intervention messages at the beginning part of each week, during which, relatively important messages should be prioritized. One might also consider alternating the topics and formats of the messages for a better engagement of the users in future studies.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego , Fumantes , Fumar
10.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; : e2100036, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822739

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the age-associated plasma protein profiles in pneumonia-derived sepsis between infants and toddlers and identify potential age-adapted prognostic markers for poor outcome of pneumonia-derived pediatric sepsis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A nested case-control study strategy was applied. The plasma proteomes of pneumonia-derived pediatric septic patients with different outcomes between infants and toddlers were respectivly analysed compared to their age-matched controls. RESULTS: Compared to toddlers, pneumonia-derived sepsis in infants was characterized by increased upregulation of protein processing in the ER, proteasome and antigen processing and presentation; and reduced downregulation in complement and coagulation cascades and cholesterol metabolism. Among them, the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the complement and coagulation cascades were possibly associated with poor outcome of pneumonia-derived sepsis. Furthermore, we confirmed that HP, THBS1, and SAA1/2 were potential prognostic markers for poor outcome of pneumonia-derived sepsis in infant patient groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Age-associated plasma protein profiles of pneumonia-derived pediatric septic patients provided potential age-adapted biomarkers for a more precise prognosis of poor outcome in pneumonia-derived pediatric sepsis and helped to improve the survival of septic children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 569, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health was reported among medical graduate students in some studies. Identification of risk factors for predicting the mental health is capable of reducing psychological distress among medical graduate students. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify potential risk factors relating to mental health and further create a novel prediction model to calculate the risk of mental distress among medical graduate students. METHODS: This study collected and analyzed 1079 medical graduate students via an online questionnaire. Included participants were randomly classified into a training group and a validation group. A model was developed in the training group and validation of the model was performed in the validation group. The predictive performance of the model was assessed using the discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: One thousand and fifteen participants were enrolled and then randomly divided into the training group (n = 508) and the validation group (n = 507). The prevalence of severe mental distress was 14.96% in the training group, and 16.77% in the validation group. The model was developed using the six variables, including the year of study, type of student, daily research time, monthly income, scientific learning style, and feeling of time stress. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and calibration slope for the model were 0.70 and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.65 ~ 1.15) in the training group, respectively, and 0.66 and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.51 ~ 1.09) in the validation group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified six risk factors for predicting anxiety and depression and successfully created a prediction model. The model may be a useful tool that can identify the mental status among medical graduate students. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No. ChiCTR2000039574 , prospectively registered on 1 November 2020.

13.
Diabetes ; 70(10): 2322-2332, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593536

RESUMO

Perirenal fat is adjacent to kidneys and active in metabolism and adipokine secretion. We aimed to investigate whether perirenal fat is an independent predictor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and compared it with total, subcutaneous, or visceral fat in patients with diabetes. Perirenal fat thickness (PRFT) was measured by computed tomography, and total body fat (TBF), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by DEXA. In cross-sectional analysis, patients with higher PRFT had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between PRFT and eGFR after confounders adjustment. No association between eGFR and TBF, SAT, or VAT was observed. Longitudinally, 190 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without CKD at baseline were followed for 2 years. A total of 29 participants developed CKD. After VAT-based multivariate adjustment, each SD (per-SD) increment in baseline PRFT was associated with a higher incidence of CKD (hazard ratio 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.68), while TBF, SAT, and VAT were not. Furthermore, PRFT predicted CKD, with a C-statistic (95% CI) of 0.668 (0.562, 0.774), which was higher than that of TPF [0.535 (0.433, 0.637)], SAT [0.526 (0.434, 0.618)], and VAT [0.602 (0.506, 0.698)]. In conclusion, with perirenal fat there was a higher predictive value for CKD than with total, subcutaneous, or visceral fat in T2DM.

14.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11174-11189, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636388

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become a global health concern as the main result of its contribution to the high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and fetus. However, there is absence of an ideal and widely acceptable therapy. Nuciferine has previously been shown to exert beneficial effects in various metabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic efficacy of nuciferine on GDM in C57BL/6J mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), which has not been reported before. The results showed that nuciferine improved glucose intolerance, reduced lipid accumulation and increased the glycogen content within hepatocytes, and decreased placental lipid and glycogen deposition, thus ameliorating glycolipid disorders in GDM mice. Additionally, nuciferine protected against histological degeneration of metabolism-associated critical organs including the liver, pancreas, and abdominal adipose tissue. Most interestingly, nuciferine could correct intestinal dysbacteriosis in GDM mice, as evidenced by the elevation of probiotic abundances consisting of Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium, which were all negatively correlated with serum and liver triglyceride (TG) and positively associated with hepatic glycogen, and the reduction of conditional pathogen abundances including Escherichia-Shigella and Staphylococcus, and the latter was positively related to serum and liver TG and negatively linked with liver glycogen. Collectively, these findings suggest that nuciferine as a food-borne strategy played important roles in the management of GDM.

15.
Med Phys ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669994

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the predictive ability of deep learning (DL) for the common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation subtypes in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 665 patients with lung adenocarcinoma (528/137) were recruited from two different institutions. In the training set, an 18-layer convolutional neural network (CNN) and fivefold cross-validation strategy were used to establish a CNN model. Subsequently, an independent external validation cohort from the other institution was used to evaluate the predictive efficacy of the CNN model. Grad-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) technology was used for the visual interpretation of the CNN model. In addition, this study also compared the prediction abilities of the radiomics and CNN models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, accuracy and precision values, and recall and F1-score were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the CNN model and compare its performance with that of the radiomics model. RESULTS: In the validation set, the micro- and macroaverage values of the area under the ROC curve of the CNN model to identify the three EGFR subtypes were 0.78 and 0.79, respectively. All evaluation indicators of the CNN model were better than those of the radiomics model. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the potential of DL for predicting the EGFR mutation status in lung adenocarcinoma. The imaging phenotypes of the three mutation subtypes were found to be different, which can provide a basis for choosing more accurate and personalized treatment in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

16.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573754

RESUMO

Stereo video has been widely applied in various video systems in recent years. Therefore, objective stereo video quality metric (SVQM) is highly necessary for improving the watching experience. However, due to the high dimensional data in stereo video, existing metrics have some defects in accuracy and robustness. Based on the characteristics of stereo video, this paper considers the coexistence and interaction of multi-dimensional information in stereo video and proposes an SVQM based on multi-dimensional analysis (MDA-SVQM). Specifically, a temporal-view joint decomposition (TVJD) model is established by analyzing and comparing correlation in different dimensions and adaptively decomposes stereo group of frames (sGoF) into different subbands. Then, according to the generation mechanism and physical meaning of each subband, histogram-based and LOID-based features are extracted for high and low frequency subband, respectively, and sGoF quality is obtained by regression. Finally, the weight of each sGoF is calculated by spatial-temporal energy weighting (STEW) model, and final stereo video quality is obtained by weighted summation of all sGoF qualities. Experiments on two stereo video databases demonstrate that TVJD and STEW adopted in MDA-SVQM are convincible, and the overall performance of MDA-SVQM is better than several existing SVQMs.

17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 712635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476230

RESUMO

Research has shown cigarette smoking is a major risk factors for many type of cancer or cancer prognosis. Tobacco related health disparities were addressed continually in cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. The present study evaluated the health disparities in attendance of smoking cessation counseling classes for 4,826 patients scheduled to attend between 2005 and 2007. Of 3,781 (78.4%) patients with records to calculate the distance from their home domicile to counseling sites using Geographic Information System technology, 1,435 (38%) of smokers who attended counseling had shorter travel distances to counseling sites (11.6 miles, SD = 11.29) compared to non-attendees (13.4 miles, SD = 16.72). When the travel distance was >20 miles, the estimated odds of attending decreased with greater travel distance. Smokers who actually attended were more likely to be older, female, White, living in urban areas, and receiving free healthcare. After controlling for other socio-demographic factors, shorter distances were associated with greater class attendance, and individuals more likely to attend included those that lived closer to the counseling site and in urban settings, were female, White, commercially insured, and older than their counterparts. These findings have the potential to provide important insights for reducing health disparities for cancer prevention and control, and to improve shared decision making between providers and smokers.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Louisiana , Tecnologia
18.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10589-10601, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585202

RESUMO

Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) are popularly used as a natural supplement for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety. Here, saponin extracts from R. rosea were investigated for their roles on relieving sleeplessness. The levels of neurotransmitters, hormones, and inflammation cytokines in plasma, and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were detected using ELISA, RT-PCR, and western blotting. First, the butanol fraction extracted from R. rosea was collected as the total saponins (HJT-I), then a saponin-rich fraction (HJT-II) was obtained after the further purification of HJT-I. The saponin contents of HJT-I and HJT-II were 28.92% and 65.69%, respectively. Second, behavioral tests were performed and showed that both HJT-I and HJT-II could effectively reduce the duration of immobility in the tail suspension test, and shorten sleep latency and prolong the sleep duration time in the sodium barbital-induced sleeping test, with HJT-II better than HJT-I. Third, ELLISA results showed that the concentrations of GABA, 5-HT, norepinephrine (NA), PGD2, and IL-1ß in plasma were significantly increased after HJT-I and HJT-II administration, while IL-6 was decreased. HJT-I and HJT-II also exhibited differential modulation of the receptors of 5-HT, GABA, PGD2, and IL-1ß expression. In hypothalamus, HJT-II was more powerful than HJT-I in regulation of the GABAARα2, GABAARα3, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65/67 expression, as well as 5-HT2A and IL-1ß. As for DPR and PGD2, HJT-II was more effective in the hippocampus. The efficacy of HJT-I was better than HJT-II at stimulating GABAARα2, GAD 65/67, 5-HT1A, and IL-1ß expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, the potential sedative and hypnotic effects of HJT-I and HJT-II may possibly be related to the serotonergic, GABAAergic, and immune systems, while the underlying mechanism of HJT-I and HJT-II differed from each other.

19.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500888

RESUMO

Electrically conductive cementitious composites (ECCCs) have been widely used to complete functional and smart construction projects. Graphite, due to its low cost and wide availability, is a promising electrically conductive filler to generate electrically conductive networks in cement matrixes. Cement-based materials provide an ideal balance of safety, environmental protection, strength, durability, and economy. Today, graphite is commonly applied in traditional cementitious materials. This paper reviews previous studies regarding the effects and correlations of the use of graphite-based materials as conductive fillers on the properties of traditional cementitious materials. The dispersion, workability, cement hydration, mechanical strength, durability, and electrically conductive mechanisms of cementitious composites modified with graphite are summarized. Graphite composite modification methods and testing methods for the electrical conductivity of ECCCs are also summarized.

20.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2100945, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418321

RESUMO

Considerable efforts have been made into developing aggregation-induced emission fluorogens (AIEgens)-containing nano-therapeutic systems due to the excellent properties of AIEgens. Compared to other fluorescent molecules, AIEgens have advantages including low background, high signal-to-noise ratio, good sensitivity, and resistance to photobleaching, in addition to being exempt from concentration quenching or aggregation-caused quenching effects. The present review outlines the major developments in the biomedical applications of AIEgens-containing systems. From a literature survey, the recent AIE works are reviewed and the reasons why AIEgens are chosen in various biomedical applications are highlighted. The research activities on AIEgens-containing systems are increasing rapidly, therefore, the present review is timely.

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