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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5533210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855070

RESUMO

This study elucidated the function role of dietary selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity in weaned pigs exposure to oxidative stress. Thirty-two similarity weight pigs were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) control+SeY, (3) control+diquat, and (4) control+SeY+diquat. The period of experiment was 21 days; on day 16, pigs were injected with diquat or sterile saline. Results revealed that oxidative stress was notably detrimental to the growth performance of piglets, but SeY supplementation ameliorated this phenomenon, which might be regarding the increasing of body antioxidant capacity and immune functions. In details, SeY supplementation improved the digestibility of crude protein (CP), ash, and gross energy (GE). Moreover, the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(GPT), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were reduced via SeY supplemented, and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins A (IgA), IgG, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ,and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were improved in the diquat-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). In addition, SeY supplementation acutely enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver and thymus upon diquat challenge, which involved with the upregulation of the critical genes related antioxidant signaling such as the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (P < 0.05). Importantly, we also found that SeY supplementation apparently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the liver, thymus, and serum (P < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the liver and thymus were downregulated by SeY upon diquat challenge. These results suggested that SeY can attenuate oxidative stress-induced growth retardation, which was associated with elevating body antioxidant capacity, immune functions, and suppressed inflammatory response.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715204

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function of weaned piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.89 ± 0.15 kg were divided into four diets for 28 days. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotic (20 mg/kg colistin sulphate and 40 mg/kg bacitracin zinc, AT), probiotics (400 mg/kg Bacillus coagulans ≥5 × 109 CFU/g, BC) or yeast hydrolysate (5000 mg/kg yeast hydrolysate, YH). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were improved by AT and YH diets (p < 0.05), while BC diet only increased ADG (p < 0.05). The complement 3 (C3), lysozyme (LZM) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in serum were increased in BC diet (p < 0.05). Feeding AT and YH caused the increase of jejunal villus height (p < 0.05), and a higher ratio of villus height/crypt depth was observed in AT, BC and YH groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa was up-regulated by AT, BC and YH diets (p < 0.05). Dietary AT, BC or YH inclusion decreased the interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) concentration and TNF-α mRNA expression (p < 0.05), and YH supplementation even down-regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 expressions (p < 0.05). In summary, the dietary administration of BC or YH both improves growth performance through promoting the intestinal barrier function, indicating both of them can serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics growth promoters for the piglet production.

3.
Nutrition ; 87-88: 111198, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, three of the most common short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can be produced when some non-digestible carbohydrates enter the large intestine and undergo bacterial fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three SCFAs on appetite regulation and lipid metabolism and to determine the extent that appetite contributes to the beneficial influences of SCFAs. METHODS: In a 35-d study, 48 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly allocated to six groups: control; 5% sodium acetate; 5% sodium propionate; 5% sodium butyrate; pair fed 1; and pair fed 2. RESULTS: The study showed that dietary supplementation of sodium acetate reduced serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels (P < 0.05), increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin levels (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of fasting-induced adipose factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, cytochrome-C oxidase IV and free fatty acid receptor 2 (P < 0.05). Sodium propionate also reduced serum IL-1ß level (P < 0.05), increased serum peptide YY level (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of transmembrane protein 26 (P < 0.05). Additionally, sodium butyrate decreased average daily feed intake (P < 0.05) downregulated the mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHc) Ⅱb (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of lipase hormone-sensitive, MyHC Ⅱa and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (P < 0.05). Moreover, the metabolic benefits of SCFAs were partly attributed to the reduction of feed intake. CONCLUSION: Taken together, SCFAs could reduce appetite and fat accumulation via modulating relevant genes and hormones, which might further illustrate the potential mechanisms that underlay the effects of SCFAs on lipid homeostasis and control of body weight.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712429

RESUMO

Carbohydrate is the most important energy source in the diet of human and animals. A large number of studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates (DCHO) are related to the bacterial community in the gut, but its relationship with the composition of intestinal fungi is still unknown. Here, we report the response of colonic fungal community to different composition of DCHO in a pig model. Three factors, ratio of (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP), level of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, 1%, 2% and 3%) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS, 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg), were considered according to a L9 (34) orthogonal design to form nine diets with different carbohydrate composition. Sequencing based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region showed that the fungal community in the colon of the pigs responded to DCHO in the order of MOS, AM/AP and NSP. A large part of some low-abundance fungal genera correlated with the composition of DCHO, represented by Saccharomycopsis, Mrakia, Wallemia, Cantharellus, Eruotium, Solicoccozyma and Penicillium, were also associated with the concentration of glucose and fructose, as well as the activity of ß-D-Glucosidase in the colonic digesta, suggesting a role of these fungi in the degradation of DCHO in the colon of pigs. Our study provides direct evidences for the relationship between the composition of DCHO and fungal community in the colon of pigs, which is helpful to understand the function of gut microorganisms in pigs.ImportanceAlthough fungi are a large group of microorganisms besides bacteria and archaea in the gut of monogastric animals, the nutritional significance of fungi has been ignored for a long time. Our previous studies have revealed a distinct fungal community in the gut of grazing Tibetan pigs, and a close correlation between fungal species and short-chain fatty acids, the main microbial metabolites of carbohydrates in the hindgut of pigs. These groundbreaking findings indicate a potential relationship between intestinal fungi and the utilization of DCHO. However, no evidence directly proves the response of intestinal fungi to changes in DCHO. Here, we show a clear alteration of colonic fungal community in pigs triggered by different composition of DCHO simulated by varied concentrations of starch, NSP and oligosaccharides. Our results highlight the potential involvement of intestinal fungi in the utilization of nutrients in monogastric animals.

5.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 2962-2971, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690750

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the effect of raw (WB) or mixed fungi-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal health in weaned piglets. After the preparation of FWB, twenty-one cross-bred weaned piglets (7.20 ± 0.5 kg) were separated into three groups for a 40-day trial. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet. For the other two groups, 8% of expanded corn in the basal diet was replaced by equivalent WB or FWB. Results showed that the content of main nutrients and the composition of dietary fiber in FWB improved compared to that for WB. The digestibility of fiber in pigs fed FWB improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control and/or WB without affecting their growth performance. Both WB and FWB decreased the conditional pathogen (Streptococcus) or/and E. coli virulence factor (STb) in the colon compared to control (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in jejunum increased (P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells, the expression of MUC-1 and pBD1 in jejunal mucosa, and the proportion of blood CD4+ T lymphocyte subset improved (P < 0.05) by FWB rather than WB. Furthermore, although only WB elevated (P < 0.05) the concentration of butyrate in the colon, both WB and FWB increased the number of butyrate-producing bacteria (P < 0.05) compared to the control. Thus, the main advantage of FWB over WB in weaned pigs is its improvement in fiber digestibility.

6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferulic acid (FA) is a common polyphenolic compound. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dietary FA supplementation on growth performance and muscle fiber type conversion in weaned piglets. In this study, eighteen 21-day-old DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were randomly divided into control, 0.05% FA, and 0.45% FA groups. RESULTS: Our study showed that dietary FA supplementation had no effect on growth performance, but it could upregulate the expression of slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein, increase the activities of succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, and downregulate the expression of fast MyHC protein. Dietary FA supplementation also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), myocyte enhancer factor 2C, and troponin I-SS, increased the proportion of slow-twitch fiber, and decreased the proportion of fast-twitch fiber. In addition, our results showed that dietary FA supplementation increased the messenger RNA abundance of mitochondrial nuclear transcription genes, including ATP synthase membrane subunit c locus 1, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial transcription factor B1, and cytochrome c. CONCLUSION: We provided the first evidence that FA could promote muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch via the Sirt1/AMP-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α signaling pathway and could improve the mitochondrial function in weaned piglets. This means that FA can be used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of pork. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

7.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100938, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518299

RESUMO

This study was conducted to explore whether dietary pectic oligosaccharide (POS) supplementation could improve gut health of broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used in this study. Two hundred fifty-six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48 wk of age), including 128 average egg-laying rate and 128 low egg-laying rate (LELR) birds, were randomly fed with the diets supplemented with or without 200 mg kg-1 of POS (n = 8). The trial lasted for 8 wk. Compared with average egg-laying rate broiler breeders, LELR broiler breeders had lower laying rate and qualified egg rate (P < 0.05), higher egg weight and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05), higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the jejunum (P < 0.05), higher IL-6 (P < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (P = 0.07) mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa, and lower microflora diversity in cecal digesta. Dietary POS supplementation increased egg weight of broiler breeders (P < 0.05), enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in the jejunum (P < 0.05), decreased MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05), upregulated zonula occluden 1 mRNA expression in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). In addition, in LELR broiler breeders, POS administration enhanced villus height (P = 0.08) and ZO-2 mRNA expression (P = 0.09) in the jejunal mucosa, alleviated the increasing MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). These results suggest that supplementing POS in diets may elevate gut health via improvement of intestinal barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and microbiota composition in broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 168: 279-288, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310093

RESUMO

The effect of arabinoxylan (AX) combined with ß-glucan and xyloglucan on lipid metabolism by regulating bile acids and gut microbiota was investigated in mice fed with high-fat diet. Fifty male ICR/KM mice were randomly divided into five groups: control diet (CON) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, high-fat diet with AX (HFAX) group, high-fat diet with AX and ß-glucan (HFAB) group, and high-fat diet with AX and xyloglucan (HFAG) group. After 8 weeks of feeding, the mice were sacrificed and samples were collected. In contrast to CON, HFD disturbed lipid metabolism, bile acids, and gut microbiota in mice. Mice in HFD group had increase in weight, blood lipids and liver fat, and circulating bile acid as well as abnormal liver tissue morphology and disordered gut microbiota. Compared with HFD, HFAB and HFAG mice had reduced body weight and cholesterol and triglyceride levels; Fxr was activated, Cyp7a1 was inhibited to reduce bile acids, the microbial species diversity increased, the number of beneficial bacteria increased, and the number of conditional pathogenic bacteria decreased. HFAG uniquely activated intestinal bile acid receptors (Fxr and Tgr5) and increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Akkermansia. In summary, the effect of AX compounded glucans (ß-glucan or xyloglucan) on lipid metabolism was better than that of single AX by regulating bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota possibly due to the more complex chemical structure of combined polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Glucanos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilanos/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , China , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Obesidade/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
9.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-37, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298213

RESUMO

To explore the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) on intestinal health in weaned pigs upon Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) challenge, thirty-two male weaned pigs were randomly assigned into four groups. Pigs fed with a basal diet or basal diet containing MOS (0.6 g/kg) were orally infused with ETEC or culture medium. Results showed that MOS significantly elevated the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and gross energy (GE) in both ETEC-challenged and non-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). MOS also elevated serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgM (P < 0.05), but decreased serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in ETEC-challenged pigs. Interestingly, MOS increased villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (V/C) in duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). MOS also increased duodenal sucrase and ileal lactase activity in ETEC-challenged pigs (P < 0.05). MOS decreased the abundance of Escherichia coli, but increased the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus in cecum (P < 0.05). Importantly, MOS not only elevated the expression levels of zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1, and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2) in duodenum (P < 0.05), but also elevated the expression levels of ZO-1, GLUT-2, and L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) in ileum (P < 0.05) upon ETEC challenge. These results suggested that MOS can alleviate inflammation and intestinal injury in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was associated with suppressed secretion of inflammatory cytokines and elevated serum immunoglobulins, as well as improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322714

RESUMO

Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound that has antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimicrobial, antiviral, and vasodilatory effects. This study was conducted to explore the effects of dietary FA supplementation on antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in weaned piglets. Eighteen 21-day-old castrated male DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned piglets were randomly divided into control, 0.05%, and 0.45% FA groups. The results showed that, in serum, CAT and T-SOD activities and content of HDL-C were increased, but the content of MDA and the activities of T-CHO and LDL-C were decreased, by FA supplementation. In liver, dietary FA supplementation increased CAT, T-SOD, and GSH-PX activities and upregulated the mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, GST, GPX1, GR, Nrf2, HSL, CPT1b, and PPARα but decreased the contents of MDA and TG. Furthermore, dietary FA supplementation increased the protein level of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1. In longissimus dorsi muscle, dietary FA supplementation increased the activity of T-SOD and the mRNA abundance of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, GST, GPX1, GR, and Nrf2 but decreased the contents of MDA and T-CHO. Additionally, dietary FA supplementation increased the protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1. Together, our data suggest that FA could improve antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in weaned piglets.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30142-30150, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199606

RESUMO

Since the postulation of carbenes by Buchner (1903) and Staudinger (1912) as electron-deficient transient species carrying a divalent carbon atom, carbenes have emerged as key reactive intermediates in organic synthesis and in molecular mass growth processes leading eventually to carbonaceous nanostructures in the interstellar medium and in combustion systems. Contemplating the short lifetimes of these transient molecules and their tendency for dimerization, free carbenes represent one of the foremost obscured classes of organic reactive intermediates. Here, we afford an exceptional glance into the fundamentally unknown gas-phase chemistry of preparing two prototype carbenes with distinct multiplicities-triplet pentadiynylidene (HCCCCCH) and singlet ethynylcyclopropenylidene (c-C5H2) carbene-via the elementary reaction of the simplest organic radical-methylidyne (CH)-with diacetylene (HCCCCH) under single-collision conditions. Our combination of crossed molecular beam data with electronic structure calculations and quasi-classical trajectory simulations reveals fundamental reaction mechanisms and facilitates an intimate understanding of bond-breaking processes and isomerization processes of highly reactive hydrocarbon intermediates. The agreement between experimental chemical dynamics studies under single-collision conditions and the outcome of trajectory simulations discloses that molecular beam studies merged with dynamics simulations have advanced to such a level that polyatomic reactions with relevance to extreme astrochemical and combustion chemistry conditions can be elucidated at the molecular level and expanded to higher-order homolog carbenes such as butadiynylcyclopropenylidene and triplet heptatriynylidene, thus offering a versatile strategy to explore the exotic chemistry of novel higher-order carbenes in the gas phase.

12.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 9599-9612, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151222

RESUMO

To explore the protective effect of Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced inflammation and intestinal injury, twenty-four weaned pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) non-challenge (CON, fed with basal diet), (2) ETEC-challenge (ECON, fed with basal diet), and (3) ETEC challenge + FOS treatment (EFOS, fed with basal diet plus 2.5 g kg-1 FOS). On day 19, the CON group was orally infused with sterilized culture while pigs in the ECON group and EFOS group were orally infused with ETEC (2.5 × 1011 colony-forming units). After 3 days, pigs were slaughtered for sample collection. We showed that ETEC challenge significantly reduced average daily gain (ADG); however, FOS improved the ADG (P < 0.05), apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), and ash and reduced the diarrhea incidence (P < 0.05). FOS reduced plasma concentrations of IL-1ß and TNF-α and down-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunum and ileum as well as IL-1ß and TNF-α in the duodenum. The concentrations of plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and secreted IgA (SIgA) in the jejunum (P < 0.05) were elevated. Interestingly, FOS elevated the villus height in the duodenum, and elevated the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum in the EFOS group pigs (P < 0.05). Moreover, FOS increased lactase activity in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). The activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) were higher in the EFOS group than in the ECON group (P < 0.05). Importantly, FOS up-regulated the expressions of critical genes in intestinal epithelium function such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT1) in the duodenum and the expressions of ZO-1 and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) in the jejunum (P < 0.05). FOS also up-regulated the expressions of occludin, fatty acid transporter-4 (FATP4), sodium glucose transport protein 1 (SGLT1), and GLUT2 in the ileum (P < 0.05). FOS significantly increased the concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in the cecal digesta. Additionally, FOS reduced the populations of Escherichia coli, but elevated the populations of Bacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecal digesta (P < 0.05). These results suggested that FOS could improve the growth performance and intestinal health in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was associated with suppressed inflammatory responses and improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.

13.
Food Funct ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196069

RESUMO

Daidzein (DAI) is a kind of natural isoflavonic phytoestrogen with estrogenic activity. However, little is known about its influence on early fetal growth in mammalian animals. The current study aimed to explore the characteristics of amniotic fluid exposure to dietary DAI using 1H NMR-based metabolomics and biochemical analysis. Here, we found that DAI supplementation at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 significantly enhanced the number of viable embryos at the early gestation stage (P < 0.05). DAI significantly elevated the concentrations of estrogen (E) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the amniotic fluid (P < 0.05). Moreover, DAI tended to increase the concentration of progesterone, but decrease the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the amniotic fluid (0.05 < P < 0.10). Interestingly, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was higher in the DAI group than in the CON group (P < 0.05). An 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis identified and quantified more than 30 compounds in the amniotic fluid, and some critical metabolites such as arginine, creatine, and citrate were found to be significantly elevated upon DAI supplementation (P < 0.05). Importantly, the metabolic pathways involved in arginine and proline metabolisms were found to be significantly affected by DAI. Collectively, dietary DAI may improve embryo survival by improving hormones, antioxidant capacity, and metabolic profiles in the maternal amniotic fluid.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185791

RESUMO

Antibiotics are widely used to treat various inflammatory bowel diseases caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). However, continuous use of antibiotics may lead to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of human ß-defensin 118 (DEFB118) in regulating the ETEC-induced inflammation and intestinal injury. ETEC-challenged or non-challenged mice were treated by different concentrations of DEFB118. We show that ETEC infection significantly increased fecal score (P < 0.05) and serum concentrations of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, the concentrations of D-lactic acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine (CREA), and urea (P < 0.05) were both increased in the ETEC-challenged mice. However, DEFB118 significantly decreased their concentrations in the serum (P < 0.05). DEFB118 not only alleviated tissue damage in spleen upon ETEC challenge, but also increased the villus height in duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). Moreover, DEFB118 improved the localization and abundance of tight junction protein ZO-1 in jejunal epithelium. Interestingly, DEFB118 decreased the expression levels of critical genes involving in mucosal inflammatory responses (NF-κB, TLR4, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and the apoptosis (caspase3) upon ETEC challenge (P < 0.05), whereas DEFB118 significantly upregulated the expression of mucosa functional genes such as the mucin1 (MUC1) and sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) in the ETEC-challenged mice (P < 0.05). These results indicated a novel function of the DEFB118. The anti-inflammatory effect of DEFB118 should make it an attractive candidate to prevent various bacteria-induced inflammatory bowel diseases.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1395304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224970

RESUMO

Purpose: ß-Defensin 118 (DEFB118) is a novel host defense peptide (HDP) identified in humans. To evaluate its potentials for future utilization, the DEFB118 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the recombinant protein was fully characterized. Methods: The DEFB118 protein was obtained by heterologous expression using E. coli Rosetta (DE3). Antibacterial activity of DEFB118 was determined by using various bacterial strains. IPEC-J cells challenged by E. coli K88 were used to determine its influences on inflammatory responses. Results: The E. coli transformants yielded more than 250 µg/mL DEFB118 protein after 4 h induction by 1.0 mM IPTG. The DEFB118 was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 30 kDa, and MALDI-TOF analysis verified that it is a human ß-defensin 118. Importantly, the DEFB118 showed antimicrobial activities against both Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli K88 and E. coli DH5α) and Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. subtilis), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 µg/mL. Hemolytic assays showed that DEFB118 had no detrimental impact on cell viability. Additionally, DEFB118 was found to elevate the viability of IPEC-J2 cells upon E. coli K88 challenge. Moreover, DEFB118 significantly decreased cell apoptosis in the late apoptosis phase and downregulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß and TNF-α in IPEC-J2 cell exposure to E. coli K88. Conclusions: These results suggested a novel function of the mammalian defensins, and the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of DEFB118 may allow it as a potential substitute for conventionally used antibiotics or drugs.

16.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(44): 9119-9127, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103436

RESUMO

The dynamics of the HBr+ + CO2 → HOCO+ + Br reaction was recently investigated with guided ion beam experiments under various excitations (collision energy of the reactants, rotational and spin-orbital states of HBr+, etc.), and their impacts were probed through the change of the cross section of the reaction. The potential energy profile of this reaction has also been accurately characterized by high-level ab initio methods such as CCSD(T)/CBS, and the UMP2/cc-pVDZ/lanl08d has been identified as an ideal method to study its dynamics. This manuscript reports the first ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of this reaction at two different collision energies, 8.1 kcal/mol and 19.6 kcal/mol. The cross sections measured from the simulations agree very well with the experiments measured with HBr+ in the 2∏1/2 state. The simulations reveal three distinct mechanisms at both collision energies: direct rebound (DR), direct stripping (DS), and indirect (Ind) mechanisms. DS and Ind make up 97% of the total reaction. The dynamics of this reaction is also compared with nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions of X- + CH3Y → CH3X + Y- type. In summary, this research has revealed interesting dynamics of the HBr+ + CO2 → HOCO+ + Br reaction at different collision energies and has laid a solid foundation for using this reaction to probe the impact of rotational excitation of ion-molecule reactions in general.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065992

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fiber on the gut health of growing pigs. In total, 30 growing pigs with an initial average body weight of 45.8 ± 2.78 kg were divided into three groups with 10 replicates per treatment, and one pig per replicate. The treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based diet (control group, 1.5% crude fiber (CF)), corn-soybean meal + beet pulp-based diet (beet pulp group, 5.74% CF) and corn-soybean meal-based diet (feed intake-pairing group (pairing group); the feed intake was equal to the beet pulp group, 1.5% CF). The whole trial lasted 28 days. The beet pulp group had a longer length of the large intestine, higher weight of the small intestine and whole intestine, greater density of the large intestine and whole intestine, and higher villus height in the jejunum and ileum than the control group (p < 0.05). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), and glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP-2R) in the duodenum, EGF and GLP-2 in the jejunum, EGF in the ileum, and GLP-2 in the colon were higher in the beet pulp group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the apparent total tract digestibility of crude ash, energy, dry matter (DM), and crude protein (CP) was lower in the beet pulp group than in the control group (p < 0.05), while the apparent total tract digestibility of CF, the activity of jejunal lactase, and the mRNA abundance of duodenal GLP-2 were higher in the beet pulp group than in the control and pairing groups (p < 0.05). In addition, the beet pulp group had more goblet cells in the colon, more Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecal digesta, higher concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in the cecal digesta, and higher mRNA abundance of duodenal regeneration protein Ⅲγ (REG-Ⅲγ), jejunal mucin 2 (MUC-2), and ileal G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR-43) than the control group (p < 0.05). However, these parameters did not differ between the control and pairing groups (p > 0.05). These findings indicate feeding a high-fiber diet (5.74% CF, obtained from beet pulp) to pigs could modulate the gut microbiota composition, increase the short-chain fatty-acid (SCFA) content in the hindgut, and improve gut health, which is independent of the feed intake.

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992960

RESUMO

The present experiment was conducted to dissect the effects of different carbohydrate combinations on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial communities in weaned pigs. The combination was optimized by constructing L9(34) orthogonal design. Three factors include starch (amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP) ratio 2:1, 1:1, 1:2), non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) (1%, 2%, 3%, a mixture of inulin with cellulose by 1:1), and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) (400, 800, 1200 mg/kg) were investigated and nine combinations were implemented under different levels of these factors. One hundred and sixty-two weaned pigs were randomly assigned to nine dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment and three pigs per replicate. Results exhibited that different combinations of starch, NSP, and MOS affected the gain to feed (G:F) (p < 0.05), diarrhea incidence (p < 0.10), nutrient digestibility (p < 0.05), microbial communities, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations (p < 0.05). In the present study, taking into account three-way ANOVA, range, and direct analysis, we found that the optimal carbohydrate combination was starch AM/AP 1:1, NSP 3%, MOS 400 mg/kg for weaned pigs. Moreover, feeding this combination diet could promote the growth performance and nutrient digestibility, increase the butyrate-producing bacteria, and to some extent improve lipid metabolism. This study provided a novel way to evaluate the carbohydrate quality in swine production.

19.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 87, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884745

RESUMO

Background: Tannic acid (TA) is potential to reduce diarrhea in weaning pigs, but knowledge about the influence of TA on intestinal barrier integrity and function is still scarce. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary TA supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea rate, intestinal barrier integrity and function of weaned pigs. Methods: A total of 108 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets, with an initial average body weight of 6.60 ± 0.27 kg, were allotted to 3 groups (6 pigs/pen and 6 replicates/group) in a randomized complete block design according to their gender and body weight. Piglets were fed the basal diet with 0 (control, CON), 0.2% and 1.0% TA, respectively. The trial lasted for 28 d. Results: Compared with the CON group, dietary 0.2% and 1.0% TA supplementation didn't affect ADFI, ADG and F:G (P > 0.05), but reduced diarrhea rate, diarrhea index and diarrhea score of piglets (P < 0.05), reduced diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and D-lactic acid concentration in serum (P < 0.01). The higher occludin expression and localization were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum after supplementation with 0.2% or 1.0% TA (P < 0.05). Adding 0.2% TA to diet significantly decreased crypt depth, increased villus height/crypt depth ratio in the duodenum (P < 0.05), and dietary 1.0% TA tended to decrease crypt depth (P < 0.10) and significantly decreased villus height (P < 0.05) of the ileum. Moreover, lower malondialdehyde content in the ileum was detected in the pigs fed 1.0% TA (P < 0.05). In the duodenum, both 0.2% and 1.0% TA groups had higher occludin (OCLN) mRNA and 0.2% TA group had higher zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2) level (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, dietary 1.0% TA supplementation tended to up-regulate OCLN mRNA levels in the jejunum (P < 0.10) and 0.2% TA supplementation tended to up-regulate zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA levels in the ileum (P < 0.10). Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.2% or 1.0% TA could effectively alleviate post-weaning diarrhea without altering growth performance in weaned piglets, which might be achieved by improving intestinal barrier integrity and function.

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