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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485962

RESUMO

Keratin-associated proteins are important components of wool fibers. The gene encoding the high-sulfur keratin-associated protein 2-1 has been described in humans, but it has not been described in sheep. A basic local alignment search tool nucleotide search of the Ovine Genome Assembly version 4.0 using a human keratin-associated protein 2-1 gene sequence revealed a 399-base pair open reading frame, which was clustered among nine previously identified keratin-associated protein genes on chromosome 11. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis revealed four different banding patterns, with these representing four different sequences (A-D) in Chinese sheep breeds. These sequences had the highest similarity to human keratin-associated protein 2-1 gene, suggesting that they represent variants of ovine keratin-associated protein 2-1 gene. Nine single nucleotide variations were detected in the gene, including one non-synonymous nucleotide substitution. Differences in variant frequencies between fine-wool sheep breeds and coarse-wool sheep breeds were detected. The gene was found to be expressed in various tissues, with the highest expression level in skin, and moderate expression levels in heart and lung tissue. These results reveal that the ovine keratin-associated protein 2-1 gene is variable and suggest the gene might affect variation in mean fiber diameter.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3482692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190661

RESUMO

A cattle-yak, which is a hybrid between a yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus), is an important livestock animal, but basic questions regarding its physiology and environmental adaptation remain unanswered. To address this issue, the present study examined the species composition and functional characteristics of rumen microorganisms in the cattle-yak of different ages (2 and 3 years old) by metagenomic analysis. We found that rumen microbial community composition was similar at the two ages. Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla, with Firmicutes accounting for the highest percentage of bacteria in 2-year-old (48%) and 3-year-old (46%) animals. Bacterial species involved in lignocellulose degradation were detected in the rumen of adult cattle-yaks including Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes, and Prevotella ruminicola, with F. succinogenes being the most abundant. A total of 145,489 genes were annotated according to the Carbohydrate-active Enzyme database, which identified glycoside hydrolases as the most highly represented enzyme family. Further functional annotation revealed specific microflora and genes in the adult rumen that are potentially related to plateau adaptability. These results could explain the heterosis of the cattle-yak and provide insight into mechanisms of physiologic adaptation in plateau animals.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019077

RESUMO

Wool and hair fibres consist of a variety of proteins, including the keratin-associated proteins (KAPs). In this study, a putative ovine homologue of the human KAP21-2 gene (KRTAP21-2) was identified. It was located on chromosome 1 as a 201-bp open reading frame (ORF) in the ovine genome assembly from a Texel sheep (v.4 NC_019458.2: nt122932727 to 122932927). A polymerase chain reaction- single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of this ORF, and subsequent DNA sequencing, identified five sequences (named A-E). The putative amino acid sequences that would be produced, shared some identity with each other and with other KAPs, but they were most similar to ovine KAP21-1, and phylogenetically related to human KAP21-2. The location of the ovine KRTAP21-2 sequence was consistent with the location of human KRTAP21-2, and this suggests they represent different variant forms of ovine KRTAP21-2. Variation in this gene was investigated in 389 Merino (sire) × Southdown-cross (ewe) lambs. These were derived from four independent sire-lines. The sequence variation was found to be associated with variation in five wool traits: including mean staple length (MSL), mean fibre diameter (MFD), fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), prickle factor (PF), and greasy fleece weight (GFW). The most persistent effect of KRTAP21-2 variation was with variation in MSL; with the MSL of sheep of genotype AC being 12.5% greater than those of genotype CE. A similar effect was observed from individual variant absence/presence models. This suggests that KRTAP21-2 should be further investigated as a possible gene-marker for improving MSL.

4.
J Dairy Res ; 87(2): 166-169, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948492

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to identify variation in the yak lipin-1 gene (LPIN1) and determine whether this variation affects milk traits. PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to detect variation in the 5' untranslated region of LPIN1 in 500 yaks from four populations: Tianzhu white yaks, Qinghai yaks, wild × domestic-cross yaks and Gannan yaks. Four unique PCR-SSCP patterns, representing four different DNA sequence variants (named A, B, C and D), were observed. These contained six single nucleotide polymorphisms. Female Gannan yaks with BC genotype produced milk with a higher fat content (P < 0.001) and total milk solids (P < 0.001), than those with the AA, AB and BB genotypes. These results would suggest that LPIN1 is having an effect on yak milk fat synthesis.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979055

RESUMO

The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are constituents of cashmere fibers and variation in many KAP genes (KRTAPs) has been found to be associated with fiber traits. The gene encoding the high-sulphur KAP28-1 has been described in sheep, but it has not been identified in the goat genome. In this study, a 255-bp open reading frame on goat chromosome 1 was identified using a search of similar sequence to ovine KRTAP28-1, and that would if transcribed and translated encode a high sulphur KAP. Based on the analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons for the goat nucleotide sequences in 385 Longdong cashmere goats in China, five unique banding patterns were detected using single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP). These represented five DNA sequences (named variants A to E) and they had the highest resemblance to KRTAP28-1 sequences from sheep, suggesting A-E are variants of caprine KRTAP28-1. DNA sequencing revealed a 2 or 4-bp deletion and eleven nucleotide sequence differences, including four non-synonymous substitutions. Of the four common variants (A, B, C and D) found in these goats, the presence of variant A was associated with decreased mean fiber diameter and this effect appeared to be additive. These results indicate that caprine KRTAP28-1 variation might have value as a molecular marker for reducing cashmere mean fiber diameter.

6.
Genomics ; 112(3): 2186-2193, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866420

RESUMO

CircRNA is a specific type of non-coding RNA that has been shown to have an important role in mammary gland (MG) activity, but no study of MG circRNA activity in sheep so far. In this study, the expression profile of circRNAs was investigated using RNA-Seq in MG parenchyma at peak lactation from Small-Tailed Han sheep and Gansu Alpine Merino sheep with phenotypic differences in milk yield and components. A total of 4, 906 circRNAs were found and 33 of these were differentially expressed between breeds. GO and KEGG results showed that the parental genes of differentially expressed circRNAs were mainly enriched in heterocyclic compound binding, kinase activity, adherens junction, the TGF-ß signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway. This study provides an overview of circRNA expression in the ovine MG and the interaction between some key circRNAs and their target miRNAs. It improves our knowledge of the role of circRNA in sheep milk synthesis.

7.
Arch Anim Breed ; 62(1): 125-133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807622

RESUMO

Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are a structural component of cashmere fibre, and variation in some KAP genes (KRTAPs) has been associated with a number of caprine fibre traits. In this study, we report the identification of KRTAP15-1 in goats. Sequence variation in the gene was detected using the polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique in 250 Longdong goats, and six variants (named A to F) containing eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Five of the SNPs were non-synonymous and would lead to putative amino acid changes. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that KRTAP15-1 was expressed in secondary hair follicles but not in heart tissue, liver tissue, lung tissue, kidney tissue or the longissimus dorsi muscle. Despite being rich in cysteine, the caprine KAP15-1 protein possesses a high content of serine and moderate content of glycine and phenylalanine. Association analyses revealed that KRTAP15-1 variant A was associated with decreased mean fibre diameter (MFD), and this effect appeared to be dominant; while variant C was found to be associated with increased MFD, the effect being recessive. The findings suggest that caprine KRTAP15-1 is highly polymorphic and that variation in this gene affects cashmere MFD.

8.
Arch Anim Breed ; 62(2): 509-515, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807662

RESUMO

Variation in KRTAP6-1 has been reported to affect wool fibre traits in Merino cross-breed sheep and Chinese Tan sheep, but little is known about whether these effects persist in other breeds. In this study, variation in KRTAP6-1 was investigated in 290 New Zealand (NZ) Romney ewes sired by 16 different rams. Polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis revealed four variants ( A , B , E and F ) of KRTAP6-1, and nine genotypes (AA, AB, AE, AF, BB, BE, BF, EE and FF) in these ewes. Among the 243 ewes that had genotypes with a frequency of over 5 % (i.e. AA, AB and BB), the presence of A was found to be associated with reduced mean fibre diameter (MFD) and increased coefficient of variation in fibre diameter (CVFD), whereas the presence of B had a trend of association with decreased coarse edge measurement (CEM). A genotype effect was also detected for MFD and CVFD. No associations were detected for fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), mean fibre curvature (MFC) and medulation. These results suggest that variation in KRTAP6-1 affects wool fibre diameter in NZ Romney ewes, confirming the finding in Merino cross-breed sheep.

9.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717789

RESUMO

The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are structural components of hair/wool fibres. All of the KAPs identified to date contain cysteine, which is thought to form disulphide bonds cross-linking the keratin intermediate filaments. Here, we report the identification of a KAP gene in sheep that would produce a protein that contains a high proportion (63.2 mol%) of glycine and tyrosine, but would not contain any cysteine. This suggests that other forms of intra- and inter-strand interaction may occur with this KAP, such as interactions via ring-stacking and hydrogen-bonding. The gene was dissimilar to any previously reported KAP gene, and was therefore assigned to a new family, and named KRTAP36-1. The KRTAP36-1 genome sequence was almost identical to some EST sequences from sheep and goat skin follicles, suggesting that it is present and expressed in sheep and goats. A BLAST search of the human genome assembly sequence did not reveal any human homologue. Three variant sequences (named A to C) of ovine KRTAP36-1 were identified and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. One SNP was located 32 bp upstream of the coding region, and all of the others were in the coding region and were nonsynonymous. After correcting for potential linkage to the proximal KRTAP20-1, variant B of KRTAP36-1 was found to be associated with increased prickle factor (PF) in wool, suggesting that variation in the gene may have the potential to be used as gene marker for breeding sheep with lower PF.


Assuntos
Queratinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/genética , Lã/química , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cisteína/genética , Feminino , Glicina/genética , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/química , Domínios Proteicos , Tirosina/genética , Fibra de Lã/normas
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597369

RESUMO

The mammary gland is a crucial tissue for milk synthesis and plays a critical role in the feeding and growth of mammalian offspring. The aim of this study was to use RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to provide a transcriptome profile of the ovine mammary gland at the peak of lactation. Small-Tailed Han (STH) sheep (n = 9) and Gansu Alpine Merino (GAM) sheep (n = 9), breeds with phenotypic differences in milk production traits, were selected for the RNA-Seq analysis. This revealed 74 genes that were more highly expressed in the STHs than in the GAMs. Similarly, 143 genes that were expressed at lower levels in the STHs than in the GAMs, were identified. Gene ontogeny (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with binding and catalytic activities, hematopoietic cell lineages, oxytocin signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. This is the first study of the transcriptome profile of the ovine mammary gland in these Chinese breeds at peak lactation. The results provide for a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in ovine lactation.


Assuntos
Lactação/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461906

RESUMO

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of fatty acids (FA) and plays a central role in de novo lipogenesis in mammals. This study was conducted to ascertain the relative level of expression of the FASN gene (FASN) in tissues from the yak (Bos grunniens), and to search for variation in two regions of yak FASN using polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analyses; it also ascertains whether that variation is associated with yak milk traits. The gene was found to be expressed in twelve tissues, with the highest expression detected in the mammary gland, followed by subcutaneous fat tissue. Two regions of the gene were analyzed in 290 Gannan yaks: A region spanning exon 24-intron 24 and a region spanning exon 34. These regions both produced two PCR-SSCP patterns, which, upon sequencing, represented different DNA sequences. This sequence variation resulted from the presence of three nucleotide substitutions: c.4296+38C/T (intron 24), c.5884A/G, and c.5903G/A, both located in exon 34. The exon 34 substitutions would result in the amino acid substitutions p.Thr1962Ala and p.Gly1968Glu if expressed. Four haplotypes spanning from the exon 24-intron 24 region to exon 34 were identified. Of these, two were common (A1-A2 and B1-A2), and two were rare (A1-B2 and B1-B2) in the yaks investigated. The presence of A1-A2 was associated with an increase in milk fat content (p = 0.050) and total milk solid content (p = 0.037), while diplotype A1-A2/B1-A2 had a higher milk fat content (p = 0.038) than the other diplotypes. This study suggests that further characterization of the FASN gene might provide for an improved understanding of milk traits in yaks.

12.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(7)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315271

RESUMO

Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are key constituents of wool and hair fibers. In this study, an ovine KAP gene encoding a HGT-KAP protein was identified. The gene was different from all of the HGT-KAP genes identified in sheep, but was closely related to the human KAP21-1 gene, suggesting that it represented the unidentified ovine KRTAP21-1. Four variants (named A to D) of ovine KRTAP21-1 were found in 360 Merino × Southdown-cross lambs from four sire lines. Three sequence variations were detected among these variants. Two of the sequence variations were located upstream of the coding region and the remaining one was a synonymous variation in the coding sequence. Six genotypes were found in the Merino-cross lambs, with only two of the genotypes (AA and AC) occurring at a frequency of over 5%. Wool from sheep of genotype AA had a higher yield than that from AC sheep (p = 0.014), but tended to have a lower greasy fleece weight (GFW) than that of genotype AC (P = 0.078). This suggests that variation in KRTAP21-1 affects wool yield and the gene may have potential for use as a genetic maker for improving wool yield.

13.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(2)2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769898

RESUMO

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) plays a key role in the synthesis of animal triglycerides (TGs). This study investigated the relative expression of the DGAT2 gene in tissues, variation in the gene, and its association with carcass and meat quality traits in yaks (Bos grunniens). DGAT2 was found to be expressed in twelve tissues investigated, but the highest expression was detected in subcutaneous fat, and moderate levels were observed in the liver, heart, longissimus dorsi muscle, and abomasum. Three variants (A1 to C1) were found in intron 5 and another three variants (A2 to C2) were found in intron 6, with two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) being identified in each region in 694 Gannan yaks. Variants B1 and C2 were associated with a decrease in Warner⁻Bratzler shear force (WBSF) (p = 0.0020 and p = 0.0441, respectively), and variant C1 was associated with an increase in WBSF (p = 0.0434) and a decrease in drip loss rate (p = 0.0271), whereas variant B2 was associated with a decrease in cooking loss rate (p = 0.0142). Haplotypes A1-A2 and B1-A2 were found to be, respectively, associated with an increase and a decrease in WBSF (p = 0.0191 and p = 0.0010, respectively). These results indicate that DGAT2 could be a useful gene marker for improving meat tenderness in yaks.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(1)2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621287

RESUMO

The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are structural components of cashmere fibres. The gene encoding the high-sulphur (HS)-KAP24-1 (KRTAP24-1) has been identified in humans and sheep, but it has not been described in goats. In this study, we report the identification of caprine KRTAP24-1, describe variation in this gene, and investigate the effect of this variation on cashmere traits. A search for sequences orthologous to the ovine gene in the goat genome revealed a 774 bp open reading frame on chromosome 1, which could encode an HS-KAP. Based on this goat genome sequence and comparison with ovine KRTAP24-1 sequences, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to amplify an 856 bp fragment that would contain the entire coding region of the putative caprine KRTAP24-1. Use of this PCR amplification with subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the amplicons identified four distinct patterns of DNA bands on gel electrophoresis, with these representing four different DNA sequences (A to D), in 340 Longdong cashmere goats reared in China. The variant sequences had the highest similarity to KRTAP24-1 sequences from sheep and humans, suggesting that they are variants of caprine KRTAP24-1. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the gene, including four non-synonymous SNPs and an SNP in proximity to the ATG start codon. Of the three common genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) found in these Longdong cashmere goats, cashmere fibres from goats of genotype AA had lower mean fibre diameter (MFD) than did those of genotype AB, and cashmere fibres from goats of genotype AB had lower MFD than did those from goats of genotype BB.

15.
Cell Tissue Res ; 376(2): 273-279, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612186

RESUMO

In order to investigate the relationship between the expression of OPA1 and Mic60 genes and the shape of mitochondrial cristae and to explore the mechanism of Tibetan sheep adapting to a high altitude hypoxia environment, we investigate respiratory rate, mitochondrial cristae and the expression of OPA1 and Mic60 in four different tissues (myocardial, skeletal muscle, spleen and kidney) in Tibetan sheep and Small Tail Han sheep. Tibetan sheep had a higher respiratory rate than Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.01). In the same tissue, the expression of OPA1 and Mic60 was higher (p < 0.05) in Tibetan sheep than Small Tail Han sheep. Between tissues, the expression of OPA1 and Mic60 was found to be lower (p < 0.05) in spleen than the other three tissues in both breeds. Mitochondrial cristae was dense and clear in myocardial and skeletal muscle but was relatively sparse and slightly swollen in kidney. In spleen, cristae was least and swollen and the gap between the cristae was large. The width of the mitochondrial cristae in the spleen was significantly larger than the width between the inner and outer membranes; however, it had little difference in the other three tissues. The width of mitochondrial cristae was significantly larger in the spleen than that in other tissues (p < 0.05). The numbers of mitochondrial cristae in the four tissues of Tibetan sheep were larger than those in Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05). The unique characters of the mitochondrial cristae in Tibetan sheep may be related to its adaption to a high altitude hypoxia environment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Doença da Altitude/veterinária , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Rim/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Baço/metabolismo , Tibet
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(2): 587-595, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535023

RESUMO

The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are important constituents of wool fibers. Of the many mammalian KAP genes (KRTAPs) identified, KRTAP20-1 has been described in humans, but it has not been described in any other species. A search of the sheep genome using the human KRTAP20-1 sequence revealed a homologous open reading frame on chromosome 1, which would encode a high glycine-tyrosine KAP. PCR-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis identified 8 different banding patterns representing 8 unique DNA sequences (named A to H). The sequences had highest similarity to the human KRTAP20-1 sequence, and this suggests that they are variants of ovine KRTAP20-1. Among these variants, a 12-bp insertion/deletion and 6 single nucleotide poly- morphisms (SNPs), including one 5' untranslated region (UTR) SNP, one 3' UTR SNP, and 2 nonsynonymous SNPs, were detected. Variant A was found to be associated with a decrease in mean fiber diameter, fiber diameter standard deviation, and prickle factor, whereas variant C was associated with increased greasy fleece weight and decreased wool yield. These associations persisted after adjusting for the effect of 2 nearby KRTAPs (KRTAP6-3 and KRTAP22-1) that have also been reported to associate with these wool traits. This suggests that variation in KRTAP20-1 affects wool yield and mean fiber diameter-associated traits, and that this effect is unlikely to be the result of the clustering of these KRTAPs on chromosome 1.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Queratinas/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Glicina/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Tirosina/genética ,
17.
Meat Sci ; 145: 334-339, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015163

RESUMO

Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) participates in fatty-acid transportation and variation in the gene has been reported to affect fat deposition in mammals. To assess the effects of variation in FABP4 on carcass and growth traits in sheep, two regions of the gene were investigated in 749 New Zealand Romney lambs. Five variants (A1 - E1) were found in region-1 (exon 2 - intron 2) and three variants (A2 - C2) were found in region-2 (exon 3 - intron 3). A1 was associated with a decrease in leg meat yield, loin meat yield and total meat yield, whereas A2 was associated with a decrease in weaning-weight and pre-weaning growth-rate. Haplotype A1-A2 was found to be associated with a decrease in birth-weight, pre-weaning growth-rate, hot carcass weight, loin meat yield, shoulder meat yield and total meat yield, while haplotype A1-B2 was associated with increased fat depth at the 12th rib (V-GR). Taken together, this supports the contention that variation in FABP4 affects growth and meat production in sheep.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Haplótipos , Carne/análise , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Éxons , Feminino , Íntrons , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Fenótipo , Costelas , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Ombro , Desmame
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(4)2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601527

RESUMO

Uncoupling protein-1 gene (UCP1) plays an important role in the regulation of thermogenesis, energy expenditure, and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, six separate UCP1 regions: region-1 and region-2 (two parts of the promoter), region-3 and region-4 (two parts of intron 1), region-5 (spanning part of intron 5 and part of exon 6), and region-6 (spanning part of exon 6 and part of the 3'-UTR) from a variety of sheep breeds, were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analyses. In total, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Of these, 14 were located in the promoter, eight were found in intron 1, six were found in intron 5, and one was found in the 3'-UTR. One substitution in exon 6 (c.910A/G) would putatively result in an amino acid change (p.Thr304Ala). Twenty-eight novel SNPs and nine new haplotypes spanning region-2 to region-5 were identified. Of these nine haplotypes, five were common (B2-A5, C2-A5, C2-C5, A2-A5, and A2-B5) and four were rare (C2-B5, A2-C5, B2-C5, and B2-B5) in the sheep investigated. Of the five common haplotypes found in 314 New Zealand Romney sheep for which growth and carcass trait data were available, the presence of A2-B5 was associated with decreased hot carcass weight (HCW) and loin lean-meat yield (p = 0.006, p = 0.032, respectively), and the presence of C2-C5 was associated with a decreased proportion of leg lean-meat yield (p = 0.047) in the carcasses. No associations were found with growth traits. These results confirm that ovine UCP1 is a variable gene and may have value as a genetic marker for sheep breeding.

19.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(11)2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149036

RESUMO

The gene encoding the high glycine/tyrosine keratin-associated protein 20-2 (KAP20-2) gene has been described in humans, but has not been identified in any livestock species. A search for similar sequences in the caprine genome using the human KAP20-2 gene (KRTAP20-2) revealed a homologous sequence on chromosome 1. Three different banding patterns representing distinct sequences (A-C) in Longdong cashmere goats were identified using polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. These sequences shared high sequence similarity with the human and mouse KRTAP20-2 sequences, suggesting that A-C are caprine variants of the human and mouse genes. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, and three of them were non-synonymous. KRTAP20-2 was found to be expressed in secondary hair follicles, but not in heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, or longissimus dorsi muscle. The presence of A was associated with increased cashmere fibre weight, while the presence of B was associated with a decrease in cashmere fibre weight and curly fibre length. Goats with genotype AA had a higher cashmere fibre weight and a higher curly fibre length than those with genotypes AB or BB. These results indicate that caprine KRTAP20-2 variation may have value as a genetic marker for improving cashmere fibre weight.

20.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(9)2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902131

RESUMO

Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are structural components of wool and hair fibres, and are believed to play a role in defining the physico-mechanical properties of the wool fibre. In this study, the putative ovine homologue of the human KAP26-1 gene (KRTAP26-1) was sequenced and four variants (named A-D) were identified. The sequences shared some identity with each other and with other KRTAPs, but they had the greatest similarity with the human KRTAP26-1 sequence. This suggests they represent different variants of ovine KRTAP26-1. The association of these KRTAP26-1 variants with wool traits was investigated in the 383 Merino-Southdown cross sheep. The presence of B was associated (p < 0.05) with an increase in mean fibre diameter (MFD), mean fibre curvature, and prickle factor (PF). The presence of C was found to be associated (p < 0.05) with an increase in wool yield (Yield) and mean staple length (MSL), and a decrease in MFD, fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), and PF. The results suggest that sheep with C have, on average, higher wool quality. These results may be useful in the future development of breeding programs based on decreasing wool MFD and FDSD, or on increasing wool MSL.

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