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Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(1): e5254, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605575


Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (PCC) and Atractylodis Rhizoma (AR) are frequently used as herb pair to treat eczema and gout owing to their synergistic effects. Alkaloids are the major ingredients from PCC and the effect of their combination on the in vivo processing of alkaloids remains unclear. In this study, a simple and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of six alkaloids in rat plasma was developed. This method was applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study between PCC and PCC-AR in rats. Effect of AR on absorption of alkaloids was investigated by a single-pass intestinal perfusion study. The effect of AR on urinary excretion of alkaloids was studied. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the values of rea under the concentration-time curve of phellodendrine, magnoflorine and palmatine were greater in the PCC-AR group than in the PCC group. The intestinal absorptive parameters absorption rate constant and effective permeability of phellodendrine and jatrorrhizine in PCC-AR groups were higher than those in the PCC group. Urinary excretion studies revealed that the excreted amount of alkaloids in the PCC-AR group was lower than that in the PCC group. The results revealed that the combination of PCC and AR improves intestinal absorption of alkaloids and reduces their urinary excretion, which enhances their systemic exposure. This study may explain the synergetic effects of PCC and AR in clinical applications.

Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/sangue , Alcaloides/farmacocinética , Alcaloides/urina , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
Food Res Int ; 150(Pt A): 110717, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865748


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a worldwide concern in recent years. Coix seed (CS) as a homologous substance of traditional Chinese medicine and food, its polysaccharides can improve the symptoms of patients with metabolic disorders. Since most plant polysaccharides are difficult to digest and absorb, we hypothesized that Coix seed polysaccharides (CSP) exert hypoglycemic effects through the gut. In this study, the underlying mechanisms regulating hypoglycemic effects of CSP on a T2DM mouse model were investigated. After treatment with CSP, serum insulin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased, while total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were decreased in T2DM mice. In addition, CSP treatment helped repair the intestinal barrier and modulated the gut microbial composition in T2DM mice, mainly facilitating the growth of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, Spearman's analysis revealed these bacteria were positively related with the hypoglycemic efficacy of CSP. Colonic transcriptome analysis indicated the hypoglycemic effect of CSP was associated with the activation of the IGF1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Correlative analysis revealed that this activation may result from the increase of SCFAs-producing bacteria by CSP. GC-MS detection verified that CSP treatment increased fecal SCFAs levels. Molecular docking revealed that SCFAs could bind with IGF1, PI3K, and AKT. Our findings demonstrated that CSP treatment modulates gut microbial composition, especially of the SCFAs-producing bacteria, activates the IGF1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, and exhibits hypoglycemic efficacy.

Coix , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Coix/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(23): 6271-6277, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951254


The present study investigated the differences in pharmacokinetics and intestinal absorption of six alkaloids in Sanmiao Pills and Simiao Pills in rats and explored the different efficacies of the two formulae. After oral administration of Sanmiao Pills and Simiao Pills in rats, blood samples were collected at different time points. Samples were prepared for the determination of six alkaloids in plasma by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatography was performed on an ACE Excel 3 C_(18 )column with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Analytes were detected in the positive ion mode. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Intestinal absorption of alkaloids was investigated by single-pass intestinal perfusion and absorption parameters of ingredients were calculated. The results showed that the UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of concentrations of six alkaloids in plasma was developed and validated by methodological investigations, such as specificity, calibration curves, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, and stability. The results of the pharmacokinetic assay revealed that C_(max) and AUC values of phellodendrine, berberine, magnoflorine, berberrubine, and jatrorrhizine in Simiao Pills were significantly increased, and CL/F values were reduced as compared with those in Sanmiao Pills, which indicated the increase in plasma concentrations of alkaloids. The intestinal absorption parameters K_(a )and P_(eff) values of phellodendrine, berberine, and jatrorrhizine in Simiao Pills were higher than those in Sanmiao Pills. The intestinal absorption and plasma concentrations of alkaloids in Simiao Pills were significantly higher than those in Sanmiao Pills, suggesting that the composition of Simiao Pills was more conducive to the alkaloids into the blood to resist inflammation and lower uric acid.

Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Absorção Intestinal , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
Phytomedicine ; 82: 153458, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486267


BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with high morbidity, which leads to poor quality of life. The Xianglian pill (XLP) is a classical Chinese patent medicine and has been clinically proven to be an effective treatment for UC. PURPOSE: The pharmacological mechanism of the key bioactive ingredients of XLP for the treatment of UC was investigated by a network pharmacology and pharmacokinetics integrated strategy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Network pharmacology was used to analyze the treatment effect of nine quantified XLP ingredients on UC. Key pathways were enriched and analyzed by protein-protein interaction and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. The effect of XLP on Th17 cell differentiation was validated using a mouse model of UC. The binding of nine compounds with JAk2, STAT3, HIF-1α, and HSP90AB1 was assessed using molecular docking. A simple and reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of nine ingredients from XLP in plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study following oral administration. RESULTS: Nine compounds of XLP, including coptisine, berberine, magnoflorine,berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, and dehydrocostus lactone, were detected. Network pharmacology revealed 50 crossover genes between the nine compoundsand UC. XLP treats UC mainly by regulating key pathways of the immune system, including Th17 cell differentiation, Jak-Stat, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. An in vivo validation in mice found that XLP inhibits Th17 cell differentiation by suppressing the Jak2-Stat3 pathway, which alleviates mucosal inflammation in UC. Molecular docking confirmed that eight compounds are capable of binding with JAk2, HIF-1α, and HSP90AB1, further confirming the inhibitory effect of XLP on the Jak2-Stat3 pathway. Moreover, apharmacokinetic study revealed that the nine ingredients of XLP are exposed in the plasma and colon tissue, which demonstrates its pharmacological effect on UC. CONCLUSION: This study evaluates the clinical treatment efficacy of XLP for UC. The network pharmacology and pharmacokinetics integrated strategy evaluation paradigm is efficient in discovering the key pharmacological mechanism of herbal formulae.

Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos