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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 717069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671316

RESUMO

Objectives: Nationwide studies focusing on the impact of early-onset type 2 diabetes and obesity on the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are limited in China. We aimed to investigate the association between age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and the risk of CVD, and to further examine the modifying effect of obesity on this association among Chinese adults. Methods: This study included 23,961 participants with previously diagnosed diabetes from a large nationwide population-based cohort study across mainland China. With an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, we collected detailed information on CVDs. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of CVDs associated with age at diagnosis of diabetes. Results: Compared with patients with late-onset diabetes (≥60 years), those with earlier-onset diabetes had increased risks for CVD, with adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 1.72 (1.36-2.17), 1.52 (1.31-1.75) and 1.33 (1.19-1.48) for patients diagnosed aged <40, 40-49 and 50-59 years, respectively. Each 5-year earlier age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with 14% increased risk of CVD (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.11-1.18). This association was more prominent for patients with obesity than those with normal body mass index (BMI). Significant interaction was detected between age at diagnosis and BMI categories on CVD risk (P for interaction=0.0457). Conclusion: Early-onset type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with higher risk of CVD, and this association was more prominent among patients with obesity.

2.
Metabolism ; 124: 154874, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517014

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further test the joint effects and interactions between NAFLD status and individual metabolic element, as well as the total 'ABCs' metabolic goal achievement, on the CVD and CKD risk among 101,296 patients with prediabetes or diabetes from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We conducted the study based on the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) study, a large-scale, population-based prospective cohort. After excluding alcohol abuse and other cause of hepatic diseases, we used fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 as a proxy of NAFLD and stratified the probability of fibrosis by aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio (AAR) with cut-offs of 0.8 and 1.4. 'ABCs' metabolic goal was defined as subjects who had HbA1c < 6.5% (A), SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg (B), and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (C). During 3.8 years follow-up, we validated 2340 CVD events based on medical records and identified 1943 participants developed CKD based on centrally tested eGFR. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.27) for CVD events and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.20-1.48) for CKD among NAFLD patients, compared with participants without NAFLD. Of NAFLD patients, relative to individuals with low AAR (<0.8), those with high AAR (≥1.4) were more likely to experience CVD events [1.62 (1.21-2.18)] and CKD [1.63 (1.17-2.28)]. Participants with NAFLD and comorbid poorly controlled metabolic risk factors had higher risk of CVD events or CKD than having either alone, with a significant interaction between poor glycemic control and NAFLD on the risk of vascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was associated with incident CVD and CKD among patients with prediabetes or diabetes. Such associations were substantially modified by the comprehensive achievement of metabolic goal.

3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109039, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481909

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess the effects of the hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) on hyperglycemia diagnosis and summarize the general characteristics of patients with a high-HGI phenotype. METHODS: The fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of participants (n = 47,648) were used to estimate a linear regression equation and determine the baseline HGI. Overall, 42,317 participants without a history of diabetes were included in the final analysis. The participants were divided into three groups according to the tertiles (low, moderate, and high) of baseline HGI. Proportions and variables were compared among the three HGI groups. A multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used to explore associations between related variables and the high-HGI phenotype. RESULTS: Regression analysis indicated that the high-HGI phenotype was positively associated with female sex, advanced age, obesity, increased low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and postprandial glycemic excursion levels (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased from the low- to the high-HGI groups when using HbA1c for diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with high HGI have similar clinical characteristics. Measuring HbA1c alone for diagnosis could lead to inappropriate diabetes management decisions in people with low or high HGI.

4.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5038130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567111

RESUMO

The protein-kinase-R- (PKR-) like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway is a well-known promoter of cell apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether salubrinal (Sal), a selective activator of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), can induce apoptosis of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell via activating the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling pathway, and the potential mechanisms of this action were explored. The ACC cell lines, including SW-13 and NCI-H295 R, were used. 3-(4,5)-Dimethylthiazol(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay, cell scratch experiments, flow cytometry, and JC-1 staining assays were performed to detect the cell viability, cell migration, and cell apoptosis. The expression of PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling-pathway-related proteins and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blot (WB). Intracellular Ca2+ ion concentration was determined by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The results showed that Sal inhibited the migration and proliferation of ACC cells. Sal remarkably increased the influx of Ca2+ ion and the apoptosis rate of ACC cells in vitro. Furthermore, the expression levels of PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling-related proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were upregulated in the treatment of Sal. The research demonstrated that Sal reduces the cell viability, increases the intracellular calcium concentration, and promotes the apoptosis of ACC cells in vitro through increasing the phosphorylation level of eIF2α and activating the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling. PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 is expected to act as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.

5.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational hyperglycemia increases the risk of diabetes in later life. However, the risk of future cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to gestational hyperglycemia remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gestational hyperglycemia on the subsequent risk of CVD and its modifying factors among elderly Chinese women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of elderly women from the baseline survey of Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. Women with gestational hyperglycemia (n = 82), and controls matched by age and study site (n = 410) were included. Information on CVD, including reported coronary heart disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction, was collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. RESULTS: Women with gestational hyperglycemia were more likely to develop diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-4.18) and CVD (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.05-3.74). Even without progressing to type 2 diabetes, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.18-7.00). However, subgroup analysis indicated that compared with those without gestational hyperglycemia or hypertension, women with both gestational hyperglycemia and hypertension had higher risk of CVD (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.65-9.58), whereas the risk estimate did not significantly change in women with gestational hyperglycemia alone (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 0.71-6.57). Stratified analysis indicated that among those with overweight/obesity, inactive physical activity, or unhealthy dietary habits, gestational hyperglycemia increased the risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly Chinese women, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD in later life. This association was independent of the progression to diabetes and might be modified by lifestyle factors and hypertension.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between individual and combined cardiometabolic morbidities and incident cardiovascular events in Chinese adults. DESIGN: A prospective, nationwide, and population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 133572 participants aged ≥ 40 years were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. RESULTS: Compared with participants without diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, participants with only diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.90) or only hypertension (2.04; 1.82-2.28) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD events, while participants with only dyslipidemia (0.97; 0.84-1.12) exhibited no significantly higher risk for CVD events. When analyzed collectively, participants with diabetes plus hypertension (HR, 2.67; 95%CI, 2.33-3.06), diabetes plus dyslipidemia (1.57; 1.32-1.87), and hypertension plus dyslipidemia (2.12; 1.88-2.39) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD. Moreover, participants with the combination of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibited the highest risk for CVD events (HR, 3.06; 95%CI, 2.71-3.46). Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for CVD associated with diabetes based on fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L, oral glucose tolerance test-2h glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L, and hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% were 1.64 (1.51-1.78), 1.57 (1.45-1.69), and 1.54 (1.42-1.66), respectively; associated with hypertension based on systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg were 1.89 (1.76-2.03) and 1.74 (1.60-1.88), respectively; associated with dyslipidemia based on total cholesterol ≥6.22 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4.14 mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.04 mmol/L, and triglycerides ≥2.26 mmol/L were 1.18 (1.08-1.30), 1.30 (1.17-1.44), 1.00 (0.92-1.09), and 1.10 (1.01-1.20), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia showed additive associations with the risk of CVD events in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

7.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(11): 2551-2560, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322974

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations of metabolic abnormalities with incident diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and to explore whether dyslipidaemia, particularly high fasting triglyceride (TG), was associated with the development of DKD. METHODS: In total, 11 142 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were followed up during 2011-2016. Incident DKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship of metabolic abnormalities at baseline and at follow-up with risks of DKD. High TG was defined by TG ≥1.70 mmol/L. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was defined by HDL-c <1.0 mmol/L for men or <1.3 mmol/L for women. RESULTS: Participants who developed DKD had higher levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, and lower levels of HDL-c at both baseline and follow-up visits. The DKD group also had higher levels of post-load plasma glucose and TG at follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both high TG at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, p = .012) and high TG at follow-up (OR = 1.71, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risks of DKD. Patients with high TG levels at both baseline and follow-up had higher risk of DKD compared with constantly normal TG (OR = 1.65, p < .001) after adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes, a high TG level was an independent risk factor for the development of DKD. Tight TG control might delay the occurrence of DKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Neoplasias , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
8.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed at a younger age worldwide and in China. Limited data are available regarding the association between age at diabetes diagnosis and risks of albuminuria. This study sought to examine the independent effect of age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on the risk of albuminuria. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide multicenter study with 207 961 participants in mainland China. Age, sex, and study site were matched for 31 366 screen-detected type 2 diabetes cases and 31 366 normal controls. Age, sex, study site, and diabetes duration were matched for 7490 self-reported type 2 diabetes cases and 7490 normal controls. Risks of having albuminuria in matched type 2 diabetes vs controls were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis in strata of age at diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: Although the absolute rate of albuminuria is higher in older adults, the odds ratio of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes vs matched controls decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. For participants with diabetes diagnosed at an age of <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, or ≥70 years, the multivariable adjusted risk of albuminuria increased by 81%, 60%, 45%, and 33% for screen-detected diabetes, and 135%, 121%, 90%, and 58% for self-reported diabetes compared with their normal controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A younger age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is associated with a more significantly elevated risk of albuminuria than an older age at diagnosis in Chinese adults.

9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 2415-2425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093028

RESUMO

Background: Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a powerful marker of visceral obesity is an independent risk factor of chronic kidney disease. The present study attempted to explore the association between LAP and albuminuria in prediabetic individuals. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 26,529 participants with prediabetes over 40 years old with prediabetes from seven provinces in China. LAP was calculated from waist circumference and fasting triglycerides. Elevated albuminuria was defined by urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (uACR) ≥30 mg/g. Propensity score matching was applied to reduce bias, comparison between LAP and other traditional visceral obesity indices was performed and multiple logistic regression models were conducted to assess the association between LAP and albuminuria in the prediabetic population. Results: Individuals with uACR ≥30 mg/g were older and had higher BP, BMI, WC, TG, fasting insulin, glycohemoglobin and LAP, as well as lower eGFR and HDL level. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed elevated LAP was associated with increased odds of albuminuria (OR [95%CI]Q2 vs Q1 1.09 [0.94, 1.27], OR [95%CI]Q3 vs Q1 1.13 [0.97, 1.31], OR [95%CI]Q4 vs Q1 1.42 [1.21, 1.67], P for trend=0.018), and superior over waist-to-hip ratio or waist-to-height ratio. Stratification indicated that the prediabetic population with higher LAP level and characterized by female gender, middle age, being overweight, and rise in blood pressure were more likely to have increased uACR. Conclusion: Elevated level of LAP was associated with increased albuminuria in the prediabetic population in China.

10.
Oncol Lett ; 21(6): 476, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907586

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an endocrine tumour with high malignancy, high invasiveness and poor prognosis. Curcumin, a major component in turmeric, has been reported to have good efficacy and biological safety in treating cancer. However, the role and mechanism of curcumin in ACC have not yet been fully investigated and were thus the focus of this study. In vitro, ACC SW-13 and NCI-H295R cells were treated with curcumin and their viability, migration and invasion were assessed by CCK-8 and Transwell assays. Apoptosis was detected via flow cytometry and western blotting. High-throughput sequencing and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to elucidate the molecular processes underlying curcumin activity. In vivo, SW-13 cells were injected into nude mice, and the tumour volumes and weights were observed after 2 weeks of curcumin treatment. Organelle changes were observed by electron microscopy, and potential candidate genes and pathways were analysed by RT-qPCR and western blotting. The role of the CHOP target gene in curcumin-induced ACC cell apoptosis was verified via lentiviral transfection experiments. Curcumin inhibited the viability, migration and invasion, and induced the apoptosis of ACC cells. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that curcumin treatment markedly changed the gene expression levels. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses showed that the MAPK and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways were the predominant pathways associated with curcumin-induced apoptosis of ACC cells. Subsequent in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that the JNK, p38 MAPK and ER stress pathways were activated in curcumin-treated ACC cells, and that C/EBP homologous protein induction was responsible for curcumin-induced apoptosis of ACC cells. In summary, curcumin induced ACC cell apoptosis and inhibited tumour growth by activating the JNK, p38 MAPK and ER stress pathways. Thus, curcumin may be a potential therapeutic drug for ACC.

11.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930500, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Tacrolimus may be effective in the short-term treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). However, it is not clear whether an electron microscopic classification of the homogeneous and heterogeneous types of nephrotic IMN is related to the efficacy of tacrolimus in patients with IMN. This study aimed to explore this question and to provide evidence for individualized patient treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS This 6-month retrospective study included 61 Chinese patients previously diagnosed with IMN. Patients received treatment was tacrolimus plus glucocorticoid. The patients were divided into a homogeneous group and a heterogeneous group based on the evaluation of electron-dense deposits. The initial clinicopathologic factors in the 2 groups were analyzed, and the difference in efficacy of tacrolimus in the 2 groups was assessed. The factors predicting remission were also studied. RESULTS No significant alteration in the initial clinicopathologic status was found between the 2 groups, except for proteinuria, serum albumin levels, systolic blood pressure, and renal biopsy results (stages I/II/III/IV). After 3 months of treatment, the difference in remission was not significant between the 2 groups. However, after 6 months of treatment, a significant difference in remission rates was observed between the 2 groups. The binary logistic model showed that the homogeneous nephrotic IMN was independently associated with total remission (partial plus complete remission), and was also related to complete remission. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study revealed that the homogeneous type of nephrotic IMN had a higher short-term remission rate and a predictive value for partial or complete remission, and it might be a meaningful marker of the short-term response to tacrolimus.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/diagnóstico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Néfrons/patologia , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Adulto , China , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Diabetes ; 13(11): 857-867, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration were found to be associated with diabetes. However, the results are inconsistent. Also, no epidemiological studies have examined the association of these reproductive factors with diabetes in the same large population. We aim to investigate the associations between parity, pregnancy loss, breastfeeding duration, and the risk of maternal diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese females. METHODS: We included 131 174 females aged ≥40 years from the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal Study). Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the association between parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: The number of parities and breastfeeding duration were positively related to fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postload glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Compared with those with one birth, nulliparous women or women with 2 or ≥3 births had a significantly increased risk of diabetes. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.27 (1.10-1.48), 1.17 (1.12-1.22), and 1.28 (1.21-1.35), respectively. Compared with women without pregnancy loss, those who underwent 2 (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14) or ≥3 pregnancy losses (OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18) had an increased risk of diabetes. Moreover, women with a breastfeeding duration ≥0 to 6 months (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) and ≥6 to 12 months (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99) had a significantly lower risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous women or women with multiparity or more than one pregnancy loss have an increased risk of diabetes in later life, while women who breastfeed more than 0 to 12 months have a lower risk of diabetes.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1555-1561, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that a high baseline triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, for a low TyG index, findings have been inconsistent. Moreover, the association between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM in individuals with normal glycemic levels remains unclear. Therefore, this longitudinal study further examined and characterized the association between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM in Japanese adults with normal glycemic levels. . METHODS: The participants (7857 men and 6440 women) were selected from the NAGALA (NAfld in the Gifu Area Longitudinal Analysis) study that was conducted from 2004 to 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the associations between baseline TyG index and T2DM incidence, and a two-piecewise linear regression model was used to examine the threshold effect of the baseline TyG index on incident T2DM using a smoothing function. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 5.26 (women) and 5.88 (men) years, 47 women and 182 men developed T2DM. The risk of T2DM was strongly associated with the baseline TyG index in the fully adjusted model in men but not in women, and no dose-dependent positive relationship between incident T2DM and the TyG index was observed across the TyG tertiles. Interestingly, the two-piecewise linear regression analysis revealed a U-shaped association between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM. Baseline TyG index lower than the threshold values (TyG index < 7.27 in women and <7.97 in men) were negatively associated with incident T2DM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01-0.93, P = 0.0435 for women and HR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08-0.57, P = 0.0021 for men). In contrast, baseline TyG index higher than the threshold values (TyG index > 7.27 in women and >7.97 in men) were positively associated with incident T2DM (HR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.20-6.34, P = 0.0166 for women and HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.66-3.53, P < 0.0001 for men). CONCLUSIONS: A U-shaped association was observed between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM in a Japanese population.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Medição de Risco/métodos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline used eGFR and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) to categorize risks for CKD prognosis. The utility of KDIGO's stratification of major CVD risks and predictive ability beyond traditional CVD risk prediction scores are unknown. METHODS: To evaluate CVD risks on the basis of ACR and eGFR (individually, together, and in combination using the KDIGO risk categories) and with the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score, we studied 115,366 participants in the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort study. Participants (aged ≥40 years and without a history of cardiovascular disease) were examined prospectively for major CVD events, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: During 415,111 person-years of follow-up, 2866 major CVD events occurred. Incidence rates and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of CVD events increased significantly across the KDIGO risk categories in ASCVD risk strata (all P values for log-rank test and most P values for trend in Cox regression analysis <0.01). Increases in c statistic for CVD risk prediction were 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02) in the overall study population and 0.03 (0.01 to 0.04) in participants with diabetes, after adding eGFR and log(ACR) to a model including the ASCVD risk score. In addition, adding eGFR and log(ACR) to a model with the ASCVD score resulted in significantly improved reclassification of CVD risks (net reclassification improvements, 4.78%; 95% confidence interval, 3.03% to 6.41%). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary ACR and eGFR (individually, together, and in combination using KDIGO risk categories) may be important nontraditional risk factors in stratifying and predicting major CVD events in the Chinese population.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 332: 209-215, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive adiposity in adulthood is positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is less studied how the risk is separately explained by early adulthood weight and later weight change, especially in Asian ancestries. METHODS: This study included 121160 participants in a large population-based cohort in China. Body weight at 20 and 40 years of age wase self-reported. Information on CVD history was obtained through standard questionnaires. RESULTS: The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31) for coronary heart disease (CHD), 1.74 (95% CI, 1.36-2.22) for myocardial infarction (MI), 1.14 (95% CI, 0.99-1.32) for stroke and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12-1.31) for total CVD among individuals with early overweight, and became more prominent for early obesity. Meanwhile, A moderate weight gain of 2.5 kg between early adulthood and midlife significantly increased the risk of CHD (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.32), stroke (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.38) and total CVD (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.27), and the risk escalated with higher amounts of weight gain. Conversely, a weight loss of 2.5 kg conferred lower risk of CVD compared with a stable weight. In further cross-analysis, participants with early adulthood overweight or obesity and significant weight gain afterwards exhibited the greatest risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: High early adulthood BMI and subsequent weight gain had both independent and combined effect on the risk of CVD after midlife. Therefore, weight management should start before early adulthood, and emphasized throughout adulthood for CVD prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040214, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between obesity and albuminuria has not been clarified. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between obesity and the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in Southern and Northern China. DESIGN: A descriptive, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Eight regional centres in REACTION (China's Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals, a lONgitudinal study), including Dalian, Lanzhou, Zhengzhou, Guangzhou, Guangxi, Luzhou, Shanghai and Wuhan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 41 085 patients who were not diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and had good compliance were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Patients who were diagnosed with CKD, who had other kidney diseases that could lead to increased urinary protein excretion, who were using angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and whose important data were missing were excluded. RESULTS: Participants with both, central and peripheral obesity, had a higher risk of elevated UACR, even after adjusting for multiple factors (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.12, p<0.001), and the risk of high UACR in the South was more prominent than that in the North (OR South: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.34; OR North: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.22, p<0.001). The risk was also elevated in the male population, hypertensive individuals, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)≥6.5% and age ≥60 years in the South. Besides the above groups, diabetes was also a risk factor for the Northern population. CONCLUSIONS: In China, people with both central and peripheral obesity are prone to a high UACR, and the southern population has a higher risk than northern population. Factors such as male sex, hypertension, HbA1c≥6.5% and an age ≥60 years are also risk factors for CKD.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Obesidade , Idoso , Albuminas , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Diabetes ; 13(6): 458-468, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at menarche was reported to be associated with the risk of diabetes. However, the impact of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) on the association between age at menarche and adulthood diabetes risk was unclear. METHODS: We included 121 431 women from the nationwide, population-based cohort of the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: a Longitudinal Study). The diagnosis of diabetes was based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement. Logistic regression and multiplicative interaction analysis were conducted to investigate the potential interaction effect between age at menarche and ICVHMs on the development of diabetes. RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of diabetes across categories of age at menarche (<14, 14-17, and > 17 years) were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17, 1.28), 1.00 (reference), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.93), respectively. In subgroup analysis, significant interactions were detected between total cholesterol/blood pressure levels and age at menarche regarding the risk of diabetes (P for interaction = .0091 and .0019, respectively). The increased risk associated with age at menarche <14 years was observed in participants with three or fewer ICVHMs, but not in women with four or more ICVHMs (P for interaction = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Age at menarche was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes in adulthood in Chinese women, and it appeared to be modified by the presence of ICVHMs. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise interrelationship and the generalizability of our results.

18.
J Diabetes ; 13(6): 494-505, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The excretion of low-level albuminuria (LLA) elevates as the prevalence of CVD increases. However, few studies have explored the association between NAFLD and LLA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 31 147 Chinese adults (7664 men and 23 483 women). The "normal" level of albuminuria as determined by the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) was below 30 mg/g. LLA was defined as a higher level within the "normal" albuminuria range (5.54 mg/g < LLA≤29.9 mg/g). The participants with NAFLD were defined as having a fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60. The FLI was calculated using the Bedogni equation. RESULTS: A positive association was found between UACR and FLI through multivariate linear regression analyses (nonstandardized ß ± SE: .047 ± 0.004, P <.001). The logistic regression analyses revealed that NAFLD had adjusted odds ratios (ORs) showing a significant relationship with LLA in models 1 to 4 (all subjects: OR, 1.207; 95% CI, 1.098-1.326; women: OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.26-1.63; all P <.001); however, we did not find significant adjusted ORs among the men. In the stratified analyses, the relationship between NAFLD and LLA was significant among postmenopausal women with a body mass index ≥24 but <28 kg/m2 , fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 but <7.0 mmol/L, or postprandial plasma glucose ≥7.8 but <11.1 mmol/L and those aged below 60 years without moderate-intensity exercise. CONCLUSIONS: A noteworthy association between NAFLD and LLA was found among postmenopausal women who had borderline blood glucose values, were overweight, and did not engage in moderate-intensity physical activity.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 44(2): 499-510, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive assessment of serum bile acids (BAs) aberrations before diabetes onset remains inconclusive. We examined the association of serum BA profile and coregulation with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among normoglycemic Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested 23 serum BA species in subjects with incident diabetes (n = 1,707) and control subjects (n = 1,707) matched by propensity score (including age, sex, BMI, and fasting glucose) from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study, which was composed of 54,807 normoglycemic Chinese adults with a median follow-up of 3.03 years. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for associations of BAs with T2DM were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis, per SD increment of unconjugated primary and secondary BAs were inversely associated with incident diabetes, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for cholic acid, 0.90 (0.84-0.97) for chenodeoxycholic acid, and 0.90 (0.83-0.96) for deoxycholic acid (P < 0.05 and false discovery rate <0.05). On the other hand, conjugated primary BAs (glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, and sulfated glycochenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary BA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) were positively related with incident diabetes, with ORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.19 (95% CIs ranging between 1.05 and 1.28). In a fully adjusted model additionally adjusted for liver enzymes, HDL cholesterol, diet, 2-h postload glucose, HOMA-insulin resistance, and waist circumference, the risk estimates were similar. Differential correlation network analysis revealed that perturbations in intraclass (i.e., primary and secondary) and interclass (i.e., unconjugated and conjugated) BA coregulation preexisted before diabetes onset. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal novel changes in BAs exist before incident T2DM and support a potential role of BA metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
FEBS Open Bio ; 11(3): 866-879, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340447

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have shown that nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can inhibit not only ageing but also oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions by improving energy metabolism. However, the role of NMN in regulating the anti-apoptotic, antioxidative stress and inflammatory responses of brain microvascular endothelial cells is still unknown. Therefore, here we studied the effects of NMN on H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage of bEnd.3 cells. In this study, we found that NMN could inhibit the NF-κBp65 inflammatory signalling pathway and increase the expression of the enzymes NAMPT, VEGF and eNOS, alleviating H2 O2 -induced apoptosis in bEnd.3 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that NMN reduces H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and improves cell functions by inhibiting the NF-κBp65 inflammatory pathway and increasing NAMPT expression.

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