Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 522
Filtrar
1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544954

RESUMO

Alkylated DNA repair protein AlkB homolog 8 (ALKBH8) is a member of the AlkB family of dioxygenases. ALKBH8 is a methyltransferase of the highly variable wobble nucleoside position in the anticodon loop of tRNA and thus plays a critical role in tRNA modification by preserving codon recognition and preventing errors in amino acid incorporation during translation. Moreover, its activity catalyzes uridine modifications that are proposed to be critical for accurate protein translation. Previously, two distinct homozygous truncating variants in the final exon of ALKBH8 were described in two unrelated large Saudi Arabian kindreds with intellectual developmental disorder and autosomal recessive 71 (MRT71) syndrome (MIM# 618504). Here, we report a third family-of Egyptian descent-harboring a novel homozygous frame-shift variant in the last exon of ALKBH8. Two affected siblings in this family exhibit global developmental delay and intellectual disability as shared characteristic features of MRT71 syndrome, and we further characterize their observed dysmorphic features and brain MRI findings. This description of a third family with a truncating ALKBH8 variant from a distinct population broadens the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of MRT71 syndrome, affirms that perturbations in tRNA biogenesis can contribute to neurogenetic disease traits, and firmly establishes ALKBH8 as a novel neurodevelopmental disease gene.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443317

RESUMO

The Mediator multiprotein complex functions as a regulator of RNA polymerase II-catalyzed gene transcription. In this study, exome sequencing detected biallelic putative disease-causing variants in MED27, encoding Mediator complex subunit 27, in 16 patients from 11 families with a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome. Patient phenotypes are highly homogeneous, including global developmental delay, intellectual disability, axial hypotonia with distal spasticity, dystonic movements, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Seizures and cataracts were noted in severely affected individuals. Identification of multiple patients with biallelic MED27 variants supports the critical role of MED27 in normal human neural development, particularly for the cerebellum. ANN NEUROL 2021.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(3): 990-994, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372375

RESUMO

Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS) is a very rare genetic condition. The clinical spectrum is very broad and variable. The phenotype and evolution in a Congolese boy with XGS have been reported. At 6 years he had speech delay, drooling, marked hyperactivity, attention deficit, aggressive behavior, and intellectual disability. Dysmorphological evaluation revealed strabismus, mild unilateral ptosis, uplifted ear lobes, flat philtrum, thin upper lip vermillion, high arched palate, and flat feet. Patient-only whole exome sequencing identified a known pathogenic frameshift variant in the AHDC1 gene [NM_001029882.3(AHDC1):c.1122dupC;(p.Gly375ArgfsTer3)]. The clinical follow-up revealed the deterioration of his fine motor skills and significant cerebellar phenotype including tremor, pes cavus, and gait instability at the age of 12 years. This patient was compared with three previously reported patients with the same variant but did not identify a consistent pattern in the evolution of symptoms with age.

4.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 82: 84-86, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260061

RESUMO

Mitochondria membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) neurodegenerative disorder is typically associated with biallelic C19orf12 variants. Here we describe a new and review candidate previous monoallelic de novo C19orf12 variants to define loss of function mutations located in the putative non-membrane spanning C19orf12 isoform as the potential basis of monoallelic MPAN.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105479

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies (NMIHBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severe intellectual disability. Microcephaly, progressive cortical atrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia and delayed myelination are neurological hallmarks in affected individuals. NMIHBA is caused by biallelic variants in PRUNE1 encoding prune exopolyphosphatase 1. We provide in-depth clinical description of two affected siblings harboring compound heterozygous variant alleles, c.383G > A (p.Arg128Gln), c.520G > T (p.Gly174*) in PRUNE1. To gain insights into disease biology, we biochemically characterized missense variants within the conserved N-terminal aspartic acid-histidine-histidine (DHH) motif and provide evidence that they result in the destabilization of protein structure and/or loss of exopolyphosphatase activity. Genetic ablation of Prune1 results in midgestational lethality in mice, associated with perturbations to embryonic growth and vascular development. Our findings suggest that NMIHBA results from hypomorphic variant alleles in humans and underscore the potential key role of PRUNE1 exopolyphoshatase activity in neurodevelopment.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048444

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia and a distinctive facial appearance. Previous studies have revealed locus heterogeneity with rare variants in DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A underlying the etiology of RS. The aforementioned "Robinow-associated genes" and their gene products all play a role in the WNT/planar cell polarity signaling pathway. We performed gene-targeted Sanger sequencing, exome sequencing, genome sequencing, and array comparative genomic hybridization on four subjects with a clinical diagnosis of RS who had not had prior DNA testing. Individuals in our cohort were found to carry pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in three RS related genes: DVL1, ROR2, and NXN. One subject was found to have a nonsense variant (c.817C > T [p.Gln273*]) in NXN in trans with an ~1 Mb telomeric deletion on chromosome 17p containing NXN, which supports our contention that biallelic NXN variant alleles are responsible for a novel autosomal recessive RS locus. These findings provide increased understanding of the role of WNT signaling in skeletal development and maintenance. These data further support the hypothesis that dysregulation of the noncanonical WNT pathway in humans gives rise to RS.

9.
J Clin Invest ; 130(10): 5272-5286, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865517

RESUMO

Human natural killer cell deficiency (NKD) arises from inborn errors of immunity that lead to impaired NK cell development, function, or both. Through the understanding of the biological perturbations in individuals with NKD, requirements for the generation of terminally mature functional innate effector cells can be elucidated. Here, we report a cause of NKD resulting from compound heterozygous mutations in minichromosomal maintenance complex member 10 (MCM10) that impaired NK cell maturation in a child with fatal susceptibility to CMV. MCM10 has not been previously associated with monogenic disease and plays a critical role in the activation and function of the eukaryotic DNA replisome. Through evaluation of patient primary fibroblasts, modeling patient mutations in fibroblast cell lines, and MCM10 knockdown in human NK cell lines, we have shown that loss of MCM10 function leads to impaired cell cycle progression and induction of DNA damage-response pathways. By modeling MCM10 deficiency in primary NK cell precursors, including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, we further demonstrated that MCM10 is required for NK cell terminal maturation and acquisition of immunological system function. Together, these data define MCM10 as an NKD gene and provide biological insight into the requirement for the DNA replisome in human NK cell maturation and function.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4625, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934225

RESUMO

A hallmark of neurodegeneration is defective protein quality control. The E3 ligase Listerin (LTN1/Ltn1) acts in a specialized protein quality control pathway-Ribosome-associated Quality Control (RQC)-by mediating proteolytic targeting of incomplete polypeptides produced by ribosome stalling, and Ltn1 mutation leads to neurodegeneration in mice. Whether neurodegeneration results from defective RQC and whether defective RQC contributes to human disease have remained unknown. Here we show that three independently-generated mouse models with mutations in a different component of the RQC complex, NEMF/Rqc2, develop progressive motor neuron degeneration. Equivalent mutations in yeast Rqc2 selectively interfere with its ability to modify aberrant translation products with C-terminal tails which assist with RQC-mediated protein degradation, suggesting a pathomechanism. Finally, we identify NEMF mutations expected to interfere with function in patients from seven families presenting juvenile neuromuscular disease. These uncover NEMF's role in translational homeostasis in the nervous system and implicate RQC dysfunction in causing neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doenças Neuromusculares/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Doenças Neuromusculares/patologia , Proteólise , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2094-2104, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935419

RESUMO

KIF1A is a molecular motor for membrane-bound cargo important to the development and survival of sensory neurons. KIF1A dysfunction has been associated with several Mendelian disorders with a spectrum of overlapping phenotypes, ranging from spastic paraplegia to intellectual disability. We present a novel pathogenic in-frame deletion in the KIF1A molecular motor domain inherited by two affected siblings from an unaffected mother with apparent germline mosaicism. We identified eight additional cases with heterozygous, pathogenic KIF1A variants ascertained from a local data lake. Our data provide evidence for the expansion of KIF1A-associated phenotypes to include hip subluxation and dystonia as well as phenotypes observed in only a single case: gelastic cataplexy, coxa valga, and double collecting system. We review the literature and suggest that KIF1A dysfunction is better understood as a single neuromuscular disorder with variable involvement of other organ systems than a set of discrete disorders converging at a single locus.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(12): 2919-2925, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954677

RESUMO

Congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) confer substantial morbidity and mortality. Genetic defects, including chromosomal anomalies, copy number variants, and sequence variants are identified in ~30% of patients with CDH. A genetic etiology is not yet found in 70% of patients, however there is a growing number of genetic syndromes and single gene disorders associated with CDH. While there have been two reported individuals with X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome with MID1 mutations who have CDH as an associated feature, CDH appears to be a much more prominent feature of a SPECC1L-related autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome. Features unique to autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome include branchial fistulae, omphalocele, and a bicornuate uterus. Here we present one new individual and five previously reported individuals with CDH found to have SPECC1L mutations. These cases provide strong evidence that SPECC1L is a bona fide CDH gene. We conclude that a SPECC1L-related Opitz G/BBB syndrome should be considered in any patient with CDH who has additional features of hypertelorism, a prominent forehead, a broad nasal bridge, anteverted nares, cleft lip/palate, branchial fistulae, omphalocele, and/or bicornuate uterus.

13.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(10): 995-1002, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The human genome contains the instructions for the development and biological homeostasis of the human organism and the genetic transmission of traits. Genome variation in human populations is the basis of evolution; individual or personal genomes vary tremendously, making each of us truly unique. AREAS COVERED: Assaying this individual variation using genomic technologies has many applications in clinical medicine, from elucidating the biology of disease to designing strategies to ameliorate perturbations from homeostasis. Detecting pathogenic rare variation in a genome may provide a molecular diagnosis that can be informative for patient management and family healthcare. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the increasing clinical use of unbiased genomic testing, including chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or SNP arrays, clinical exome sequencing (cES), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), to survey genome-wide for molecular aberrations, clinical acumen paired with an understanding of the limitations of each testing type will be needed to achieve molecular diagnoses. Potential opportunities for improving case solved rates, functionally annotating the majority of genes in the human genome, and further understanding genetic contributions to disease will empower clinical genomics and the precision medicine initiative.

14.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905580

RESUMO

Agammaglobulinemia is the most profound primary antibody deficiency that can occur due to an early termination of B-cell development. We here investigated three novel patients, including the first known adult, from unrelated families with agammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Two of them also presented with intermittent or severe chronic neutropenia. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in the gene for Folliculin interacting protein 1 (FNIP1), leading to loss of the FNIP1 protein. B-cell metabolism, including mitochondrial numbers and activity and PI3K/AKT pathway, was impaired. These defects recapitulated the Fnip1-/- animal model. Moreover, we identified either uniparental disomy or copy number variants [CNV] in two patients, expanding the variant spectrum of this novel inborn error of immunity. The results indicate that FNIP1 deficiency can be caused by complex genetic mechanisms and support the clinical utility of exome sequencing and CNV analysis in patients with broad phenotypes, including agammaglobulinemia and HCM. FNIP1 deficiency is a novel inborn error of immunity characterized by early and severe B-cell development defect, agammaglobulinemia, variable neutropenia, and HCM. Our findings elucidate a functional and relevant role of FNIP1 in B-cell development and metabolism and potentially neutrophil activity.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 41(11): 1979-1998, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906200

RESUMO

Cytogenetically detected inversions are generally assumed to be copy number and phenotypically neutral events. While nonallelic homologous recombination is thought to play a major role, recent data suggest the involvement of other molecular mechanisms in inversion formation. Using a combination of short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS), 10X Genomics Chromium WGS, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and array comparative genomic hybridization we investigated the genomic structure of 18 large unique cytogenetically detected chromosomal inversions and achieved nucleotide resolution of at least one chromosomal inversion junction for 13/18 (72%). Surprisingly, we observed that seemingly copy number neutral inversions can be accompanied by a copy-number gain of up to 350 kb and local genomic complexities (3/18, 17%). In the resolved inversions, the mutational signatures are consistent with nonhomologous end-joining (8/13, 62%) or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (5/13, 38%). Our study indicates that short-read 30x coverage WGS can detect a substantial fraction of chromosomal inversions. Moreover, replication-based mechanisms are responsible for approximately 38% of those events leading to a significant proportion of inversions that are actually accompanied by additional copy-number variation potentially contributing to the overall phenotypic presentation of those patients.

16.
Neurol Genet ; 6(5): e498, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802956

RESUMO

Objective: To determine how single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to molecular diagnosis in familial Parkinson disease (PD), we integrated exome sequencing (ES) and genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and further probed CNV structure to reveal mutational mechanisms. Methods: We performed ES on 110 subjects with PD and a positive family history; 99 subjects were also evaluated using genome-wide aCGH. We interrogated ES and aCGH data for pathogenic SNVs and CNVs at Mendelian PD gene loci. We confirmed SNVs via Sanger sequencing and further characterized CNVs with custom-designed high-density aCGH, droplet digital PCR, and breakpoint sequencing. Results: Using ES, we discovered individuals with known pathogenic SNVs in GBA (p.Glu365Lys, p.Thr408Met, p.Asn409Ser, and p.Leu483Pro) and LRRK2 (p.Arg1441Gly and p.Gly2019Ser). Two subjects were each double heterozygotes for variants in GBA and LRRK2. Based on aCGH, we additionally discovered cases with an SNCA duplication and heterozygous intragenic GBA deletion. Five additional subjects harbored both SNVs (p.Asn52Metfs*29, p.Thr240Met, p.Pro437Leu, and p.Trp453*) and likely disrupting CNVs at the PRKN locus, consistent with compound heterozygosity. In nearly all cases, breakpoint sequencing revealed microhomology, a mutational signature consistent with CNV formation due to DNA replication errors. Conclusions: Integrated ES and aCGH yielded a genetic diagnosis in 19.3% of our familial PD cohort. Our analyses highlight potential mechanisms for SNCA and PRKN CNV formation, uncover multilocus pathogenic variation, and identify novel SNVs and CNVs for further investigation as potential PD risk alleles.

17.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1768-1776, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the scale of low-level parental mosaicism in exome sequencing (ES) databases. METHODS: We analyzed approximately 2000 family trio ES data sets from the Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics (BHCMG) and Baylor Genetics (BG). Among apparent de novo single-nucleotide variants identified in the affected probands, we selected rare unique variants with variant allele fraction (VAF) between 30% and 70% in the probands and lower than 10% in one of the parents. RESULTS: Of 102 candidate mosaic variants validated using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, or blocker displacement amplification, 27 (26.4%) were confirmed to be low- (VAF between 1% and 10%) or very low (VAF <1%) level mosaic. Detection precision in parental samples with two or more alternate reads was 63.6% (BHCMG) and 43.6% (BG). In nine investigated individuals, we observed variability of mosaic ratios among blood, saliva, fibroblast, buccal, hair, and urine samples. CONCLUSION: Our computational pipeline enables robust discrimination between true and false positive candidate mosaic variants and efficient detection of low-level mosaicism in ES samples. We confirm that the presence of two or more alternate reads in the parental sample is a reliable predictor of low-level parental somatic mosaicism.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(9): 2077-2084, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656927

RESUMO

Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS, MIM 610883), or duplication of chromosome 17p11.2, is a clinically recognizable condition characterized by infantile hypotonia, failure to thrive, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and congenital anomalies. Short stature, classified as greater than two standard deviations below the mean, has not previously been considered a major feature of PTLS. Retrospective chart review on a cohort of 37 individuals with PTLS was performed to investigate the etiology of short stature. Relevant data included anthropometric measurements, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), growth hormone (GH) stimulation testing, blood glucose levels, brain MRI, and bone age. Approximately 25% (9/37) of individuals with PTLS had short stature. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was definitively identified in two individuals. These two PTLS patients with growth hormone deficiency, as well as three others with short stature and no documented GHD, received growth hormone and obtained improvement in linear growth. One individual was identified to have pituitary abnormalities on MRI and had complications of hypoglycemia due to unrecognized GHD. Individuals with PTLS can benefit from undergoing evaluation for GHD should they present with short stature or hypoglycemia. Early identification of GHD could facilitate potential therapeutic benefit for individuals with PTLS, including linear growth, musculoskeletal, and in cases of hypoglycemia, potentially cognitive development as well.

19.
Science ; 369(6500): 202-207, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647003

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency often coincides with hyperactive immune disorders such as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or atopy, but this coincidence is rarely understood on a molecular level. We describe five patients from four families with immunodeficiency coupled with atopy, lymphoproliferation, and cytokine overproduction harboring mutations in NCKAP1L, which encodes the hematopoietic-specific HEM1 protein. These mutations cause the loss of the HEM1 protein and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) or disrupt binding to the WRC regulator, Arf1, thereby impairing actin polymerization, synapse formation, and immune cell migration. Diminished cortical actin networks caused by WRC loss led to uncontrolled cytokine release and immune hyperresponsiveness. HEM1 loss also blocked mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation, T cell proliferation, and selected effector functions, leading to immunodeficiency. Thus, the evolutionarily conserved HEM1 protein simultaneously regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) and mTORC2 signaling to achieve equipoise in immune responses.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/química , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo
20.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1863-1873, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic variants in LARS1, coding for the cytosolic leucyl-tRNA synthetase, cause infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1). Since its description in 2012, there has been no systematic analysis of the clinical spectrum and genetic findings. METHODS: Individuals with biallelic variants in LARS1 were included through an international, multicenter collaboration including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed and functional studies were performed in patient-derived fibroblasts. RESULTS: Twenty-five individuals from 15 families were ascertained including 12 novel patients with eight previously unreported variants. The most prominent clinical findings are recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure and encephalopathic episodes, both triggered by febrile illness. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) changes during an encephalopathic episode can be consistent with metabolic stroke. Furthermore, growth retardation, microcytic anemia, neurodevelopmental delay, muscular hypotonia, and infection-related seizures are prevalent. Aminoacylation activity is significantly decreased in all patient cells studied upon temperature elevation in vitro. CONCLUSION: ILFS1 is characterized by recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure in conjunction with abnormalities of growth, blood, nervous system, and musculature. Encephalopathic episodes with seizures can occur independently from liver crises and may present with metabolic stroke.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA