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1.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583969

RESUMO

Background: Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is genetically heterogeneous and is associated with mutations in at least 40 different genes. Apart from TTN encoding the giant protein Titin, none of these genes have an expected diagnostic yield of more than 5% complicating genetic diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful alternative for the identification of the causal gene, however variant interpretation remains challenging. We report on WES in a large family with autosomal dominant DCM complicated by end stage heart failure and non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias in whom no causative mutation was identified using a targeted gene panel including 28 genes. Methods and results: WES was applied on 2 affected cousins. Stringent filtering of the identified genetic variants was performed including population variant frequencies, in silico analysis, orthologous and paralogous conservation. Subsequently Sanger sequencing was performed for 10 potential disease causing variants in order to confirm the presence of the variant and to evaluate co-segregation. Only one variant in exon 9 of the RBM20 gene (c.2714T > A, p.Met950Lys, NM_001334363) showed full co-segregation in the 7 affected family members resulting in a maximum 2-point LOD score of 2.1 and suggesting this as the pathogenic mutation responsible for the phenotype. Recently mutations in RBM20 have been linked to arrhythmogenic dilated cardiomyopathy caused by defective splicing of the giant sarcomere protein titin and abnormal calcium handling. Conclusions: We report the identification of a novel mutation in RBM20 by WES in a large pedigree with DCM.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557132

RESUMO

Gene therapy approaches are being deployed to treat recessive genetic disorders by restoring the expression of mutated genes. However, the feasibility of these approaches for dominantly-inherited diseases-where treatment may require reduction in the expression of a toxic mutant protein resulting from a gain-of-function (GoF) allele-is unclear. Here we show the efficacy of allele-specific RNAi as a potential therapeutic for Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2D (CMT2D), caused by dominant mutations in glycyl tRNA-synthetase (GARS). A de novo mutation in GARS was identified in a patient with a severe peripheral neuropathy, and a mouse model precisely recreating the mutation was produced. These mice developed a neuropathy by 3-4 weeks-of-age, validating the pathogenicity of the mutation. RNAi sequences targeting mutant GARS mRNA, but not wild-type, were optimized and then packaged into AAV9 for in vivo delivery. This almost completely prevented the neuropathy in mice treated at birth. Delaying treatment until after disease onset showed modest benefit, though this effect decreased the longer treatment was delayed. These outcomes were reproduced in a second mouse model of CMT2D using a vector specifically targeting that allele. The effects were dose dependent, and persisted for at least one year. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of AAV9-mediated allele-specific knockdown and provide proof-of-concept for gene therapy approaches for dominant neuromuscular diseases.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471994

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a birth defect with variable clinical and anatomical manifestations due to spinal malformation. The genetic etiology underlying about 10% of CS cases in the Chinese population is compound inheritance by which the gene dosage is reduced below that of haploinsufficiency. In this genetic model, the trait manifests as a result of the combined effect of a rare variant and common pathogenic variant allele at a locus. From exome sequencing (ES) data of 523 patients in Asia and two patients in Texas, we identified six TBX6 gene-disruptive variants from 11 unrelated CS patients via ES and in vitro functional testing. The in trans mild hypomorphic allele was identified in 10 of the 11 subjects; as anticipated these 10 shared a similar spinal deformity of hemivertebrae. The remaining case has a homozygous variant in TBX6 (c.418C>T) and presents a more severe spinal deformity phenotype. We found decreased transcriptional activity and abnormal cellular localization as the molecular mechanisms for TBX6 missense loss-of-function alleles. Expanding the mutational spectrum of TBX6 pathogenic alleles enabled an increased molecular diagnostic detection rate, provided further evidence for the gene dosage-dependent genetic model underlying CS, and refined clinical classification.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448840

RESUMO

Xq22 deletions that encompass PLP1 (Xq22-PLP1-DEL) are notable for variable expressivity of neurological disease traits in females ranging from a mild late-onset form of Spastic Paraplegia type 2 [MIM# 312920], sometimes associated with skewed X-inactivation, to an early-onset neurological disease trait (EONDT) of severe developmental delay, intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities. Size and gene content of Xq22-PLP1-DEL vary and were proposed as potential molecular etiologies underlying variable expressivity in carrier females where two smallest regions of overlap (SROs) were suggested to influence disease. We ascertained a cohort of eight unrelated patients harboring Xq22-PLP1-DEL and performed high-density array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) and breakpoint-junction sequencing. Molecular characterization of Xq22-PLP1-DEL from 17 cases (8 herein and 9 published) revealed an overrepresentation of breakpoints that reside within repeats (11/17, ~65%) and the clustering of ~47% of proximal breakpoints in a genomic instability hotspot with characteristic non-B DNA density. These findings implicate a potential role for genomic architecture in stimulating the formation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL. The correlation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL gene content with neurological disease trait in female cases enabled refinement of the associated SROs to a single genomic interval containing six genes. Our data support the hypothesis that genes contiguous to PLP1 contribute to EONDT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2056-2066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407851

RESUMO

Co-occurrence of primordial dwarfism and microcephaly together with particular skeletal findings are seen in a wide range of Mendelian syndromes including microcephaly micromelia syndrome (MMS, OMIM 251230), microcephaly, short stature, and limb abnormalities (MISSLA, OMIM 617604), and microcephalic primordial dwarfisms (MPDs). Genes associated with these syndromes encode proteins that have crucial roles in DNA replication or in other critical steps of the cell cycle that link DNA replication to cell division. We identified four unrelated families with five affected individuals having biallelic or de novo variants in DONSON presenting with a core phenotype of severe short stature (z score < -3 SD), additional skeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly. Two apparently unrelated families with identical homozygous c.631C > T p.(Arg211Cys) variant had clinical features typical of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), while two siblings with compound heterozygous c.346delG p.(Asp116Ile*62) and c.1349A > G p.(Lys450Arg) variants presented with Seckel-like phenotype. We also identified a de novo c.683G > T p.(Trp228Leu) variant in DONSON in a patient with prominent micrognathia, short stature and hypoplastic femur and tibia, clinically diagnosed with Femoral-Facial syndrome (FFS, OMIM 134780). Biallelic variants in DONSON have been recently described in individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. These studies also demonstrated that DONSON has an essential conserved role in the cell cycle. Here we describe novel biallelic and de novo variants that are associated with MGS, Seckel-like phenotype and FFS, the last of which has not been associated with any disease gene to date.

7.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of familial intracranial aneurysms (FIAs); however, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential FIA-causing genetic variants by rare variant interrogation and a family-based genomics approach in a large family with an extensive multigenerational pedigree with FIAs. METHOD: Exome sequencing (ES) was performed in a dominant likely family with intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Variants were analyzed by an in-house developed pipeline and prioritized using various filtering strategies, including population frequency, variant type, and predicted variant pathogenicity. Sanger sequencing was also performed to evaluate the segregation of the variants with the phenotype. RESULTS: Based on the ES data obtained from five individuals from a family with 7/21 living members affected with IAs, a total of 14 variants were prioritized as candidate variants. Familial segregation analysis revealed that NFX1 c.2519T>C (p.Leu840Pro) segregated in accordance with Mendelian expectations with the phenotype within the family-that is, present in all IA-affected cases and absent from all unaffected members of the second generation. This missense variant is absent from public databases (1000genome, ExAC, gnomAD, ESP5400), and has damaging predictions by bioinformatics tools (Gerp ++ score = 5.88, CADD score = 16.43, MutationTaster score = 1, LRT score = 0). In addition, 840Leu in NFX1 is robustly conserved in mammals and maps in a region before the RING-type zinc finger domain. CONCLUSION: NFX1 c.2519T>C (p.Leu840Pro) may contribute to the pathogenetics of a subset of FIAs.

8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1395-1406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the molecular and clinical phenotypic basis of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies caused by rare biallelic variants in CACNA2D2. METHODS: Two affected individuals from a family with clinical features of early onset epileptic encephalopathy were recruited for exome sequencing at the Centers for Mendelian Genomics to identify their molecular diagnosis. GeneMatcher facilitated identification of a second family with a shared candidate disease gene identified through clinical gene panel-based testing. RESULTS: Rare biallelic CACNA2D2 variants have been previously reported in three families with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, and one family with congenital ataxia. We identified three individuals in two unrelated families with novel homozygous rare variants in CACNA2D2 with clinical features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy. Family 1 includes two affected siblings with a likely damaging homozygous rare missense variant c.1778G>C; p.(Arg593Pro) in CACNA2D2. Family 2 includes a proband with a homozygous rare nonsense variant c.485_486del; p.(Tyr162Ter) in CACNA2D2. We compared clinical and molecular findings from all nine individuals reported to date and note that cerebellar atrophy is shared among all. INTERPRETATION: Our study supports the candidacy of CACNA2D2 as a disease gene associated with a phenotypic spectrum of neurological disease that include features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Age at presentation may affect apparent penetrance of neurogenetic trait manifestations and of a particular clinical neurological endophenotype, for example, seizures or ataxia.

9.
Clin Genet ; 96(4): 366-370, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309540

RESUMO

The canonical wingless (Wnt) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways involving CTNNB1 and TBX4, respectively, are crucial for the regulation of human development. Perturbations of these pathways and disruptions from biological homeostasis have been associated with abnormal morphogenesis of multiple organs, including the lung. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying genetic cause of abnormal lung growth, pulmonary hypertension (PAH), severe microcephaly, and muscle spasticity in a full-term newborn, who died at 4 months of age due to progressively worsening PAH and respiratory failure. Family trio exome sequencing showed a de novo heterozygous nonsense c.1603C>T (p.Arg535*) variant in CTNNB1 and a paternally inherited heterozygous missense c.1198G>A (p.Glu400Lys) variant in TBX4, both predicted to be likely deleterious. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with CTNNB1 and TBX4 variants and indicate that they could act synergistically to produce a distinct more severe phenotype. Our findings further support a recently proposed complex compound inheritance model in lethal lung developmental diseases and the contention that dual molecular diagnoses can parsimoniously explain blended phenotypes.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 1982-1986, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342617

RESUMO

Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; MIM 610883) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microduplication, a 3.7 Mb copy number variant, mapping within chromosome 17p11.2, encompassing the dosage-sensitive RAI1 gene. Whereas RAI1 triplosensitivity causes PTLS, haploinsufficiency of RAI1 due to 17p11.2 microdeletion causes the clinically distinct Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; MIM 182290). Most individuals with SMS have an inversion of the melatonin cycle. Subjects with PTLS have mild sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea with no melatonin abnormalities described. Sleep patterns and potential disturbances in subjects with PTLS have not been objectively characterized. We delineated sleep characteristics in 23 subjects with PTLS who underwent a polysomnogram at Texas Children's Hospital. Eleven of these subjects (58%) completed the Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Urinary melatonin was measured in one patient and published previously. While the circadian rhythm of melatonin in PTLS appears not to be disrupted, we identified significant differences in sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, oxygen nadir, obstructive apnea hypopnea index, and periodic limb movements between prepubertal subjects with PTLS and previously published normative data. Data from the CSHQ indicate that 64% (7/11) of parents do not identify a sleep disturbance in their children. Our data indicate that younger individuals, <10 years, with PTLS have statistically significant abnormalities in five components of sleep despite lack of recognition of substantial sleep disturbances by parents. Our data support the contention that patients with PTLS should undergo clinical evaluations for sleep disordered breathing and periodic limb movement disorder, both of which are treatable conditions.

11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(7): 523-535, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increased mutational burden for rare structural genomic variants in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders has so far not yielded therapies targeting the biological effects of specific mutations. We identified two carriers (mother and son) of a triplication of the gene encoding glycine decarboxylase, GLDC, presumably resulting in reduced availability of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonists glycine and D-serine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction. Both carriers had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. METHODS: We carried out two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor augmentation of psychotropic drug treatment in these two individuals. Glycine was used in the first clinical trial, and D-cycloserine was used in the second one. RESULTS: Glycine or D-cycloserine augmentation of psychotropic drug treatment each improved psychotic and mood symptoms in placebo-controlled trials. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide two independent proof-of-principle demonstrations of symptom relief by targeting a specific genotype and explicitly link an individual mutation to the pathophysiology of psychosis and treatment response.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 132-150, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230720

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis is a clinical finding that is present either as a feature of a neuromuscular condition or as part of a systemic disease in over 400 Mendelian conditions. The underlying molecular etiology remains largely unknown because of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We applied exome sequencing (ES) in a cohort of 89 families with the clinical sign of arthrogryposis. Additional molecular techniques including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) were performed on individuals who were found to have pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and mosaicism, respectively. A molecular diagnosis was established in 65.2% (58/89) of families. Eleven out of 58 families (19.0%) showed evidence for potential involvement of pathogenic variation at more than one locus, probably driven by absence of heterozygosity (AOH) burden due to identity-by-descent (IBD). RYR3, MYOM2, ERGIC1, SPTBN4, and ABCA7 represent genes, identified in two or more families, for which mutations are probably causative for arthrogryposis. We also provide evidence for the involvement of CNVs in the etiology of arthrogryposis and for the idea that both mono-allelic and bi-allelic variants in the same gene cause either similar or distinct syndromes. We were able to identify the molecular etiology in nine out of 20 families who underwent reanalysis. In summary, our data from family-based ES further delineate the molecular etiology of arthrogryposis, yielded several candidate disease-associated genes, and provide evidence for mutational burden in a biological pathway or network. Our study also highlights the importance of reanalysis of individuals with unsolved diagnoses in conjunction with sequencing extended family members.

13.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3049-3067, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042289

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) encompasses a spectrum of premature menopause, including both primary and secondary amenorrhea. For 75% to 90% of individuals with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism presenting as POI, the molecular etiology is unknown. Common etiologies include chromosomal abnormalities, environmental factors, and congenital disorders affecting ovarian development and function, as well as syndromic and nonsyndromic single gene disorders suggesting POI represents a complex trait. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contribution of known disease genes to POI and identify molecular etiologies and biological underpinnings of POI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We applied exome sequencing (ES) and family-based genomics to 42 affected female individuals from 36 unrelated Turkish families, including 31 with reported parental consanguinity. RESULTS: This analysis identified likely damaging, potentially contributing variants and molecular diagnoses in 16 families (44%), including 11 families with likely damaging variants in known genes and five families with predicted deleterious variants in disease genes (IGSF10, MND1, MRPS22, and SOHLH1) not previously associated with POI. Of the 16 families, 2 (13%) had evidence for potentially pathogenic variants at more than one locus. Absence of heterozygosity consistent with identity-by-descent mediated recessive disease burden contributes to molecular diagnosis in 15 of 16 (94%) families. GeneMatcher allowed identification of additional families from diverse genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: ES analysis of a POI cohort further characterized locus heterogeneity, reaffirmed the association of genes integral to meiotic recombination, demonstrated the likely contribution of genes involved in hypothalamic development, and documented multilocus pathogenic variation suggesting the potential for oligogenic inheritance contributing to the development of POI.

15.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 25, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal triplications (TRP) can contribute to disease etiology via gene dosage effects, gene disruption, position effects, or fusion gene formation. Recently, post-zygotic de novo triplications adjacent to copy-number neutral genomic intervals with runs of homozygosity (ROH) have been shown to result in uniparental isodisomy (UPD). The genomic structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) shows a consistent pattern of an inverted triplication flanked by duplications (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) formed by an iterative DNA replisome template-switching mechanism during replicative repair of a single-ended, double-stranded DNA (seDNA), the ROH results from an interhomolog or nonsister chromatid template switch. It has been postulated that these CGRs may lead to genetic abnormalities in carriers due to dosage-sensitive genes mapping within the copy-number variant regions, homozygosity for alleles at a locus causing an autosomal recessive (AR) disease trait within the ROH region, or imprinting-associated diseases. METHODS: Here, we report a family wherein the affected subject carries a de novo 2.2-Mb TRP followed by 42.2 Mb of ROH and manifests clinical features overlapping with those observed in association with chromosome 14 maternal UPD (UPD(14)mat). UPD(14)mat can cause clinical phenotypic features enabling a diagnosis of Temple syndrome. This CGR was then molecularly characterized by high-density custom aCGH, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and methylation arrays, exome sequencing (ES), and the Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology. RESULTS: We confirmed the postulated DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structure by multiple orthogonal genomic technologies in the proband. The methylation status of known differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on chromosome 14 revealed that the subject shows the typical methylation pattern of UPD(14)mat. Consistent with these molecular findings, the clinical features overlap with those observed in Temple syndrome, including speech delay. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide experimental evidence that, in humans, triplication can lead to segmental UPD and imprinting disease. Importantly, genotype/phenotype analyses further reveal how a post-zygotically generated complex structural variant, resulting from a replication-based mutational mechanism, contributes to expanding the clinical phenotype of known genetic syndromes. Mechanistically, such events can distort transmission genetics resulting in homozygosity at a locus for which only one parent is a carrier as well as cause imprinting diseases.

16.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 60, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16, upd(16)mat, resemble those observed in newborns with the lethal developmental lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Interestingly, ACDMPV-causative deletions, involving FOXF1 or its lung-specific upstream enhancer at 16q24.1, arise almost exclusively on the maternally inherited chromosome 16. Given the phenotypic similarities between upd(16)mat and ACDMPV, together with parental allelic bias in ACDMPV, we hypothesized that there may be unknown imprinted loci mapping to chromosome 16 that become functionally unmasked by chromosomal structural variants. RESULTS: To identify parent-of-origin biased DNA methylation, we performed high-resolution bisulfite sequencing of chromosome 16 on peripheral blood and cultured skin fibroblasts from individuals with maternal or paternal upd(16) as well as lung tissue from patients with ACDMPV-causative 16q24.1 deletions and a normal control. We identified 22 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with ≥ 5 consecutive CpG methylation sites and varying tissue-specificity, including the known DMRs associated with the established imprinted gene ZNF597 and DMRs supporting maternal methylation of PRR25, thought to be paternally expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. Lastly, we found evidence of paternal methylation on 16q24.1 near LINC01082 mapping to the FOXF1 enhancer. CONCLUSIONS: Using high-resolution bisulfite sequencing to evaluate DNA methylation across chromosome 16, we found evidence for novel candidate imprinted loci on chromosome 16 that would not be evident in array-based assays and could contribute to the birth defects observed in patients with upd(16)mat or in ACDMPV.

18.
Cell ; 176(6): 1310-1324.e10, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827684

RESUMO

DNA rearrangements resulting in human genome structural variants (SVs) are caused by diverse mutational mechanisms. We used long- and short-read sequencing technologies to investigate end products of de novo chromosome 17p11.2 rearrangements and query the molecular mechanisms underlying both recurrent and non-recurrent events. Evidence for an increased rate of clustered single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutation in cis with non-recurrent rearrangements was found. Indel and SNV formation are associated with both copy-number gains and losses of 17p11.2, occur up to ∼1 Mb away from the breakpoint junctions, and favor C > G transversion substitutions; results suggest that single-stranded DNA is formed during the genesis of the SV and provide compelling support for a microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) mechanism for SV formation. Our data show an additional mutational burden of MMBIR consisting of hypermutation confined to the locus and manifesting as SNVs and indels predominantly within genes.

19.
Cell ; 177(1): 9-15, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901553
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 708, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755616

RESUMO

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARSs) link specific amino acids with their cognate transfer RNAs in a critical early step of protein translation. Mutations in ARSs have emerged as a cause of recessive, often complex neurological disease traits. Here we report an allelic series consisting of seven novel and two previously reported biallelic variants in valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) in ten patients with a developmental encephalopathy with microcephaly, often associated with early-onset epilepsy. In silico, in vitro, and yeast complementation assays demonstrate that the underlying pathomechanism of these mutations is most likely a loss of protein function. Zebrafish modeling accurately recapitulated some of the key neurological disease traits. These results provide both genetic and biological insights into neurodevelopmental disease and pave the way for further in-depth research on ARS related recessive disorders and precision therapies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Encefalopatias/enzimologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
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