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1.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(12): 889-903, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453818

RESUMO

: Peri-operative Medicine is the patient-centred and value-based multidisciplinary peri-operative care of surgical patients. Peri-operative stress, that is the collective response to stimuli occurring before, during and after surgery, is, together with pre-existing comorbidities, the pathophysiological basis of major adverse events. The ultimate goal of Peri-operative Medicine is to promote high quality recovery after surgery. Clinical scores and/or biomarkers should be used to identify patients at high risk of developing major adverse events throughout the peri-operative period. Allocation of high-risk patients to specific care pathways with peri-operative organ protection, close surveillance and specific early interventions is likely to improve patient-relevant outcomes, such as disability, health-related quality of life and mortality.

2.
Heart ; 105(11): 826-833, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, daytime variation in perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) has been observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We aim at investigating whether daytime variation also occurs in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic study, we evaluated the presence of daytime variation in PMI in patients at increased cardiovascular risk undergoing non-cardiac surgery, as well as its possible impact on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and death during 1-year follow-up in a propensity score-matched cohort. PMI was defined as an absolute increase in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentration of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. RESULTS: Of 1641 patients, propensity score matching defined 630 with similar baseline characteristics, half undergoing non-cardiac surgery in the morning (starting from 8:00 to 11:00) and half in the afternoon (starting from 14:00 to 17:00). There was no difference in PMI incidence between both groups (morning: 50, 15.8% (95% CI 12.3 to 20.3); afternoon: 52, 16.4% (95% CI 12.7 to 20.9), p=0.94), nor if analysing hs-cTnT release as a quantitative variable (median morning group: 3 ng/L (95% CI 1 to 7 ng/L); median afternoon group: 2 ng/L (95% CI 0 to 7 ng/L; p=0.16). During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of AMI was 1.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 3.2%) among morning surgeries versus 4.1% (95% CI 2.3% to 6.9%) among the afternoon surgeries (corrected HR for afternoon surgery 3.44, bootstrapped 95% CI 1.33 to 10.49, p log-rank=0.03), whereas no difference in mortality emerged (p=0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no daytime variation in PMI in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, the incidence of AMI during follow-up is increased in afternoon surgeries and requires further study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02573532;Results.

3.
Am Heart J ; 203: 67-73, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to directly compare preoperative high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) I and T concentration for the prediction of major cardiac complications after non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We measured hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT preoperatively in a blinded fashion in 1022 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The primary endpoint was a composite of major cardiac complications including cardiac death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, clinically relevant arrhythmias, and acute heart failure within 30 days. We hypothesized that the type of surgery may impact on the predictive accuracy of hs-cTnI/T and stratified all analyses according to the type of surgery. RESULTS: Major cardiac complications occurred in 108 (11%) patients, 58/243 (24%) patients undergoing vascular surgery and 50/779 (6%, P < .001) patients undergoing non-vascular surgery. Using regulatory-approved 99th percentile cut-off concentrations, preoperative hs-cTnI elevations were less than one-fifth as common as preoperative hs-cTnT elevations (P < .001). Among patients undergoing vascular surgery, preoperative hs-cTnI concentrations, but not hs-cTnT, was an independent predictor of cardiac complications (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-2.1). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) for hs-cTnI versus 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.67, P = .012) for hs-cTnT. In contrast, among patients undergoing non-vascular surgery both preoperative hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were independent predictors of the primary endpoint (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, and aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.6, respectively) and showed higher predictive accuracy (AUC 0.77, 95% CI, 0.71-0.83, and 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.85, P = ns). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations predict major cardiac complications after non-vascular surgery, while, in patients undergoing vascular surgery, hs-cTnI may have better accuracy.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 35(9): 682-690, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copeptin levels in conjunction with cardiac troponin may be used to rule out early myocardial infarction in patients presenting with chest pain. Raised pre-operative copeptin has been shown to be associated with postoperative cardiac events. However, very little is known about the peri-operative time course of copeptin or the feasibility of very early postoperative copeptin measurement to diagnose or rule-out myocardial injury. OBJECTIVES: In this preparatory analysis for a larger trial, we sought to examine the time course of peri-operative copeptin and identify the time at which concentrations returned to pre-operative levels. Second, in an explorative analysis, we sought to examine the association of copeptin in general and at various time points with myocardial injury occurring within the first 48 h. DESIGN: Preparatory analysis of a prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Single university centre from February to July 2016. PATIENTS: A total of 30 consecutive adults undergoing vascular surgery. INTERVENTION: Serial peri-operative copeptin measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We measured copeptin concentrations before and immediately after surgery (0 h), then at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after surgery and on the first and second postoperative day. Postoperative concentrations were compared with pre-operative levels with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Second, we explored an association between postoperative copeptin concentrations and myocardial injury by the second postoperative day. Myocardial injury was defined as a 5 ng l increase between pre-operative and postoperative high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T with an absolute peak of at least 20 ng l. RESULTS: Immediate postoperative copeptin concentrations (median [interquartile range]) increased nearly eight-fold from pre-operative values (8.5 [3.6 to 13.8] to 64.75 pmol l [29.6 to 258.7]; P < 0.001). Copeptin concentrations remained elevated until returning to baseline on the second postoperative day. Postoperative copeptin was significantly higher in patients experiencing myocardial injury than in those who did not (P = 0.02). The earliest most promising single time point for diagnosis may be immediately after surgery (0 h). The receiver-operating characteristics curve for immediate postoperative copeptin and myocardial injury by the second postoperative day was 0.743 (95% confidence interval 0.560 to 0.926). CONCLUSION: Copeptin concentrations are greatly increased after vascular surgery and remain so until the 2nd postoperative day. Postoperative copeptin concentrations appear to be higher in patients who go on to exhibit myocardial injury. Immediate postoperative copeptin concentrations show promise for eliminating or identifying those at risk of myocardial injury. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02687776, Mauermann/Lurati Buse.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Troponina T/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/tendências
6.
Circulation ; 137(12): 1221-1232, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) seems to be a contributor to mortality after noncardiac surgery. Because the vast majority of PMIs are asymptomatic, PMI usually is missed in the absence of systematic screening. METHODS: We performed a prospective diagnostic study enrolling consecutive patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who had a planned postoperative stay of ≥24 hours and were considered at increased cardiovascular risk. All patients received a systematic screening using serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in clinical routine. PMI was defined as an absolute high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T increase of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. Furthermore, mortality was compared among patients with PMI not fulfilling additional criteria (ischemic symptoms, new ECG changes, or imaging evidence of loss of viable myocardium) required for the diagnosis of spontaneous acute myocardial infarction versus those that did. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2015 we included 2018 consecutive patients undergoing 2546 surgeries. Patients had a median age of 74 years and 42% were women. PMI occurred after 397 of 2546 surgeries (16%; 95% confidence interval, 14%-17%) and was accompanied by typical chest pain in 24 of 397 patients (6%) and any ischemic symptoms in 72 of 397 (18%). Crude 30-day mortality was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-12.0) in patients with PMI versus 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9-2.0) in patients without PMI (P<0.001). Multivariable regression analysis showed an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.7 (95% CI, 1.5-4.8) for 30-day mortality. The difference was retained at 1 year with mortality rates of 22.5% (95% CI, 17.6-27.4) versus 9.3% (95% CI, 7.9-10.7). Thirty-day mortality was comparable among patients with PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for spontaneous acute myocardial infarction (280/397, 71%) versus those with at least 1 additional criterion (10.4%; 95% CI, 6.7-15.7, versus 8.7%; 95% CI, 4.2-16.7; P=0.684). CONCLUSIONS: PMI is a common complication after noncardiac surgery and, despite early detection during routine clinical screening, is associated with substantial short- and long-term mortality. Mortality seems comparable in patients with PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for spontaneous acute myocardial infarction versus those patients who do. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02573532.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Suíça/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Sobrevivência de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina T/sangue
8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 104(4): 1289-1297, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated, single-measure, postoperative troponin is associated with adverse events after cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that increases in troponin from the first to the second postoperative day are also associated with all-cause, 12-month mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). METHODS: This observational study included consecutive adults undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery with cardiac arrest. Troponin T was measured on the first and second postoperative day and was classified as "increasing" (>10%), "unchanged" (10% to -10%), or "decreasing" (<-10%). The primary endpoint was all-cause, 12-month mortality. Secondary endpoints were all-cause 12-month mortality or MACE and both outcomes at 30 days. The main analysis was by multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 1,417 included patients, 99 (7.0%) died and 162 (11.4%) died or suffered MACE at 12 months. A significant interaction (p < 0.001) between first postoperative day troponin and the troponin trend from the first to the second postoperative day on 12-month, all-cause mortality precluded an analysis independent of first postoperative day troponin. Consequently, we stratified patients by their first postoperative day troponin (cutoff, 0.8 µg/L). Increasing troponin was associated with higher mortality in patients with first postoperative day troponin T ≥ 0.8 µg/L (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.59; p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Troponin changes from the first to the second postoperative day should not be interpreted without consideration of the first postoperative day troponin concentration. For patients with a first postoperative day troponin ≥ 0.8 µg/L, an increase by more than 10% from the first to the second postoperative day was significantly associated with all-cause, 12-month mortality and other adverse events.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Vasc Surg ; 66(6): 1826-1835.e1, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Predicting cardiac events is essential to provide patients with the best medical care and to assess the risk-benefit ratio of surgical procedures. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee) and the Vascular Study Group of New England Cardiac Risk Index (VSG) scores for the prediction of major cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing arterial surgery and to determine whether the inclusion of additional risk factors improved their accuracy. METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled 954 consecutive patients undergoing arterial vascular surgery, and the Lee and VSG scores were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves for each cardiac risk score were constructed and the areas under the curve (AUCs) compared. Two logistic regression models were done to determine new variables related to the occurrence of major cardiac events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest). RESULTS: Cardiac events occurred in 120 (12.6%) patients. Both scores underestimated the rate of cardiac events across all risk strata. The VSG score had AUC of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.68), which was higher than the AUC of the Lee score (0.58; 95% CI, 0.52-0.63; P = .03). Addition of preoperative anemia significantly improved the accuracy of the Lee score to an AUC of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P = .002) but not that of the VSG score. CONCLUSIONS: The Lee and VSG scores have low accuracy and underestimate the risk of major perioperative cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing vascular surgery. The Lee score's accuracy can be increased by adding preoperative anemia. Underestimation of major cardiac complications may lead to incorrect risk-benefit assessments regarding the planned operation.


Assuntos
Artérias/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Anesth Analg ; 125(3): 753-761, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a predictor of mortality after on-pump cardiac surgery. However, previous limited and heterogeneous studies have focused on peak concentrations at 3 to 5 days after surgery and may not offer clinicians much help in early decision-making. After confirming the predictive value of first-postoperative-day BNP in a preliminary analysis, we explored the association between isolated second-postoperative-day BNP concentrations, second-day BNP concentrations in conjunction with first-day BNP concentrations, and the change in BNP (ie, ΔBNP) from the first to the second postoperative day and 12-month, all-cause mortality. METHODS: We included consecutive patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery in this observational, secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. We analyzed biomarkers on the first and second postoperative day. ΔBNP was defined as BNP on the second postoperative day minus BNP on the first postoperative day. The primary end point was 12-month, all-cause mortality. The secondary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 12 months and/or all-cause mortality at 12 months. MACE was defined as nonfatal cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. The association between BNP and outcomes was examined by receiver operating characteristic curves, as well as univariate and multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the EuroSCORE II, cross-clamp time, and first-postoperative-day troponin T. RESULTS: We included 1199 patients in the preliminary analysis focused on BNP on postoperative day 1. In the analyses examining BNP variables requiring second-postoperative-day BNP measurement (n = 708), we observed 66 (9.3%) deaths, 48 (6.8%) MACE, and 104 (14.7%) deaths and/or MACE. Both first- and second-postoperative-day BNP were significant independent predictors of all-cause, 12-month mortality per 100 ng/L increase (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.040 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.019-1.065] and 1.064 [95% CI, 1.031-1.105], respectively). When used in conjunction with one another, first-day BNP was not significant (aOR, 1.021 [95% CI, 0.995-1.048]), while second-day BNP remained significant (aOR, 1.046 [95% CI, 1.008-1.091]). The ΔBNP per 100 ng/L increase was not associated with 12-month, all-cause mortality in the univariable (OR, 0.977 [95% CI, 0.951-1.007]) or multivariable analysis (aOR, 0.989 [95% CI, 0.962-1.021]). CONCLUSIONS: Both absolute concentrations of first- and second-postoperative-day BNP are independent predictors of 12-month, all-cause mortality. When modeled together, second-postoperative-day BNP is more predictive of 12-month, all-cause mortality. Although intuitively appealing, the change in BNP from the first to the second postoperative day is a complex variable and should not routinely be used for prognostication.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Anesth Analg ; 125(4): 1110-1117, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Troponin T is a predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery with most data examining fourth generational troponin T assays. We hypothesize that postoperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measured in increments of the upper limit of the norm independently predicts 30-day all-cause mortality. METHODS: We included consecutive patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery from February 2010 to March 2012 in a prospective cohort that measured hsTnT at 0600 of the first and second postoperative day. Our primary end point was 30-day, all-cause mortality. The secondary end point was 12-month, all-cause mortality in patients surviving the first 30 days. We divided hsTnT into 5 predetermined categorizes based on the upper limit of the norm (ULN). We used Cox regression to examine an association of hsTnT independent of the EuroSCORE II at both 30 days as well as at 12 months in patients surviving the first 30 days. We assessed the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and the net reassignment improvement for examining the benefit of adding of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II for prognostication and restratification of 30-day, all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We included 1122 of 1155 eligible patients (75% male; mean age 66 ± 11 years). We observed 58 (5.2%) deaths at 30 days and another 35 (3.4%) deaths at 12 months in patients surviving 30 days. HsTnT categorized by ULN exhibited a graded response for the mortality. Furthermore, hsTnT remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.014-1.024] per 10-fold increase in ULN) as well as at 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.007-1.032]) in patients surviving the first 30 days. The addition of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II significantly increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (area under curve: 0.816 [95% confidence interval, 0.754-0.878] versus area under curve: 0.870 [95% confidence interval, 0.822-0.917], respectively; P = .012). Finally, adding hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II improved restratification by the net reassignment improvement, primarily by improving rule-out of events. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that, similar to previous assays, higher postoperative concentrations of hsTnT are independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(5): 271-279, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of new pathological Q waves after on-pump cardiac surgery is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not either the occurrence per se or the location of new pathological Q waves after on-pump cardiac surgery is associated with 12-month, all-cause mortality and/or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Single university hospital from January 2007 to October 2010. PATIENTS: Consecutive adult patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery with MACE-free survival until at least the 7th postoperative day and available ECGs both preoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day (n = 1464). We conducted a subgroup analysis in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 740). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Our primary endpoint was 12-month, all-cause mortality and/or MACE, defined as acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure or re-vascularisation at 12 months. Using logistic regression, we examined the prognostic value of new pathological Q waves according to the Minnesota ECG Code, adjusting for the EuroSCORE II, cardiopulmonary bypass time and peak postoperative troponin T concentrations. RESULTS: We included 1464 patients (74% men; mean ±â€ŠSD age 66 ±â€Š10 years) and observed 103 (7.0%) all-cause deaths and/or MACEs at 12 months. A total of 236 patients (16.1%) had definite or probable new pathological Q waves according to the Minnesota ECG Code. The occurrence of new pathological Q waves per se was not associated with our primary endpoint [adjusted odds ratio, 0.970 (95% confidence interval, 0.540 to 1.648)]. However, the occurrence of a new pathological Q wave in V1 to V5 (anterior) was a strong independent predictor for poor outcome [adjusted odds ratio, 3.461 (95% confidence interval, 1.501 to 7.242)]. CONCLUSION: The current analysis suggests that for patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery, only new pathological Q waves in V1 to V5 (anterior) in the 7th postoperative day ECG are associated with 12-month, all-cause mortality and/or MACE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00468598.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/tendências , Eletrocardiografia/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(5): 306-314, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A reliable biomarker for quantifying pain or hyperalgesia has yet to be found. A surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin, copeptin, is elevated in a number of states of physiological and psychological stress and may have a role in quantifying pain and/or hyperalgesia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate copeptin as a biomarker for pain or hyperalgesia developing after 120 min of sustained electrical stimulation. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomised, double-blinded, crossover trial. SETTING: Single, tertiary university hospital from September 2014 to January 2015. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 16 healthy, opioid-naïve white men with no confounding medication or history of pain. INTERVENTIONS: Copeptin and cortisol were measured five times during an established model of transdermal electrical stimulation designed to assess pain and hyperalgesia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the change in copeptin concentration after 120 min of sustained electrical stimulation. Secondary outcomes were copeptin and cortisol concentrations after a subsequent period of rest and analyses of copeptin and cortisol concentrations were made in high-dose and low-dose fentanyl groups separately. RESULTS: Total copeptin concentrations were not significantly elevated after 120 min [9.15 pmol l (interquartile ranges (IQR), 3.45 to 35.45 pmol l); P = 0.150] compared with baseline [6.15 pmol l (IQR, 3.60 to 10.62 pmol l)]. In the high-dose fentanyl group, there was a significant increase in copeptin within individuals [P = 0.001; median, 37.9 pmol l (IQR, 8.1 to 62 pmol l)] after 120 min, and in the low-dose fentanyl group a significant decrease in copeptin concentrations within individuals [P = 0.006; median, 4.7 pmol l (IQR, 3.13 to 9.35 pmol l)]. No correlation between copeptin concentration and either the area under the pain curve or area under the hyperalgesia curve could be found, indicating that the observed differences may be due to other fentanyl-mediated effects. CONCLUSION: Copeptin concentrations do not appear to be associated directly with pain and hyperalgesia. Instead, some fentanyl-mediated effect or effects appear to have greatly increased copeptin concentrations from baseline to 120 min. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02252458.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Hiperalgesia/sangue , Hiperalgesia/diagnóstico , Dor/sangue , Dor/diagnóstico , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Anesth Analg ; 123(6): 1363-1371, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copeptin, a novel marker of endogenous stress, has shown diagnostic and prognostic value in nonsurgical patients with a suspected coronary event. We aimed to assess the incremental value of copeptin in addition to established preoperative risk indices to predict the occurrence of postoperative myocardial injury. METHODS: This secondary analysis of prospectively collected data included adults undergoing noncardiac surgery with risk factors for adverse perioperative cardiac events based on preoperative risk stratification. We examined preoperative copeptin in patients without elevated preoperative troponin and its association with myocardial injury by receiver operator characteristic curves, logistic regression, and net reassignment indices. RESULTS: Of the 190 patients included, 33 (17.4%) experienced myocardial injury within 48 hours, and 17 (8.9%) experienced cardiac death and/or major adverse cardiac events within the first postoperative year. Preoperative copeptin showed an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of .66 (95% confidence interval, .55-.76) for myocardial injury and an optimal cutoff of 9.6 pmol/L. This cutoff was an independent predictor of myocardial injury, with an odds ratio of 4.67 (95% confidence interval, 2.06-11.19) when adjusted for age, sex, and the revised cardiac risk index. The net reassignment improvement for myocardial injury was between 39% and 50% for both events and nonevents when adding copeptin to established preoperative risk indices. No significant difference in major adverse cardiac event and/or cardiac death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Copeptin (≥9.6 pmol/L) was associated with significantly higher rates of myocardial injury and improved risk stratification in patients scheduled for noncardiac surgery with nonelevated preoperative troponin.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina T/sangue , Regulação para Cima
15.
Springerplus ; 5: 304, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27066338

RESUMO

We aimed to compare the minimum p value method and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve approach to categorize continuous biomarkers for the prediction of postoperative 30-day major adverse cardiac events in noncardiac vascular surgery patients. Individual-patient data from six cohorts reporting B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) were obtained. These biomarkers were dichotomized using the minimum p value method and compared with previously reported ROC curve-derived thresholds using logistic regression analysis. A final prediction model was developed, internally validated, and assessed for its sensitivity to clustering effects. Finally, a preoperative risk score system was proposed. Thresholds identified by the minimum p value method and ROC curve approach were 115.57 pg/ml (p < 0.001) and 116 pg/ml for BNP, and 241.7 pg/ml (p = 0.001) and 277.5 pg/ml for NTproBNP, respectively. The minimum p value thresholds were slightly stronger predictors based on our logistic regression analysis. The final model included a composite predictor of the minimum p value method's BNP and NTproBNP thresholds [odds ratio (OR) = 8.5, p < 0.001], surgery type (OR = 2.5, p = 0.002), and diabetes (OR = 2.1, p = 0.015). Preoperative risks using the scoring system ranged from 2 to 49 %. The minimum p value method and ROC curve approach identify similar optimal thresholds. We propose to replace the revised cardiac risk index with our risk score system for individual-specific preoperative risk stratification after noncardiac nonvascular surgery.

16.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 29(3): 403-12, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008065

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS), focusing on recent studies, including data on high-sensitivity troponin, which is likely to alter our understanding of MINS. RECENT FINDINGS: MINS is greatly underappreciated by clinicians, possibly because of its silent presentation. However, MINS is both common and clinically important. In total, 8% of at-risk patients will suffer a MINS, an event that is associated with death within 30 days with an odds ratio of 3.87 (95% CI 2.96-5.08). Most patients suffering MINS do not fulfill the criteria for perioperative myocardial infarction as they are asymptomatic. Consequently, postoperative troponin measurement is imperative for MINS detection. Evidence from randomized trials on how to prevent or how to treat MINS is still lacking. SUMMARY: Currently, we are limited to appreciating the vast extent of the MINS problem and applying recommendations based on observational data or derived from the nonoperative setting. Routine troponin measurements after noncardiac surgery and the increasing use of high-sensitivity troponins have revealed the larger underwater iceberg of perioperative myocardial injury and ischemia. Clinicians should be sensitized for this important complication and search for it using a perioperative troponin screening.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Troponina/sangue , Anestesia/métodos , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas
17.
Platelets ; 27(3): 254-61, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367099

RESUMO

Reduced aspirin responsiveness (i.e. persistent high platelet reactivity in platelet function testing) might be associated with increased risk of myocardial ischemia and cardiac mortality in patients with coronary disease. However, the impact in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unclear. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the predictive value of reduced aspirin responsiveness on cardiac and thromboembolic events in patients undergoing elective isolated CABG surgery with aspirin intake until at least two days before surgery. We included 304 patients in this prospective single-center cohort study. Impedance platelet aggregometry (Multiplate®) was performed directly before and on the first day after surgery. Reduced aspirin responsiveness was defined as area under the curve in ASPItest (AUCASPI) ≥300 U. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality and/or major adverse cardiac or thromboembolic events within 1 year. Reduced aspirin responsiveness was found in 13 and 24% of patients pre and postoperatively, respectively. There was no difference in the outcomes between patients with normal and reduced aspirin responsiveness in the preoperative measurement (log-rank test, p = 0.540). Multivariate analysis including logistic EuroSCORE I and postoperative troponin T levels did not show any association of reduced aspirin responsiveness with adverse outcome (hazard ratio, 0.576; (95% CI 0.128-2.585; p = 0.471). Similarly, postoperative reduced aspirin responsiveness was not associated with adverse events. To conclude, reduced aspirin responsiveness as evaluated by Multiplate® platelet function analyzer was not associated with increased incidence of major adverse cardiac and thromboembolic events and mortality after CABG surgery.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Impedância Elétrica , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Plaquetas , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 145: w14219, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26599804

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications, particularly perioperative myocardial infarction/injury, seem to be major contributors to mortality after noncardiac surgery. With surgical procedures being very frequent (900 000/year in Switzerland), perioperative myocardial injury is common in everyday clinical practice. Over 80% of patients experiencing perioperative myocardial injury do not report symptoms. Therefore perioperative myocardial injury remains undiagnosed and untreated. Moreover, its silent presentation results in limited awareness among both clinicians and the public. Despite being largely asymptomatic, perioperative myocardial injury increases 30-day mortality nearly 10-fold. This review aims to increase the awareness of perioperative myocardial injury/infarction and give an overview of the emerging evidence, including pathophysiology, clinical presentation, prevention, and potential future treatments.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Período Perioperatório/estatística & dados numéricos , Conscientização , Biomarcadores , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Sinais Vitais
19.
Anesthesiology ; 123(2): 264-71, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) prognostic utility is commonly determined post hoc by identifying a single optimal discrimination threshold tailored to the individual study population. The authors aimed to determine how using these study-specific post hoc thresholds impacts meta-analysis results. METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the ability of preoperative NT-proBNP measurements to predict the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days after noncardiac surgery. Individual patient-level data NT-proBNP thresholds were determined using two different methodologies. First, a single combined NT-proBNP threshold was determined for the entire cohort of patients, and a meta-analysis conducted using this single threshold. Second, study-specific thresholds were determined for each individual study, with meta-analysis being conducted using these study-specific thresholds. RESULTS: The authors obtained individual patient data from 14 studies (n = 2,196). Using a single NT-proBNP cohort threshold, the odds ratio (OR) associated with an increased NT-proBNP measurement was 3.43 (95% CI, 2.08 to 5.64). Using individual study-specific thresholds, the OR associated with an increased NT-proBNP measurement was 6.45 (95% CI, 3.98 to 10.46). In smaller studies (<100 patients) a single cohort threshold was associated with an OR of 5.4 (95% CI, 2.27 to 12.84) as compared with an OR of 14.38 (95% CI, 6.08 to 34.01) for study-specific thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Post hoc identification of study-specific prognostic biomarker thresholds artificially maximizes biomarker predictive power, resulting in an amplification or overestimation during meta-analysis of these results. This effect is accentuated in small studies.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Prognóstico
20.
Clin Biochem ; 48(4-5): 318-21, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25526883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In clinical cardiology, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used as a non-invasive surrogate marker for intra-cardiac filling pressures, particularly in patients with heart failure. It is unknown whether and to what extent increase in intravascular volume and/or sympathetic tone while maintaining constant intra-cardiac pressures leads to an increase in levels of BNP in vivo. DESIGN AND METHODS: We aimed to test this hypothesis in an experimental in vivo model of patients directly after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting admitted to the intensive care unit. These patients require high volumes of intravenous fluids titrated to keep intra-cardiac filling pressures and arterial blood pressure in the normal range while awakening from deep general anesthesia. In 27 consecutive patients, intra-cardiac filling pressures (using a pulmonary artery catheter) and levels of BNP were measured simultaneously every 6h. RESULTS: At 0, 6, 12, and 18h, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure remained constant (12±4, 13±3, 12±3, and 13±3mmHg, respectively; p=0.351). Similarly, right heart filling pressures did not change during the study period. In contrast, BNP levels increased significantly during the study period: Median levels were 82 [IQR 37-162] pg/ml at 0h, 153 [92-246] pg/ml at 6h, 274 [156-392] pg/ml at 12h, and 320 [200-528] pg/ml at 18h (p<0.001). No significant correlation between BNP levels and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures was found (r=0.052; p=0.604). CONCLUSIONS: After cardiac surgery, BNP cannot be considered a reliable non-invasive surrogate for PCWP. In vivo, substantial BNP secretion occurs independently of PCWP in a setting of increasing intravascular volume and consciousness/sympathetic tone.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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