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1.
J Anim Sci ; 75(3): 714-9, 1997 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9078488

RESUMO

Three experiments were conducted to compare the nutritional value of soybean meal produced by extraction with 95% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or hexane (HEX) for swine. The same batch of soybeans and the same processing equipment were used to produce both soybean meals. Analyzed contents of the IPA and HEX meals were, respectively: CP, 48.7, 47.0%; lysine, 3.11, 3.06%; urease, .24, .13 delta pH. In Exp. 1, two soybean meals and dietary lysine at .90 or 1.25% were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Corn-based diets were fed to 32-d-old pigs for 26 d. There were no dietary lysine x soybean meal interactions (P > or = .35). Increasing dietary lysine increased (P < .001) ADG and gain/ feed, but soybean meal source did not affect performance. In Exp. 2, the nutritional value of HEX and IPA meals were evaluated in a N balance study using 34-kg barrows and isonitrogenous corn-based diets containing equal N from either HEX or IPA. Apparent total tract N and DM digestibility were similar for both diets. Nitrogen retention (14.4 vs 13.7 g/d, P < .10) and apparent biological value (56.5 vs 54.5%, P < .05) were slightly higher for HEX than for IPA. The effect of feeding HEX and IPA meals on morphological changes of small intestine in pigs weaned at 21 d of age was investigated in the last experiment. At 28 d of age, weaned pigs that were fed diets containing either HEX or IPA and unweaned control pigs were killed for the examination. Villus height and lamina propria depth at the duodenum were similar among all treatments. At the jejunum, weaned pigs had smaller (P < .05) villus height and greater lamina propria depths (P < .001) than unweaned pigs. Dietary soybean meal source did not affect villus height, but lamina propria depth was less (P < .10) for pigs fed IPA. The results of these experiments indicate that soybean meals produced using IPA or HEX as the solvent have equal nutritional value for swine.


Assuntos
1-Propanol/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Soja/normas , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dieta/normas , Digestão/fisiologia , Duodeno/ultraestrutura , Hexanos/farmacologia , Jejuno/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Microvilosidades/ultraestrutura , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia
2.
J Nutr ; 125(3 Suppl): 573S-580S, 1995 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7884536

RESUMO

Soy protein products are mainly used as ingredients in formulated foods and seldom are seen by the public. They consist of four broad categories. (1) Most soy proteins are derived from "white flakes," made by dehulling, flaking and defatting soybeans by hexane extraction. These may then be milled into defatted flours or grits containing approximately 50-54% protein; extracted with ethanol or acidic waters to remove flavor compounds and flatulence sugars, producing soy protein concentrates containing 65-70% protein; or processed into soy protein isolates containing 90+% protein by alkali extraction of the protein, removal of fiber by centrifugation and reprecipitation and drying of the protein. (2) Full-fat products are made in enzyme-active and in toasted forms. (3) Various dried soyfoods, including soy milk and tofu, are produced. (4) Mixtures of soy proteins with cereals, dried milk or egg fractions, gelatin, stabilizers and emulsifiers are offered for specific baking, whipping, breading and batter applications. Texturized products, resembling meat chunks or bacon chips, are made by extrusion of flours and concentrates or spinning of isolates. Soy protein ingredients are used in compounded foods for their functional properties, including water and fat absorption, emulsification, aeration (whipping) and heat setting and for increasing total protein content and improving the essential amino acids profile.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Soja , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Proteínas de Soja
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