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1.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 155: 107814, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421138

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence suggests us of real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems (RT-CGM), can assist to improve glucose control in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) treatment, however the impact of these devices on patients' stress levels and behaviour is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of RT-CGM on tolerance and acceptability of device wear, stress and diabetes management and motivation to change. METHODS: Twenty adults (10 men, 10 women) with T2D (aged 60.6 ±â€¯8.4 years, BMI 34.2 ±â€¯4.7 kg/m2), were randomised to a low-carbohydrate lifestyle plan whilst wearing a RT-CGM or an 'offline-blinded' (Blinded-CGM) monitoring system continuously for 12 weeks. Outcomes were glycaemic control (HbA1c), weight (kg) perceived stress scale (PSS), CGM device intolerance, acceptability, motivation to change and diabetes management behaviour questionnaires. RESULTS: Both groups experienced significant reductions in body weight (RT-CGM -7.4 ±â€¯4.5 kg vs. Blinded-CGM -5.5 ±â€¯4.0 kg) and HbA1c (-0.67 ±â€¯0.82% vs. -0.68 ±â€¯0.74%). There were no differences between groups for perceived stress (P = 0.47) or device intolerance at week 6 or 12 (both P > 0.30). However, there was evidence of greater acceptance of CGM in the RT-CGM group at week 12 (P = 0.03), improved blood glucose monitoring behaviour in the RT-CGM group at week 6 and week 12 (P ≤ 0.01), and a significant time x group interaction (P = 0.03) demonstrating improved diabetes self-management behaviours in RT-CGM. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of improved behaviours that accompany RT-CGM in the context of diabetes management and glucose self-monitoring. RT-CGM may provide an alternative approach to glucose management in individuals with T2D without resulting in increased disease distress.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
2.
J Intern Med ; 280(4): 388-97, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diets are used for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, but their effects on psychological health remain largely unknown. This study examined the long-term effects of an LC diet on psychological health. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen obese adults [age: 58.5 ± 7.1 years; body mass index: 34.6 ± 4.3 kg m(-2) ; HbA1c : 7.3 ± 1.1%] with T2DM were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted (~6 to 7 MJ), planned isocaloric LC or high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet, combined with a supervised exercise programme (3 days week(-1) ) for 1 year. Body weight, psychological mood state and well-being [Profile of Mood States (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SAI)] and diabetes-specific emotional distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) Questionnaire] and quality of life [QoL Diabetes-39 (D-39)] were assessed. RESULTS: Overall weight loss was 9.5 ± 0.5 kg (mean ± SE), with no difference between groups (P = 0.91 time × diet). Significant improvements occurred in BDI, POMS (total mood disturbance and the six subscales of anger-hostility, confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, vigour-activity and tension-anxiety), PAID (total score) and the D-39 dimensions of diabetes control, anxiety and worry, sexual functioning and energy and mobility, P < 0.05 time. SAI and the D-39 dimension of social burden remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.08 time). Diet composition had no effect on the responses for the outcomes assessed (P ≥ 0.22 time × diet). CONCLUSION: In obese adults with T2DM, both diets achieved substantial weight loss and comparable improvements in QoL, mood state and affect. These results suggest that either an LC or HC diet within a lifestyle modification programme that includes exercise training improves psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/psicologia , Afeto , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 35(3): 448-56, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20680017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous patterns of energy intake influence gastrointestinal function and appetite, probably reflecting changes in small-intestinal nutrient-mediated feedback. Obese individuals consume more fat and may be less sensitive to its gastrointestinal and appetite-suppressant effects than lean individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that, in obese individuals, the effects of duodenal fat on gastrointestinal motor and hormone function, and appetite would be enhanced by a short period on a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). METHODS: Eight obese men (body mass index 34±0.6 kg m(-2)) were studied on two occasions, before (V1), and immediately after (V2), a 4-day VLCD. On both occasions, antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide-YY (PYY) and ghrelin concentrations, and appetite perceptions were measured during a 120-min intraduodenal fat infusion (2.86 kcal min(-1)). Immediately afterwards, energy intake was quantified. RESULTS: During V2, basal pyloric pressure and the number and amplitude of isolated pyloric pressure waves (PWs) were greater, whereas the number of antral and duodenal PWs was less, compared with V1 (all P<0.05). Moreover, during V2, baseline ghrelin concentration was higher; the stimulation of PYY and suppression of ghrelin by lipid were greater, with no difference in CCK concentration; and hunger and energy intake (kJ; V1: 4378±691, V2: 3634±700) were less (all P<0.05), compared with V1. CONCLUSIONS: In obese males, the effects of small-intestinal lipid on gastrointestinal motility and some hormone responses and appetite are enhanced after a 4-day VLCD.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Duodeno/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum/fisiologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia
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