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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644773

RESUMO

Colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with chiral ligands are outstanding candidates as a circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) light source due to many advantages such as high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, large spin-orbit coupling, and extensive tunability via composition and choice of organic ligands. However, achieving pronounced and controllable polarized light emission remains challenging. Here, we develop strategies to achieve high CPL responses from colloidal formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3) NCs at room temperature using chiral surface ligands. First, we show that replacing a portion of typical ligands (oleylamine) with short chiral ligands ((R)-2-octylamine) during FAPbBr3 NC synthesis results in small and monodisperse NCs that yield high CPL with average luminescence dissymmetry g-factor, glum = 6.8 × 10-2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest among reported perovskite materials at room temperature to date and represents around 10-fold improvement over the previously reported colloidal CsPbClxBryI3-x-y NCs. In order to incorporate NCs into any optoelectronic or spintronic application, the NCs necessitate purification, which removes a substantial amount of the chiral ligands and extinguishes the CPL signals. To circumvent this issue, we also developed a postsynthetic ligand treatment using a different chiral ligand, (R-/S-)methylbenzylammonium bromide, which also induces a CPL with an average glum = ±1.18 × 10-2. This postsynthetic method is also amenable for long-range charge transport since methylbenzylammonium is quite compact in relation to other surface ligands. Our demonstrations of high CPL and glum from both as-synthesized and purified perovskite NCs at room temperature suggest a route to demonstrate colloidal NC-based spintronics.

2.
Adv Mater ; 32(32): e2000449, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609406

RESUMO

Lead-halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) or more broadly, nanocrystals possess advantageous features for solution-processed photovoltaic devices. The nanocrystal surface ligands play a crucial role in the transport of photogenerated carriers and ultimately affect the overall performance of PQD solar cells. Significantly improved CsPbI3 PQD synthetic yield and solar-cell performance through surface ligand management are demonstrated. The treatment of a secondary amine, di-n-propylamine (DPA), provides a mild and efficient approach to control the surface ligand density of PQDs, which has an apparently different working mechanism compared to previously reported surface treatments. Using an optimal DPA concentration, the treatment can simultaneously remove both long-chain insulating surface ligands of oleic acid and oleylamine, even for unpurified PQDs with high ligand density. As a result, the electrical coupling between PQDs is enhanced, leading to improved charge transport, reduced carrier recombination, and a high power conversion efficiency approaching 15% for CsPbI3 -PQD-based solar cells. In addition, the production yield of CsPbI3 PQDs can be increased by a factor of 8. These results highlight the importance of developing new ligand-management strategies, specifically for emerging PQDs to achieve scalable and high-performance perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2001906, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449221

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite quantum dots (Pe-QDs) are of great interest in new-generation photovoltaics (PVs). However, it remains challenging in the construction of conductive and intact Pe-QD films to maximize their functionality. Herein, a ligand-assisted surface matrix strategy to engineer the surface and packing states of Pe-QD solids is demonstrated by a mild thermal annealing treatment after ligand exchange processing (referred to as "LE-TA") triggered by guanidinium thiocyanate. The "LE-TA" method induces the formation of surface matrix on CsPbI3 QDs, which is dominated by the cationic guanidinium (GA+ ) rather than the SCN- , maintaining the intact cubic structure and facilitating interparticle electrical interaction of QD solids. Consequently, the GA-matrix-confined CsPbI3 QDs exhibit remarkably enhanced charge mobility and carrier diffusion length compared to control ones, leading to a champion power conversion efficiency of 15.21% when assembled in PVs, which is one of the highest among all Pe-QD solar cells. Additionally, the "LE-TA" method shows similar effects when applied to other Pe-QD PV systems like CsPbBr3 and FAPbI3 (FA = formamidinium), indicating its versatility in regulating the surfaces of various Pe-QDs. This work may afford new guidelines to construct electrically conductive and structurally intact Pe-QD solids for efficient optoelectronic devices.

4.
Science ; 368(6488)2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299922

RESUMO

Tsai et al (Reports, 6 April 2018, p. 67) report a uniform light-induced lattice expansion of metal halide perovskite films under 1-sun illumination and claim to exclude heat-induced lattice expansion. We show that by controlling the temperature of the perovskite film under both dark and illuminated conditions, the mechanism for lattice expansion is in fact fully consistent with heat-induced thermal expansion during illumination.

5.
Science ; 367(6482): 1097-1104, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139537

RESUMO

Wide-band gap metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors to pair with silicon in tandem solar cells to pursue the goal of achieving power conversion efficiency (PCE) greater than 30% at low cost. However, wide-band gap perovskite solar cells have been fundamentally limited by photoinduced phase segregation and low open-circuit voltage. We report efficient 1.67-electron volt wide-band gap perovskite top cells using triple-halide alloys (chlorine, bromine, iodine) to tailor the band gap and stabilize the semiconductor under illumination. We show a factor of 2 increase in photocarrier lifetime and charge-carrier mobility that resulted from enhancing the solubility of chlorine by replacing some of the iodine with bromine to shrink the lattice parameter. We observed a suppression of light-induced phase segregation in films even at 100-sun illumination intensity and less than 4% degradation in semitransparent top cells after 1000 hours of maximum power point (MPP) operation at 60°C. By integrating these top cells with silicon bottom cells, we achieved a PCE of 27% in two-terminal monolithic tandems with an area of 1 square centimeter.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 30911-30918, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373481

RESUMO

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is one of the few techniques that can specifically distinguish between organic cations such as methylammonium and formamidinium. Distinguishing between these two species can lead to specific insight into the origins and evolution of compositional inhomogeneity and chemical gradients in halide perovskite solar cells, which appears to be a key to advancing the technology. TOF-SIMS can obtain chemical information from hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in up to three dimensions, while not simply splitting the organic components into their molecular constituents (C, H, and N for both methylammonium and formamidinium), unlike other characterization methods. Here, we report on the apparently ubiquitous A-site organic cation gradient measured when doing TOF-SIMS depth-profiling of PSC films. Using thermomechanical methods to cleave perovskite samples at the buried glass/transparent conducting oxide interface enables depth profiling in a reverse direction from normal depth profiling (backside depth profiling). When comparing the backside depth profiles to the traditional front side profiled devices, an identical slight gradient in the A-site organic cation signal is observed in each case. This indicates that the apparent A-site cation gradient is a measurement artifact due to beam damage from the primary ion beam causing a continually decreasing ion yield for secondary ions of methylammonium and formamidinium. This is due to subsurface implantation and bond breaking from the 30 keV bismuth primary ion beam impact when profiling with too high of a data density. Here, we show that the beam-generated artifact associated with this damage can mostly be mitigated by altering the measurement conditions. We also report on a new method of depth profiling applied to PSC films that enables enhanced sensitivity to halide ions in positive measurement polarity, which can eliminate the need for a second measurement in negative polarity in most cases.

7.
Nature ; 571(7763): 38-39, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270487
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2842, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253800

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite semiconductors possess outstanding characteristics for optoelectronic applications including but not limited to photovoltaics. Low-dimensional and nanostructured motifs impart added functionality which can be exploited further. Moreover, wider cation composition tunability and tunable surface ligand properties of colloidal quantum dot (QD) perovskites now enable unprecedented device architectures which differ from thin-film perovskites fabricated from solvated molecular precursors. Here, using layer-by-layer deposition of perovskite QDs, we demonstrate solar cells with abrupt compositional changes throughout the perovskite film. We utilize this ability to abruptly control composition to create an internal heterojunction that facilitates charge separation at the internal interface leading to improved photocarrier harvesting. We show how the photovoltaic performance depends upon the heterojunction position, as well as the composition of each component, and we describe an architecture that greatly improves the performance of perovskite QD photovoltaics.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(27): e1902250, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074911

RESUMO

Doping of semiconductors enables fine control over the excess charge carriers, and thus the overall electronic properties, crucial to many technologies. Controlled doping in lead-halide perovskite semiconductors has thus far proven to be difficult. However, lower dimensional perovskites such as nanocrystals, with their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, are particularly well-suited for doping via ground-state molecular charge transfer. Here, the tunability of the electronic properties of perovskite nanocrystal arrays is detailed using physically adsorbed molecular dopants. Incorporation of the dopant molecules into electronically coupled CsPbI3 nanocrystal arrays is confirmed via infrared and photoelectron spectroscopies. Untreated CsPbI3 nanocrystal films are found to be slightly p-type with increasing conductivity achieved by incorporating the electron-accepting dopant 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4 TCNQ) and decreasing conductivity for the electron-donating dopant benzyl viologen. Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements reveal the time scales of Auger-mediated recombination in the presence of excess electrons or holes. Microwave conductance and field-effect transistor measurements demonstrate that both the local and long-range hole mobility are improved by F4 TCNQ doping of the nanocrystal arrays. The improved hole mobility in photoexcited p-type arrays leads to a pronounced enhancement in phototransistors.

10.
Chem Sci ; 10(7): 1904-1935, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881622

RESUMO

Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have dramatically changed the landscape of the solar research community over the past decade, but >25 year stability is likely required if they are to make the same impact in commercial photovoltaics and power generation more broadly. While every layer of a PSC has been shown to impact its durability in power output, the hole-transport layer (HTL) is critical for several reasons: (1) it is in direct contact with the perovskite layer, (2) it often contains mobile ions, like Li+ - which in this case are hygroscopic, and (3) it usually has the lowest thermal stability of all layers in the stack. Therefore, HTL engineering is one method with a high return on investment for PSC stability and lifetime. Research has progressed in understanding design rules for small organic molecule hole-transport materials, yet, when implemented into devices, the same dopants, bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt (LiTFSI) and tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert-butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tri[bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide] (FK209), are nearly always required for improved charge-transport properties (e.g., increased hole mobility and conductivity). The dopants are notable because they too have been shown to negatively impact PSC stability and lifetime. In response, new research has targeted alternative dopants to bypass these negative effects and provide greater functionality. In this review, we focus on dopant fundamentals, alternative doping strategies for organic small molecule HTL in PSC, and imminent research needs with regard to dopant development for the realization of reliable, long-lasting electricity generation via PSCs.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(10): 10327-10337, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251834

RESUMO

We present a cation-exchange approach for tunable A-site alloys of cesium (Cs+) and formamidinium (FA+) lead triiodide perovskite nanocrystals that enables the formation of compositions spanning the complete range of Cs1- xFA xPbI3, unlike thin-film alloys or the direct synthesis of alloyed perovskite nanocrystals. These materials show bright and finely tunable emission in the red and near-infrared range between 650 and 800 nm. The activation energy for the miscibility between Cs+ and FA+ is measured (∼0.65 eV) and is shown to be higher than reported for X-site exchange in lead halide perovskites. We use these alloyed colloidal perovskite quantum dots to fabricate photovoltaic devices. In addition to the expanded compositional range for Cs1- xFA xPbI3 materials, the quantum dot solar cells exhibit high open-circuit voltage ( VOC) with a lower loss than the thin-film perovskite devices of similar compositions.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(34): 28541-28552, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024148

RESUMO

Understanding the origins and evolution of inhomogeneity in halide perovskite solar cells appears to be a key to advancing the technology. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is one of the few techniques that can obtain chemical information from all components of halide organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaics in one-dimension (standard depth profiling), two-dimensions (high-resolution 100 nm imaging), as well as three-dimensions (tomography combining high-resolution imaging with depth profiling). TOF-SIMS has been used to analyze perovskite photovoltaics made by a variety of methods, and the breadth of insight that can be gained from this technique is illustrated here including: cation uniformity (depth and lateral), changes in chemistry upon alternate processing, changes in chemistry upon degradation (including at interfaces), and lateral distribution of passivating additives. Using TOF-SIMS on multiple perovskite compositions, we show that the information regarding halide perovskite formation as well as inhomogeneity critical to device performance can be extracted providing one of the best proxies for understanding compositional changes resulting from degradation. We also describe in detail the measurement artifacts and recommend the best practices that enable unique insight regarding halide perovskite solar cell materials and devices.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(33): 10504-10513, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044630

RESUMO

The ability to manipulate quantum dot (QD) surfaces is foundational to their technological deployment. Surface manipulation of metal halide perovskite (MHP) QDs has proven particularly challenging in comparison to that of more established inorganic materials due to dynamic surface species and low material formation energy; most conventional methods of chemical manipulation targeted at the MHP QD surface will result in transformation or dissolution of the MHP crystal. In previous work, we have demonstrated record-efficiency QD solar cells (QDSCs) based on ligand-exchange procedures that electronically couple MHP QDs yet maintain their nanocrystalline size, which stabilizes the corner-sharing structure of the constituent PbI64- octahedra with optoelectronic properties optimal for solar energy conversion. In this work, we employ a variety of spectroscopic techniques to develop a molecular-level understanding of the MHP QD surface chemistry in this system. We individually target both the anionic (oleate) and cationic (oleylammonium) ligands. We find that atmospheric moisture aids the process by hydrolysis of methyl acetate to generate acetic acid and methanol. Acetic acid then replaces native oleate ligands to yield QD surface-bound acetate and free oleic acid. The native oleylammonium ligands remain throughout this film deposition process and are exchanged during a final treatment step employing smaller cations-namely, formamidinium. This final treatment has a narrow processing window; initial treatment at this stage leads to a more strongly coupled QD regime followed by transformation into a bulk MHP film after longer treatment. These insights provide chemical understanding to the deposition of high-quality, electronically coupled MHP QD films that maintain both quantum confinement and their crystalline phase and attain high photovoltaic performance.

14.
Sci Adv ; 3(10): eaao4204, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098184

RESUMO

We developed lead halide perovskite quantum dot (QD) films with tuned surface chemistry based on A-site cation halide salt (AX) treatments. QD perovskites offer colloidal synthesis and processing using industrially friendly solvents, which decouples grain growth from film deposition, and at present produce larger open-circuit voltages (VOC's) than thin-film perovskites. CsPbI3 QDs, with a tunable bandgap between 1.75 and 2.13 eV, are an ideal top cell candidate for all-perovskite multijunction solar cells because of their demonstrated small VOC deficit. We show that charge carrier mobility within perovskite QD films is dictated by the chemical conditions at the QD-QD junctions. The AX treatments provide a method for tuning the coupling between perovskite QDs, which is exploited for improved charge transport for fabricating high-quality QD films and devices. The AX treatments presented here double the film mobility, enabling increased photocurrent, and lead to a record certified QD solar cell efficiency of 13.43%.

15.
Nanotechnology ; 28(45): 455201, 2017 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039355

RESUMO

Recently, all-inorganic perovskites such as CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3, have emerged as promising materials for light-emitting applications. While encouraging performance has been demonstrated, the stability issue of the red-emitting CsPbI3 is still a major concern due to its small tolerance factor. Here we report a highly stable CsPbI3 quantum dot (QD) light-emitting diode (LED) with red emission fabricated using an improved purification approach. The device achieved decent external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.21% at a bias of 6 V and outstanding operational stability, with a L 70 lifetime (EL intensity decreases to 70% of starting value) of 16 h and 1.5 h under a constant driving voltage of 5 V and 6 V (maximum EQE operation) respectively. Furthermore, the device can work under a higher voltage of 7 V (maximum luminance operation) and retain 50% of its initial EL intensity after 500 s. These findings demonstrate the promise of CsPbI3 QDs for stable red LEDs, and suggest the feasibility for electrically pumped perovskite lasers with further device optimizations.

16.
Chemistry ; 23(70): 17707-17713, 2017 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881054

RESUMO

Silver dimetal chalcogenide (Ag-V-VI2 ) ternary quantum dots (QDs) are emerging lead-free materials for optoelectronic devices due to their NIR band gaps, large absorption coefficients, and superior electronic properties. However, thin film-based devices of the ternary QDs still lag behind due to the lack of understanding of the surface chemistry, compared to that of lead chalcogenide QDs even with the same crystal structure. Herein the surface ligand interactions of AgSbS2 QDs, synthesized with 1-dodecanethiol used as a stabilizer, are studied. For nonpolar (1 0 0) surfaces, it is suggested that the thiolate ligands are associated with the crystal lattices, thus preventing surface oxidation by protecting sulfur after air-exposure, as confirmed through optical and surface chemical analysis. Otherwise, silver rich (1 1 1) surfaces are passivated by thiolate ligands, allowing ligand exchange processes for the conductive films. This in-depth investigation of the surface chemistry of ternary QDs will prompt the performance enhancement of their optoelectronic devices.

17.
Nano Lett ; 17(2): 1020-1027, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28068765

RESUMO

We developed a monolithic CdTe-PbS tandem solar cell architecture in which both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable band gap between 0.4 and ∼1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (Eg = 1.5 eV)-PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS band gap to be 0.75 eV to theoretically achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 45%. However, modeling shows that by allowing the thickness of the CdTe layer to vary, a tandem with efficiency over 40% is achievable using bottom cell band gaps ranging from 0.68 and 1.16 eV. In a first step toward developing this technology, we explore CdTe-PbS tandem devices by developing a ZnTe-ZnO tunnel junction, which appropriately combines the two subcells in series. We examine the basic characteristics of the solar cells as a function of layer thickness and bottom-cell band gap and demonstrate open-circuit voltages in excess of 1.1 V with matched short circuit current density of 10 mA/cm2 in prototype devices.

18.
Science ; 354(6308): 92-95, 2016 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846497

RESUMO

We show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3)-the variant with desirable band gap-is only stable at high temperatures. We describe the formation of α-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. These devices also function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

19.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3302-11, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895310

RESUMO

We use a high signal-to-noise X-ray photoelectron spectrum of bulk PbS, GW calculations, and a model assuming parabolic bands to unravel the various X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectral features of bulk PbS as well as determine how to best analyze the valence band region of PbS quantum dot (QD) films. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) are commonly used to probe the difference between the Fermi level and valence band maximum (VBM) for crystalline and thin-film semiconductors. However, we find that when the standard XPS/UPS analysis is used for PbS, the results are often unrealistic due to the low density of states at the VBM. Instead, a parabolic band model is used to determine the VBM for the PbS QD films, which is based on the bulk PbS experimental spectrum and bulk GW calculations. Our analysis highlights the breakdown of the Brillioun zone representation of the band diagram for large band gap, highly quantum confined PbS QDs. We have also determined that in 1,2-ethanedithiol-treated PbS QD films the Fermi level position is dependent on the QD size; specifically, the smallest band gap QD films have the Fermi level near the conduction band minimum and the Fermi level moves away from the conduction band for larger band gap PbS QD films. This change in the Fermi level within the QD band gap could be due to changes in the Pb:S ratio. In addition, we use inverse photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the conduction band region, which has similar challenges in the analysis of PbS QD films due to a low density of states near the conduction band minimum.

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(23): 4815-21, 2015 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26571095

RESUMO

We report on photoconductivity of films of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) using time-resolved microwave photoconductivity (TRMC). Spherical and tetrapodal CdTe NCs with tunable size-dependent properties are studied as a function of surface ligand (including inorganic molecular chalcogenide species) and annealing temperature. Relatively high carrier mobility is measured for films of sintered tetrapod NCs (4 cm(2)/(V s)). Our TRMC findings show that Te(2-) capped CdTe NCs show a marked improvement in carrier mobility (11 cm(2)/(V s)), indicating that NC surface termination can be altered to play a crucial role in charge-carrier mobility even after the NC solids are sintered into bulk films.

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