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1.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(Suppl 1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies have a negative impact on the health and economy of a nation, which can be prevented by effective family planning (FP) services. Postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUCD) is a safe and effective FP method which allows women to obtain long-acting contraception before discharge from the point of delivery. We observed poor coverage of deliveries with PPIUCD at our facility. This was the trigger to initiate a quality improvement (QI) initiative to increase the PPIUCD coverage from current rate of 4.5%-10% in 3-month period. METHOD: A fishbone analysis of the problem was done and the following causes were identified: lack of focused counselling for FP, lack of sensitisation and training of resident doctors and inconsistent supply of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A QI team was constituted with representatives from faculty members, residents, interns, nursing officers and FP counsellors. The point of care quality improvement methodology was used. INTERVENTIONS: Daily counselling of antenatal women was started by the counsellors and interns in antenatal wards. A WhatsApp group of residents was made initially to sensitise them; and later for parking of problems and trouble shooting. The residents were provided hands-on training at skills lab. Uninterrupted supply of IUCDs was ensured by provision of buffer stock of IUCDs with respective store keepers. RESULT: The PPIUCD insertion rates improved from 4.5% to 19.2% at 3 months and have been sustained to a current 30%-35% after 1 ½ years of initiation of the project tiding through the turbulence during the COVID-19 pandemic using QI techniques. CONCLUSION: Sensitisation and training of residents as well as creation of awareness among antenatal women through targeted counselling helped improve PPIUCD coverage at the facility. QI initiatives have the potential to facilitate effective implementation of the FP programmes by strategic utilisation of the resources.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Período Pós-Parto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , COVID-19 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez
2.
Dis Mon ; 67(11): 101223, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154807

RESUMO

The approach to management of thyroid disorders in the elderly differs from that for younger individuals: it considers frailty of the population, coexisting medical illness and medications, clearance rate of medications and drug-drug interactions along with target organ sensitivity to the treatment. We present a comprehensive review of literature for the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and management of thyroid disorders in the elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biotina/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Longevidade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/efeitos adversos
3.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 7(1): 29-31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851016

RESUMO

Objective: Adrenal insufficiency (AI), if not diagnosed in a timely manner, can lead to fatal outcomes. Here we describe an unusual case of AI secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) and the importance of being aware of the association of infections and AI. Methods: A 56-year-old Hispanic man with untreated HIV infection presented for the evaluation of left upper jaw swelling and pain. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a 4-cm soft-tissue mass in the left maxilla. Biopsy of the mass was consistent with histoplasmosis. He was also noted to have hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, which raised the suspicion of AI. Laboratory investigation showed a baseline cortisol level of 7 µg/dL (normal, 7-23 µg/dL) and adrenocorticotropic hormone level of 86 pg/mL (normal, 7-69 pg/mL). His 60-minute cortisol level after a 250-µg cosyntropin stimulation test was 9 µg/dL (normal, 7-23 µg/dL). Computed tomography of the chest incidentally noted bilateral adrenal enlargement. An adrenal biopsy was not pursued due to the high index of clinical suspicion of DH as the etiology of AI. Results: He was diagnosed with adrenal histoplasmosis because of the evidence of AI and bilateral adrenal enlargement in the setting of DH. He was started on glucocorticoid replacement for primary AI and continues to be on glucocorticoids even after 5 years of diagnosis. DH frequently involves the adrenal gland (80%) and can present as adrenal enlargement but does not always cause primary AI. Conclusion: Our case demonstrates the importance of being vigilant about infections like histoplasmosis as a potential cause of AI. Delay in treatment in such cases could result in life-threatening consequences.

4.
Case Rep Endocrinol ; 2020: 1728423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099691

RESUMO

We describe a case of worsening Graves' orbitopathy due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a 38-year-old HIV-infected male after beginning ART (antiretroviral therapy). Two years after initiation of ART, the patient developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thyroid eye disease (TED) or Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Thyroid iodine uptake scan was consistent with Graves' disease. The CT scan of the orbits revealed minimal right-sided proptosis, consistent with GO. He was treated with methimazole and a short course of high-dose prednisone for GO. Thyroid function tests normalized, and eye symptoms eventually stabilized. This case demonstrates the importance of awareness and early recognition of IRIS in its many forms, as it has significant therapeutic implications.

5.
Case Rep Endocrinol ; 2019: 2012546, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341683

RESUMO

Pituitary hyperplasia is commonly present but remains largely undiagnosed in primary hypothyroidism. It is easily reversible with thyroid replacement therapy. If imaging is performed prior to biochemical evaluation, then patients may undergo pituitary surgery. We present the case of a 34-year-old female with profound primary hypothyroidism and secondary pituitary hyperplasia that resolved after thyroid hormone supplementation. We will discuss the current literature regarding pituitary hyperplasia in primary hypothyroidism in adults.

6.
Cureus ; 11(4): e4384, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218148

RESUMO

We describe the case report of a patient with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA), in the setting of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor use, complicated by hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). A 28-year-old female with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on dapagliflozin and metformin presented with a one-week history of polyuria, poor appetite, and vomiting. On admission, serum glucose was 111 mg/dl, bicarbonate 18 mmol/l, anion gap 20, triglycerides 508 mg/dL, and venous pH 7.27. Serum ketone levels could not be assessed, as blood samples kept hemolyzing due to significant lipemia. The patient was initially admitted for starvation ketosis. However, serum chemistry obtained six hours after presentation revealed no change in the anion gap and a rise in triglycerides. She was treated with an insulin drip for euDKA and HTG with the resolution of the clinical picture. We performed a literature review of this topic and discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and prevention of SGLT2-inhibitor-induced euDKA.

7.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 5(6): e339-e343, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967066

RESUMO

Objective: To present a case of recurrent hypoglycemia following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery whose etiology was determined to be a proinsulin-predominant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (a proinsulinoma). Methods: A case report along with a brief discussion and review of the pertinent literature is presented. Results: The patient is a 62-year-old female who presented with symptomatic hypoglycemia 11 years after RYGB surgery. Initial workup revealed low insulin levels with elevated proinsulin levels. A 72-hour fast confirmed the presence of proinsulin-induced hypoglycemia secondary to a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). She underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and a PNET tumor was successfully removed with resolution of her symptoms. Conclusion: Hypoglycemia after RYGB surgery is a well-established syndrome. While there are several etiologies for this, PNETs (including proinsulinomas) should be considered in the differential diagnosis in this population. Proinsulinomas are an increasingly recognized cause of hypoglycemia. Proinsulin levels must always be included as part of the workup of hypoglycemia in an adult.

8.
Int J Womens Dermatol ; 3(1 Suppl): S6-S10, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492032

RESUMO

Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth in a male pattern in females. It typically affects 5 to 10% of reproductive-age women. Excessive hair growth can often cause significant psychological and emotional distress. As a result, hirsutism is a common presenting complaint to healthcare professionals, including dermatologists, as women search for cosmetic and medical solutions to their problem. Hirsutism results from excess production of androgens, often from ovarian or adrenal sources. It is typically associated with a metabolic syndrome like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), but can be idiopathic or medication-induced. This article provides an endocrine perspective for the evaluation and management of hirsutism.

9.
Int J Womens Dermatol ; 1(2): 90-94, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28491965

RESUMO

Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth in a male pattern in females. It typically affects 5 to 10% of reproductive-age women. Excessive hair growth can often cause significant psychological and emotional distress. As a result, hirsutism is a common presenting complaint to healthcare professionals, including dermatologists, as women search for cosmetic and medical solutions to their problem. Hirsutism results from excess production of androgens, often from ovarian or adrenal sources. It is typically associated with a metabolic syndrome like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), but can be idiopathic or medication-induced. This article provides an endocrine perspective for the evaluation and management of hirsutism.

10.
Endocr Pract ; 19(5): e115-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23757619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual case of subungual exostosis in a patient on teriparatide. METHODS: We describe the presentation and symptoms of the patient and review of the relevant literature. RESULTS: Teriparatide is used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Rat studies using 3-60x the approved human dose have shown an association between teriparatide and an increased risk of osteosarcoma. Subungual exostosis, to our knowledge, has not been reported. We report the case of a 54-year-old female who presented with a 4-month history of pain and swelling in the medial side of her right thumb with no preceding trauma. The patient had history of severe osteoporosis with multiple fractures and was on teriparatide for 16 months. On examination, the right thumb was swollen and tender with no superficial erythema or signs of an infection. X-ray imaging revealed a trabecular bony overgrowth consistent with subungual exostosis. The patient was treated with subungual excision. Pathology showed endochondral bone formation with reactive atypia, consistent with osteocartilaginous exostosis. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case hypothesizing an association between teriparatide and subungual exostosis. Subungual exostosis is a benign growth of bone that arises in the distal phalanx, under or adjacent to the nail bed. The pathophysiology is not clearly understood, but the lesion has base of trabecular bone with a proliferating fibrocartilaginous cap. Teriparatide can stimulate the trabecular bone formation. Hence, an association between the use of teriparatide and the development of subungal exostosis cannot be excluded. Further studies delineating this relationship are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Exostose/induzido quimicamente , Exostose/diagnóstico , Doenças da Unha/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Unha/diagnóstico , Osteocondroma/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondroma/diagnóstico , Teriparatida/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Aging Male ; 11(2): 71-5, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18570058

RESUMO

The cardio protective effect of estrogen in women has come under scrutiny as recent evidence from long-term trials has demonstrated negative findings. In contrast, the effect of endogenous sex hormones, specifically estrogen, on cardiovascular disease, inflammation and clotting parameters in men has not been well-studied. Men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer provide a unique model to study the effect of estrogen alone on inflammation and clotting factors. In a short-term randomized controlled trial of 17-beta estradiol (E(2)) versus placebo, we measured sex hormones, markers of inflammation including homocysteine (HC), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and coagulation factors including fibrinogen, plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and anti-thrombin-III (AT-III) in 27 older men without bone metastases receiving androgen deprivation therapy or neoadjuvant treatment for prostate cancer. After 9 weeks of E(2) treatment, there was no difference in inflammation or clotting parameters between groups, but after 9 weeks of treatment AT-III increased in the E(2) treated group and decreased in the placebo group. CRP, homocysteine and IL-6 did not show any significant differences. We also evaluated the above parameters in 12 men 3 weeks after acute steroid withdrawal with androgen deprivation therapy and found no significant changes. We found an increase in AT-III in men receiving E(2) which may be related to gonadal steroid withdrawal, but no significant differences in other inflammatory or clotting factor parameters. While the current report is very preliminary in a small group of subjects, further studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of E(2) in this population of hypogonadal men.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Estradiol/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino
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