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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e020489, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870735

RESUMO

Background Increased carotid intima-media thickness, interadventitial diameter, presence of carotid plaque, and lower distensibility are predictors for cardiovascular disease. These indices likely relate to cerebrovascular disease, and thus may constitute a form of vascular contributions to dementia and Alzheimer disease-related dementia. Therefore, we assessed the relationship of carotid measurements and arterial stiffness with incident dementia in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study. Methods and Results A total of 12 459 ARIC participants with carotid arterial ultrasounds in 1990 to 1992 were followed through 2017 for dementia. Dementia cases were identified using in-person and phone cognitive status assessments, hospitalization discharge codes, and death certificate codes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for incident dementia. Participants were aged 57±6 at baseline, 57% were women, and 23% were Black individuals. Over a median follow-up time of 24 years, 2224 dementia events were ascertained. After multivariable adjustments, the highest quintile of carotid intima-media thickness and interadventitial diameter in midlife was associated with increased risk of dementia (HR [95% CIs], 1.25 [1.08-1.45]; and 1.22 [1.04-1.43], respectively) compared with its respective lowest quintile. Presence of carotid plaque did not have a significant association with dementia (HR [95% CI], 1.06 [0.97-1.15]). Higher distensibility was associated with lower risk of dementia (HR [95% CI] highest versus lowest quintile, 0.76 [0.63-0.91]). Conclusions Greater carotid intima-media thickness, interadventitial diameter, and lower carotid distensibility are associated with an increased risk of incident dementia. These findings suggest that both atherosclerosis and carotid stiffness may be implicated in dementia risk.

2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of premature atrial contraction (PAC) frequency with cognitive test scores and prevalence of dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study visit 6 (January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2017) data. We included 2163 participants without atrial fibrillation (AF) (age mean ± SD, 79±4 years; 1273 (58.9%) female; and 604 (27.97.0% Black) who underwent cognitive testing and wore a leadless, ambulatory electrocardiogram monitor for 14 days. We categorized PAC frequency based on the percent of beats: less than 1%, minimal; 1% to <5%, occasional; greater than or equal to 5%, frequent. We derived cognitive domain-specific factor scores (memory, executive function, language, and global z-score). Dementia and MCI were adjudicated. RESULTS: During a mean analyzable time of 12.6±2.6 days, 339 (15.7%) had occasional PACs and 107 (4.9%) had frequent PACs. Individuals with frequent PACs (vs minimal) had lower executive function factor scores by 0.30 (95% CI, -0.46 to -0.14) and lower global factor scores by 0.20 (95% CI, -0.33 to -0.07) after multivariable adjustment. Individuals with frequent PACs (vs minimal) had higher odds of prevalent dementia or MCI after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.79). These associations were unchanged with additional adjustment for stroke. CONCLUSION: In community-dwelling older adults without AF, frequent PACs were cross-sectionally associated with lower executive and global cognitive function and greater prevalence of dementia or MCI, independently of stroke. Our findings lend support to the notion that atrial cardiomyopathy may be a driver of AF-related outcomes. Further research to confirm these associations prospectively and to elucidate underlying mechanisms is warranted.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several hemostatic factors and inflammatory markers are associated with the risk of incident venous thromboembolism (VTE), however, most existing data are from case-control studies in Caucasian populations. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively confirm previous findings and explore less studied biomarkers in relation to VTE risk in a multi-racial/multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: Circulating levels of factor VIII, fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured at baseline (2000-2002) in 6706 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Incident VTE was identified using hospitalization discharge codes from baseline to December 31, 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) of VTE were estimated in Cox regression models. RESULTS: There were 227 events during a median of 14 years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, the HRs for those above the 95th percentile and p for trend across categories were 3.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98-6.19; p < .001) for D-dimer, 1.49 (95% CI 0.84-2.63; p = .02) for factor VIII, 1.32 (95% CI 0.76-2.28; p = .99) for fibrinogen, 1.92 (95% CI 1.08-3.42; p = .15) for PAP, 1.68 (95% CI 0.81-3.48; p = .08) for CRP, and 2.55 (95% CI 1.15-5.66; p = .07) for IL-6, after adjustment for demographics and body mass index. For CRP and IL-6, follow-up was restricted to 10 years because of violations of the proportional hazards assumption. No significant interactions by age/ethnicity were observed. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a fairly novel association between PAP and risk of incident VTE, and contributed further prospective confirmation regarding the associations of D-dimer, factor VIII, and IL-6 with VTE.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 332: 70-77, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature atrial contractions (PACs) are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischemic stroke. Although lifestyle and risk factor modification reduces AF incidence, their relationship to PACs frequency is unclear. We assessed the association of Life's Simple 7 (LS7) and individual LS7 factors in midlife with PACs frequency in late life in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: We followed 1924 participants from ARIC clinic Visit 3 (1993--95) to Visit 6 (2016-17) when a 2-week continuous heart rhythm monitor (Zio®XT Patch) was applied. LS7 factors were assessed at Visit 3 and a composite score was calculated. PACs frequency was categorized as minimal (<0.1%), occasional (≥0.1%-5%) and frequent (>5%). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of LS7 score and individual factors with PACs frequency. RESULTS: Each 1-point LS7 score increase was associated with lower odds of frequent PACs vs. no PACs (OR [95% CI]: 0.87 [0.78, 0.98]) and frequent PACs vs. occasional PACs (OR [95% CI]: 0.88 [0.79, 0.98]). Of the individual LS7 factors, compared with ideal physical activity, poor physical activity was associated with 81% higher odds of frequent PACs vs. no PACs. Compared with ideal BMI, poor BMI was associated with 41% higher odds of occasional PACs vs. no PACs. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk factors, particularly physical activity and BMI, are associated with higher odds of PACs frequency. More research is needed to determine whether modifying these risk factors in midlife would prevent frequent PACs, and thereby prevent AF and stroke in older age.

5.
Sleep Health ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of data exploring the extent that preclinical cognitive changes are predictive of subsequent sleep outcomes. METHODS: Logistic regression models were used to evaluate data from a cohort of 196 African American adults who had measures of cognitive function assessed at 2 time points during a 20-year period across the mid- to late-life transition. Cognitive testing included the Delayed Word Recall, the Digit Symbol Substitution, and the Word Fluency tests, which were summarized as a composite cognitive z-score. Sleep apnea was measured by in-home sleep apnea testing and sleep duration and quality were derived from 7-day wrist actigraphy at the end of the study period. RESULTS: A one standard deviation (SD) lower composite cognitive z-score at baseline was significantly associated with greater odds of low sleep efficiency (<85%) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 3.04) and greater odds of increased wakefulness after sleep onset time (WASO; >60 minutes) (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.60) in adjusted models. A one SD faster rate of cognitive decline over the study period was significantly associated with greater odds of low sleep efficiency (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.73), greater odds of sleep fragmentation (>35%); (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.85), and greater odds of increased WASO (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.95) in adjusted models. Neither baseline cognitive z-score nor rate of cognitive decline was associated with sleep apnea or the total average sleep duration. CONCLUSION: Cognition at baseline and change over time predicts sleep quality and may reflect common neural mechanisms and vulnerabilities.

6.
Am J Med ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Published studies are inconsistent about whether differences in diet are associated with risk of venous thromboembolism. We studied the association between dietary patterns and incident venous thromboembolism in a large US cohort. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study followed 14,818 middle-aged males and females for incident venous thromboembolism over an average of 22 years between 1987 and 2015. Trained interviewers assessed dietary intake at visits 1 and 3, using a food frequency questionnaire. We derived 2 dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis and ascertained and verified hospitalized venous thromboembolism. In separate proportional hazards regression analyses, we examined associations of quintiles of the prudent and the Western dietary pattern scores with risk of developing non-cancer-related and total venous thromboembolism, adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, body mass index, and diabetes. RESULTS: With 860 total incident venous thromboembolism events, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of incident non-cancer-related venous thromboembolism (n = 631) across quintiles of the prudent dietary pattern score were 1 (reference), 1.04 (0.81-1.32), 0.84 (0.65-1.08), 0.70 (0.53-0.91), and 0.88 (0.67-1.15), Ptrend = .04. Across quintiles of the Western dietary pattern score, hazard ratios of non-cancer-related venous thromboembolism were 1 (reference), 1.13 (0.87-1.45), 1.20 (0.92-1.56), 1.03 (0.77-1.39), and 1.58 (1.13-2.21), Ptrend = .04. Associations were similar for total venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based cohort, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of future venous thromboembolism, whereas a Western dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk.

7.
Circulation ; 143(8): e254-e743, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). METHODS: The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2021 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, vascular contributions to brain health, the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors related to cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Each of the 27 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, health care administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.

9.
Thorax ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor sleep may contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) through several pathways, including hypoxia-induced systemic and intraglomerular pressure, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. However, few studies have investigated the association between multiple objectively measured sleep dimensions and CKD. METHODS: We investigated the cross-sectional association between sleep dimensions and CKD among 1895 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Sleep Ancillary Study participants who completed in-home polysomnography, wrist actigraphy and a sleep questionnaire. Using Poisson regression models with robust variance, we estimated separate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs for moderate-to-severe CKD (glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria >30 mg/g) among participants according to multiple sleep dimensions, including very short (≤5 hours) sleep, Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index and sleep apnoea-specific hypoxic burden (SASHB) (total area under the respiratory event-related desaturation curve divided by total sleep duration, %min/hour)). Regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 1895 participants, mean age was 68.2±9.1 years, 54% were women, 37% were white, 28% black, 24% Hispanic/Latino and 11% Asian. Several sleep metrics were associated with higher adjusted PR of moderate-to-severe CKD: very short versus recommended sleep duration (PR=1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.83); SASHB (Box-Cox transformed SASHB: PR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12); and for participants in the highest quintile of SASHB plus sleep apnoea: PR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.63. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep apnoea associated hypoxia and very short sleep, likely representing independent biological mechanisms, were associated with a higher moderate-to-severe CKD prevalence, which highlights the potential role for novel interventions.

10.
J Electrocardiol ; 63: 98-103, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is challenging to diagnose due to its intermittent nature. Circadian rhythmicity has been reported for cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction; whether diurnal variation exists for paroxysmal AF is less known. We characterized the temporal pattern of AF initiation in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective community-based cohort study. METHODS: We included 74 ARIC study participants with paroxysmal AF detected by the Zio XT Patch at ARIC Visit 6 in 2016-17. We divided each participant's 2-week continuous monitoring data into 3-h intervals and summed the number of AF episodes in each interval. We performed Poisson regression using generalized estimating equations to estimate the effect of time of day on the number of AF episodes. RESULTS: Compared to the reference interval of time 00:00-02:59, the time intervals 12:00-14:59, 15:00-17:59, and 18:00-20:59 had significantly higher frequency of AF initiation. Rate ratios (95% CI) for mean number of episodes in these three intervals were 1.91 (1.11, 2.92), 2.54 (1.42, 4.53), and 1.99 (1.19, 3.25) respectively. Furthermore, we found no significant association between duration of episode and time of day. CONCLUSION: There is diurnal variation in the initiation of AF episodes, with a peak in frequency in the late afternoon. Our finding is consistent with sympathetically driven AF. Pulse palpation or obtaining an electrocardiogram in the late afternoon may produce the highest diagnostic yield for AF.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy has yet to be described in a non-clinical, racially diverse, community-based cohort. METHODS: Four questions assessing health literacy were asked during annual phone encounters with Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants between 2016 and 2018 (n = 3629). We used prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to characterize how demographic and acculturation factors related to limited health literacy. Models adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and race/ethnicity-stratified models were also examined. RESULTS: Limited health literacy was prevalent in 15.4% of the sample. Participants who were older, female, lower-income, or less acculturated were at greater risk for having limited health literacy. Chinese, Hispanic, and Black participants were more likely than White participants to have limited health literacy. Patterns were similar when stratified by race/ethnicity. DISCUSSION: Within MESA limited health literacy was common, particularly among Chinese and Hispanic participants, with some of the variance explained by differences in acculturation.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017546, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170065

RESUMO

Background The impact of the new 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) hypertension guideline on dementia risk at the population level has not been evaluated. Methods and Results We studied dementia-free participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study cohort in 1987 to 1989. Hypertension was defined by 2003 Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines using blood pressure measured at baseline. Dementia was defined using adjudicated consensus diagnoses, informant telephone interviews, and discharge codes from hospitalizations and death certificates. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for dementia and 95% CIs by hypertension categories, adjusting for confounders. Population attributable fraction of dementia was calculated by hypertension categories. Among 13 971 participants followed up for a median of 23 years, 1381 dementia cases were identified. Prevalence of hypertension was 34% and 48%, according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and ACC/AHA criteria, respectively. HRs (95% CIs) compared with normal blood pressure, according to ACC/AHA categories, were 1.35 (1.12-1.61) for elevated blood pressure, 1.28 (1.07-1.52) for hypertension stage 1, and 1.36 (1.18-1.57) for hypertension stage 2. Population attributable fractions (95% CIs) of dementia from blood pressure categories were 3% (1%-5%), 3% (1%-5%), and 9% (4%-14%), respectively. Population attributable fractions (95% CIs) using the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure categories were 6% (3%-9%) for prehypertension, 0% (-2% to 2%) for hypertension stage 1, and 9% (5%-13%) for hypertension stage 2. Conclusions Risk of dementia increased across hypertension categories defined by ACC/AHA guidelines. The population impact on dementia incidence using ACC/AHA categories was similar to the impact of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute infections are known triggers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but how this association varies across infection types is unknown. We hypothesized while acute infections increase CVD risk, the strength of this association varies across infection types. METHOD: Acute coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke cases were identified in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). ICD-9 codes from Medicare claims were used to identify cellulitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTI), and bloodstream infections. A case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression were used to compare infection types among acute CHD and stroke cases 14, 30, 42, and 90 days before the event with two corresponding control periods (1 and 2 years prior). RESULTS: Of the 1312 acute CHD cases, 116 had a UTI, 102 had pneumonia, 43 had cellulitis, and 28 had a bloodstream infection 90 days before the CHD event. Pneumonia (OR = 25.53 (9.21,70.78)), UTI (OR = 3.32 (1.93, 5.71)), bloodstream infections (OR = 5.93 (2.07, 17.00)), and cellulitis (OR = 2.58 (1.09, 6.13)) were associated with higher acute CHD risk within 14 days of infection. Of the 727 ischemic stroke cases, 12 had cellulitis, 27 had pneumonia, 56 had a UTI, and 5 had a bloodstream infection within 90 days of the stroke. Pneumonia (OR = 5.59 (1.77, 17.67)) and UTI (OR = 3.16 (1.68, 5.94)) were associated with higher stroke risk within 14 days of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with pneumonia, UTI, or bloodstream infection appear to be at a 2.5 to 25.5 fold elevated CVD risk following infection. Preventive therapies during this high-risk period should be considered.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050118

RESUMO

Higher serum magnesium is associated with lower risk of multiple morbidities, including diabetes, stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but its potential neuroprotective properties have also been gaining traction in cognitive function and decline research. We studied 12,040 participants presumed free of dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Serum magnesium was measured in fasting blood samples collected in 1990-1992. Dementia status was ascertained through cognitive examinations in 2011-2013, 2016-2017, and 2018-2019, along with informant interviews and indicators of dementia-related hospitalization events and death. Participants' cognitive functioning capabilities were assessed up to five times between 1990-1992 and 2018-2019. The cognitive function of participants who did not attend follow-up study visits was imputed to account for attrition. We identified 2519 cases of dementia over a median follow-up period of 24.2 years. The lowest quintile of serum magnesium was associated with a 24% higher rate of incident dementia compared to those in the highest quintile of magnesium (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07, 1.44). No relationship was found between serum magnesium and cognitive decline in any cognitive domain. Low midlife serum magnesium is associated with increased risk of incident dementia, but does not appear to impact rates of cognitive decline.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 137: 31-38, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998009

RESUMO

The American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metric consists of 7 modifiable risk factors. Although a more favorable LS7 risk factor profile is associated with lower AF incidence, this relation is unknown in regard to AF burden. We assessed the prospective association of overall LS7 score and individual LS7 risk factors in midlife with AF burden in late-life in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. LS7 components were assessed at Visit 3 (1993 to 1995) and a composite score ranging from 0 to 14 was calculated. A higher score indicates better cardiovascular health. AF burden was measured at Visit 6 (2016 to 2017) with a 2-week Zio XT Patch. AF burden, defined as the percent of time a participant was in AF, was categorized as none, intermittent (>0 to <100%), or continuous (100%). Weighted multinomial logistic regression was used. Of the 2,363 participants, 58% were female and 24% were black. Participants were aged 57 ± 5 years at Visit 3 and 79 ± 5 years at Visit 6. From the Zio XT Patch, 5% had continuous AF, 4% had intermittent AF, and 91% had none. After multivariable adjustment, each 1-point increase in LS7 score had 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.95) higher odds of continuous AF than no AF. Individually, poor levels of physical activity, BMI, and fasting blood glucose were associated with greater AF burden. In conclusion, this population-based prospective cohort study reports that unfavorable cardiovascular health profile in midlife is associated with higher AF burden in late-life and future research to evaluate the effectiveness of optimizing physical activity, BMI, and fasting blood glucose in lowering AF burden is warranted.

16.
Neuroimage ; 223: 117324, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited information exists regarding the association between midlife lipid levels and late-life total and regional brain volumes. METHODS: We studied 1872 participants in the longitudinal community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study. Serum lipid levels were measured in 1987-1989 (mean age, 53 ± 5 years). Participants underwent 3T brain MRI scans in 2011-2013. Brain volumes were measured using FreeSurfer image analysis software. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations between serum lipids and brain volumes modeled in standard deviation (SD) units, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, one SD higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels were associated with larger total brain volumes (ß 0.033, 95% CI 0.006-0.060) as well as larger volumes of the temporal (ß 0.038, 95% CI 0.003-0.074) and parietal lobes (ß 0.044, 95% CI 0.009-0.07) and Alzheimer disease-related region (ß 0.048, 95% CI 0.048-0.085). Higher triglyceride levels were associated with smaller total brain volumes (ß -0.033, 95% CI -0.060, -0.007). The associations between LDL levels and brain volumes were modified by age (P for interaction <0.001), with higher LDL levels associated with larger total and regional brain volumes only among adults >53 years at baseline, and were attenuated after application of weights to account for informative attrition, although associations with the parietal and Alzheimer's disease-related region remained significant. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with brain volumes. CONCLUSION: Higher LDL levels in late midlife were associated with larger brain volumes later in life, while higher triglyceride levels were associated with smaller brain volumes. These associations were driven by adults >53 years at baseline.

17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(12): 2465-2471, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Weight gain increases risk of cardiovascular disease, but has not been examined extensively in relationship to venous thromboembolism (VTE). The association between weight change over 9 years and subsequent VTE among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was examined, with a hypothesis that excess weight gain is a risk factor for VTE, relative to no weight change. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Quintiles of 9-year weight change were calculated (visit 4 1996-1998 weight minus visit 1 1987-1989 weight in kg: Quintile 1: ≥-1.81 kg; Quintile 2: <-1.81 to ≤1.36 kg; Quintile 3: >1.36 to ≤4.08 kg; Quintile 4: >4.08 to ≤7.71 kg; Quintile 5: >7.71 kg). Incident VTEs from visit 4 (1996-1998) through 2015 were identified and adjudicated using medical records. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox models. RESULTS: 529 incident VTEs were identified during an average of 19 years of follow up. Compared to Quintile 2, participants in Quintile 5 of weight change had 1.46 times the rate of incident VTE (HR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.09, 1.95), adjusted for age, race, sex, income, physical activity, smoking, and prevalent CVD). The HR for Quintile 5 was modestly attenuated to 1.38 (95% CI 1.03, 1.84) when visit 1 BMI was included in the model. When examined separately, results were significant for unprovoked VTE, but not for provoked VTE. Among those obese at visit 1, both weight gain (HR 1.86 95% CI 1.27, 2.71) and weight loss (HR 2.11 95% CI 1.39, 3.19) were associated with incident VTE, compared with normal-weight participants with no weight change. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain later life was associated with increased risk for unprovoked VTE. Among those with obesity, both weight gain and weight loss were associated with increased risk for VTE.

18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2756-2763, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease that has a genetic basis. Lifestyle factors contribute to risk, but it is unknown whether healthy lifestyle can mitigate the genetic risk. We studied whether greater adherence to the American Heart Association's cardiovascular health metric, Life's Simple 7 (LS7), is associated with lower incidence of VTE in individuals across categories of a genetic risk score (GRS) for VTE. Approach AND RESULTS: We followed 9026 White participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study, a prospective cohort enrolled in 1987 to 1989 until 2015. We tested the joint associations with VTE of a validated VTE GRS comprising 5 well-known gene variants and baseline LS7 categories. There were 466 incident VTE events over 22.8 years. Participants with an optimal LS7 score had a lower incidence of VTE (3.9%) than those with inadequate LS7 (5.7%). Compared with the high GRS and inadequate LS7 group (hazard ratio=1), those with high GRS and optimal LS7 indeed had a reduced hazard ratio of VTE: 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89). The group with low GRS and optimal LS7 had the lowest hazard ratio of VTE (0.39 [95% CI, 0.25-0.61]). Of the LS7 components, in all GRS groups, the factor most strongly protective for VTE was normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: Among people at low or high genetic risk for VTE, healthier lifestyle factors, particularly normal weight, were associated with a lower incidence of VTE. Further studies should determine the impact of lifestyle changes among patients at high genetic risk of VTE, such as in thrombophilic families.

19.
J Electrocardiol ; 62: 20-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low serum magnesium (Mg) is associated with an increased incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A richer phenotyping of arrhythmia indices, such as burden or frequency, may provide etiologic insights. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cross-sectional associations of serum Mg with burden of atrial arrhythmias [atrial fibrillation (AF), premature atrial contractions (PAC), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)], and ventricular arrhythmias [premature ventricular contractions (PVC), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT)] over 2-weeks of ECG monitoring. METHODS: We included 2513 ARIC Study visit 6 (2016-2017) participants who wore the Zio XT Patch-a leadless, ambulatory ECG-monitor-for up to 2-weeks. Serum Mg was modeled categorically and continuously. AF burden was categorized as intermittent or continuous based on the percent of analyzable time spent in AF. Other arrhythmia burdens were defined by the average number of abnormal beats per day. Linear regression was used for continuous outcomes; logistic and multinomial regression were used for categorical outcomes. RESULTS: Participants were mean ± SD age 79 ± 5 years, 58% were women and 25% black. Mean serum Mg was 0.82 ± 0.08 mmol/L and 19% had hypomagnesemia (<0.75 mmol/L). Serum Mg was inversely associated with PVC burden and continuous AF. The AF association was no longer statistically significant with further adjustment for traditional lifestyle risk factors, only the association with PVC burden remained significant. There were no associations between serum Mg and other arrhythmias examined. CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based cohort of older adults, we found little evidence of independent cross-sectional associations between serum Mg and arrhythmia burden.

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