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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17317, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574862

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the principal cause of impairment in the motor function and gait of adults. One of the resources used in rehabilitation to optimize gait is a prescription of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), and the most prescribed AFOs are Fixed AFO and Articulated AFO; however, it is not known which of these options is more effective for these individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of different types of ankle-foot orthosis functional mobility and dynamic balance in stroke patients. METHODS: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 parallel groups will be conducted, and the aim is to recruit 50 patients with stroke diagnosis within 1 year, who indicated that they use both types of orthotics, who had a previous Rankin score less than or equal to 3, and who obtained AFO orthosis through the Hospital Clinics at the Botucatu Medical School (HCBMS) São Paulo, Brazil. After a specific evaluation by a physiotherapist, the patient will receive 1 of the AFO types via randomization. After 30 days, the patient will be reevaluated. The primary outcomes will be balance and mobility, which will be evaluated by the Time Up Go Test (TUG) and Tinetti's Scale of Mobility and Balance (TSMB). The secondary outcomes will be quality of life and the levels of anxiety and depression, which will be evaluated with the European (5D) Quality of Life Scale (Euroqol) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Group allocation will be not concealed because the blinding of participants and of therapists that provide intervention is not possible, and all analyses will be based on an intention-to-treat principle. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the São Paulo State University UNESP, number 2.367.953. The results will be published in relevant journal. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will contribute to clinical practice by identifying the type of AFO orthosis that is more suitable for this condition, helping to standardize prescription of these orthoses by professionals, and guiding future research studies on this subject, which is still incompletely defined in the literature. TRIAL REGISTRATION: RBR-6SF2VV (March 5, 2018).


Assuntos
Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Órtoses do Pé/normas , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Qualidade de Vida , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
2.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(3): 311-321, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039895

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of physical therapy on the cognitive and functional capacity of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is a systematic review of randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials, using the descriptors: AD, dementia and physical therapy. Two studies were included with a total of 207 participants. In study 1, no statistically significant difference was found on the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (MD 0.0, 95%CI −5.76 to 5.76), neuropsychiatric inventory (MD −4.50, 95%CI −21.24 to 12.24) and Pfeffer instrumental activities questionnaire (MD 0.0 95%CI −6.48 to 6.48). In study 2, there was no statistically significant difference on the MMSE (MD −1.60, 95% CI −3.57 to 0.37), clock-drawing test (MD −0.20, 95%CI −0.61 to 0.21) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (MD 1.0, 95%CI −2.21 to 4.21) after 12 months. There was no consistent evidence on the effectiveness of physiotherapeutic intervention in improving cognitive function and functional capacity of patients with AD. More studies should be conducted for better evidence.


RESUMO O objetivo do estudo é avaliar os efeitos da fisioterapia na capacidade cognitiva e funcional de pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA). Trata-se de revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados ou quasi-randomizados utilizando os descritores: DA, demência e fisioterapia. Dois estudos foram incluídos, com um total de 207 participantes. No Estudo 1, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa no miniexame do estado mental (MEEM) (MD 0,0, IC 95% 5,76−5,76), inventário neuropsiquiátrico (MD −4,50, IC 95% 12,24−21,24) e questionário de atividades instrumentais Pfeffer (MD 0,0 IC 95% −6,48 a 6,48). No Estudo 2, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa no MEEM (MD −1,60, IC 95% −3,57 a 0,37), teste do desenho do relógio (MD −0,20, IC95% −0,61 a 0,21) e escala de avaliação da doença de Alzheimer - subitem cognição (MD 1,0, IC95% −2,21 a 4,21) após 12 meses. Não houve evidência consistente da eficácia da intervenção fisioterapêutica na melhora da função cognitiva e capacidade funcional na DA. Recomenda-se a produção de mais estudos para encontrar possíveis evidências.


RESUMEN El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar los efectos de la fisioterapia en la capacidad cognitiva y funcional de pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Se trata de una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados o casi-aleatorizados, en que se utilizó los descriptores: EA, demencia y fisioterapia. Se incluyeron dos estudios, con un total de 207 participantes. En el Estudio 1, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el Miniexamen del estado mental (MEEM) (MD 0,0, IC 95%: 5,6 -5,76), en el inventario neuropsiquiátrico (MD -4,50, IC 95%: 12,24 -21,24) y en el cuestionario de actividades instrumentales de Pfeffer (MD: 0,0 IC 95% IC: -6,48 a 6,48). En el Estudio 2, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el MEEM (MD −1,60, IC 95% −3,57 a 0,37), el test de diseño del reloj (MD −0,20, IC 95% −0,61 a 0,21) y la escala de evaluación de la enfermedad de Alzheimer: subítem de cognición (MD 1,0, IC 95% −2,21 a 4,21) tras 12 meses. No hubo evidencia consistente de la eficacia de la intervención fisioterapéutica en la mejora de la función cognitiva y de la capacidad funcional en la EA. Se recomienda realizar estudios adicionales para encontrar posibles evidencias.

3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 315-320, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011335

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) is an important group of cryptogenic strokes that are in evidence due recent ongoing trials. We reviewed medical records at discharge from the stroke unit of all patients who met ESUS criteria and attended our institution between February 2016 and July 2017. Among 550 stroke patients, 51 had ESUS. We found that hypertension (60%), diabetes mellitus (34%), and smoking (36%) were the most prevalent risk factors. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were 7 at admission and 4 at discharge, while median scores on the modified Rankin scale were 0 and 2 at admission and discharge, respectively. Our sample had similar ages, risk factors prevalence and NIHSS scores at admission and discharge when compared with European and North American cohorts. Although a small cohort, our study suggests that the ESUS population is similar in countries with different health financing.


RESUMO Acidentes vasculares cerebrais (AVC) embólicos de fonte indeterminada (ESUS) é um grupo importante de pacientes com AVC criptogênico que estão em evidência devido a recentes ensaios clínicos. Foram revisados os prontuários médicos na alta da unidade de AVC de todos os pacientes que preencheram os critérios para ESUS atendidos em nossa instituição entre fevereiro de 2016 e julho de 2017. Entre 550 AVCs, 51 eram pacientes com ESUS. Hipertensão (60%), diabetes mellitus (34%) e tabagismo (36%) foram os fatores de risco mais prevalentes. Os escores médios do National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) foram 7 na admissão e 4 na alta, enquanto os escores médios na escala de Rankin modificada (mRs) foram 0 e 2 na admissão e alta, respectivamente. Nossa amostra teve idade, prevalência de fatores de risco, escores NIHSS na admissão e alta, quando comparados com coortes europeias e norte-americanas semelhantes. Apesar de ser uma pequena coorte, nosso estudo sugere que a população ESUS é semelhante em países com diferentes níveis de financiamento em saúde.

4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 315-320, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) is an important group of cryptogenic strokes that are in evidence due recent ongoing trials. We reviewed medical records at discharge from the stroke unit of all patients who met ESUS criteria and attended our institution between February 2016 and July 2017. Among 550 stroke patients, 51 had ESUS. We found that hypertension (60%), diabetes mellitus (34%), and smoking (36%) were the most prevalent risk factors. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were 7 at admission and 4 at discharge, while median scores on the modified Rankin scale were 0 and 2 at admission and discharge, respectively. Our sample had similar ages, risk factors prevalence and NIHSS scores at admission and discharge when compared with European and North American cohorts. Although a small cohort, our study suggests that the ESUS population is similar in countries with different health financing.

5.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 26(7): 511-517, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230583

RESUMO

Background: Upper extremity impairment is present in most of people with stroke. The use of the affected upper extremity can be impacted not only by physical impairment but also by abehavioral phenomenon called learned nonuse. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate which clinical factors in the acute phase are associated with the development of learned nonuse in the upper extremity after stroke. Methods: This cohort study included 38 patients with ischemic stroke. Hospital discharge data were collected for clinical aspects, scales of severity, incapacity and autonomy, as well as for neuromuscular and sensory evaluations. At 90 days after hospital discharge, the score on the Motor Activity Log scale for detecting learned nonuse was obtained, and life quality was evaluated by the EuroQol. The individuals with and without learned nonuse were compared by attest for univariate analysis, and ageneralized linear model was employed to find possible predictors, which were considered significant p <0.05. Results: In the statistical model, age (p= .006), severity at discharge (p= .036), handgrip strength (p= .000), altered sensitivity (p= .011), incapacity at discharge (p= .009) and autonomy at discharge (p= .011) were found to be associated with learned nonuse. In relation to quality of life, mobility, personal care, usual activities, anxiety, depression and perception had lower mean values in the learned nonuse group. Conclusion: Age, severity of stroke, incapacity and neuromuscular and sensory compromises are associated with upper extremity learned nonuse in stroke patients.

6.
Trials ; 20(1): 298, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular rehabilitation is one of the treatment options for post-stroke individuals in order to improve functional independence in activities of daily life and reduce energy expenditure. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effect of an exercise program on the echocardiographic variables, functional capacity, inflammatory response, neurological status, nutritional status, cardiologic evaluation, and quality of life of patients after stroke. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled trial including patients with ischemic stroke in the chronic phase. The patients will be evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 16 weeks. This will include clinical and physical evaluation, 6-min walk test, neurological assessment, nutritional assessment, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, and assessment of the quality of life. The sample size has been determined as 40 patients, who will be divided into two groups: control group (CG; n = 20) and intervention group (IG; n = 20). The CG will undergo conventional physiotherapy for 45 min, three times a week, up to 16 weeks, while the IG will be put on a cardiovascular rehabilitation program consisting of heating, aerobic exercise, and muscle strengthening for 45 min, three times a week, for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint will be functional capacity following a 6-min walk test (delta maxVO2) and morphofunctional echocardiographic variables (indexed left ventricular mass) before and after the intervention. DISCUSSION: We expect to observe an improvement in cardiac structural and functional abnormalities in the IG, on echocardiography and biochemical examination, and that the improvement of these parameters after cardiovascular rehabilitation will have a favorable impact on the functional capacity and quality of life of patients after stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION: REBEC, RBR-4wk4b3. Registered on 19 September 2016.

7.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(1): 82-88, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989667

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) is a scale to evaluates the impact of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) on everyday life of patients after stroke. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and comprehension of the Portuguese version of the CBS for patients with USN after stroke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in patients with stroke and USN. The CBS was translated, culturally adapted and applied by two independent investigators. The patients were also evaluated by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT), NIHSS, mRS and Barthel scale to assess USN severity, neurological function, disability and autonomy consecutively. Consistency and coherence were analysed using Cronbach's α, inter-observer reliability by Kappa, and the correlation between the CBS, BIT, NIHSS, mRS, and Barthel was determined using Pearson correlation. Results: Twenty-two patients were evaluated and the observed Cronbach's α=0.913. For intra-observer reproducibility, the 10 items showed a reasonable and high reliability between evaluators. The CBS showed a negative correlation with the BIT. There was a low correlation between the BIT and NIHSS, mRS and Barthel index. Conclusion: The CBS is an adequate and validated scale for assessing patients with USN after stroke in a Brazilian population.


RESUMO: A Escala de Catherine Bergego (CBS) é uma escala para avaliar o impacto da negligência espacial unilateral (USN) no cotidiano de pacientes após AVC. Objetivo: Não há validação da CBS para população brasileira e o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade e compreensão da versão em português da CBS para pacientes com USN após AVC. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal em pacientes com AVC e USN. A CBS foi traduzida, adaptada culturalmente e aplicada por dois investigadores independentes. Os pacientes também foram avaliados pelo Behaviour Innatention Test (BIT), NIHSS, mRS e Barthel para avaliar a gravidade da USN, função neurológica, incapacidade e autonomia consecutivamente. A consistência e a coerência foram analisadas pelo coeficiente α de Cronbach, a confiabilidade interobservador foi avaliada pelo coeficiente kappa e a correlação entre o CBS, BIT, NIHSS, mRS e Barthel foi avaliada pela correlação de Pearson. Resultados: Vinte e dois pacientes foram avaliados e observaram-se consistência e coerência pelo coeficiente α de Cronbach=0,913. Na análise da reprodutibilidade intraobservador, os 10 itens da escala apresentaram confiabilidade razoável e alta entre os avaliadores. O CBS mostrou correlação negativa com o BIT. Houve baixa correlação entre BIT e NIHSS, mRS e índice de Barthel. Conclusão: A CBS é uma escala adequada e validada para avaliar pacientes com USN após AVC em uma população brasileira e de língua portuguesa.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Transtornos da Percepção , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Coluna/Columna ; 18(1): 74-80, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984317

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The aims of this article are to present cervical spondylotic myelopathy, a spinal condition caused by bony, ligament and disc alterations that results in spinal cord compression leading to progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, and to describe the possible physiotherapeutic interventions. The pathology has different forms of progression and affected areas, which contributes to the diversity of clinical presentations. This work presents two evaluations of three patients diagnosed with this disease, at different times, to compare the severity, the affected regions, and the evolution of each one. Subsequently, it describes the most appropriate physiotherapeutic treatment for this illness, demonstrating its wide variability according to the signs and symptoms presented. Level of Evidence: IV. Case series.


RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a Mielopatia Espondilótica Cervical, uma afecção da coluna vertebral causada por alterações ósseas, ligamentares e discais, que resultam na compressão medular, desencadeando a degeneração progressiva da medula, e descrever possíveis intervenções fisioterapêuticas. A patologia tem diferentes formas de progressão e áreas de comprometimento, o que contribui com a diversidade de quadros clínicos. Serão apresentadas duas avaliações de 3 pacientes com diagnóstico desta doença, em momentos diferentes, com o intuito de comparar a gravidade, as regiões comprometidas e a evolução de cada um. Posteriormente, é descrito o tratamento fisioterapêutico mais apropriado para esta doença, demonstrando também sua grande variabilidade de acordo com os sinais e sintomas apresentados. Nível de evidência: IV Tipo de estudo: Série de casos.


RESUMEN Los objetivo de este artículo son presentar la mielopatía espondilótica cervical, una afección de la columna vertebral causada por alteraciones óseas, ligamentos y discales, que resultan en la compresión medular, desencadenando la degeneración progresiva de la médula y describir posibles intervenciones fisioterapéuticas. La patología tiene diferentes formas de progresión y áreas de compromiso, lo que contribuye a la diversidad de cuadros clínicos. Se presentarán dos evaluaciones de tres pacientes con diagnóstico de esta enfermedad en momentos diferentes con el objetivo de comparar la gravedad, las regiones comprometidas y la evolución de cada uno. Posteriormente se describe el tratamiento fisioterapéutico más apropiado para esta enfermedad, demostrando también su gran variabilidad de acuerdo con los signos y síntomas presentados. Nivel de evidencia IV. Serie de casos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia , Compressão da Medula Espinal , Fisioterapia , Espondilose
9.
Somatosens Mot Res ; 35(3-4): 199-203, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is the prevalent feature in patients with right-sided stroke. It is diagnosed through the behavior inattention test (BIT) and has a negative impact on patients affecting both their functional capacity and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to evaluate the impact of USN on the quality of life of patients in the chronic phase of stroke. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with stroke patients with USN. After confirming the presence of stroke through neuroimaging examinations and of USN through the BIT, patients' quality of life was evaluated by using the EUROQOL scale. Spearman's correlation was used to validate the correlation between patients' USN and quality of life, with a p < .05 representing significant results. RESULTS: Eighteen individuals were included. When correlating the value of each domain of the EUROQOL scale with the results of the BIT, we observed a negative correlation between mobility (r = -0.97; p = .000), self-care (r = -0.82; p = .013), usual activities (r = -0.87; p = .005); pain or discomfort (r = -0.88; p = .004), anxiety or depression (r = -0.97; p = .000), and EUROQOL total score (r = -0.97, p = .000). CONCLUSION: After a correlation between the overall EUROQOL and BIT scores, we suggest that the higher the USN degree is in stroke patients, the worse their perceived quality of life tends to be.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Transtornos da Percepção/etnologia , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Doença Crônica , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 76(10): 654-662, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Virtual reality therapy (VRT) is an interactive intervention that induces neuroplasticity. The aim was to evaluate the effects of VRT associated with conventional rehabilitation for an upper limb after stroke, and the neuroimaging predictors of a better response to VRT. METHODS: Patients with stroke were selected, and clinical neurological, upper limb function, and quality of life were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear model comparing pre- and post-VRT. Lesions were segmented in the post-stroke computed tomography. A voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used to investigate the relationship between the lesion and upper limb function. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were studied (55.5 ± 13.9 years of age). Quality of life, functional independence, and dexterity of the upper limb showed improvement after VRT (p < 0.001). Neuroimaging analysis showed negative correlations between the internal capsule lesion and functional recovery. CONCLUSION: VRT showed benefits for patients with stroke, but when there was an internal capsule lesion, a worse response was observed.

11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(10): 654-662, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-973929

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Virtual reality therapy (VRT) is an interactive intervention that induces neuroplasticity. The aim was to evaluate the effects of VRT associated with conventional rehabilitation for an upper limb after stroke, and the neuroimaging predictors of a better response to VRT. Methods: Patients with stroke were selected, and clinical neurological, upper limb function, and quality of life were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear model comparing pre- and post-VRT. Lesions were segmented in the post-stroke computed tomography. A voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used to investigate the relationship between the lesion and upper limb function. Results: Eighteen patients were studied (55.5 ± 13.9 years of age). Quality of life, functional independence, and dexterity of the upper limb showed improvement after VRT (p < 0.001). Neuroimaging analysis showed negative correlations between the internal capsule lesion and functional recovery. Conclusion: VRT showed benefits for patients with stroke, but when there was an internal capsule lesion, a worse response was observed.


RESUMO Introdução: A realidade virtual (RV) é uma intervenção interativa que induz a neuroplasticidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da RV associado à reabilitação convencional na função do membro superior após o AVC e as características preditores de neuroimagem de melhor resposta a esta terapia. Métodos: os pacientes com AVC foram selecionados, e as características neurológicas, a função do membro superior e a qualidade de vida foram avaliadas. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio de modelo linear geral comparando resultados pré e pós-intervenção. As lesões foram segmentadas na tomografia computadorizada após o AVC. A abordagem de mapeamento da lesão-sintoma baseada em voxel foi utilizada para avaliar a relação entre a lesão e a função do membro superior. Resultados: Foram estudados 18 pacientes (8 mulheres, 55,5 ± 13,9 anos). A qualidade de vida, independência funcional, características funcionais e destreza do membro superior apresentaram melhora após RV (p < 0,001). A análise de imagem mostrou correlações negativas principalmente entre a cápsula interna e a recuperação funcional do membro superior. Conclusão: A RV mostrou benefícios para pacientes com AVC, mas quando houve lesão da cápsula interna apresentaram pior resposta à terapia.

12.
Neural Plast ; 2018: 1638763, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050569

RESUMO

Background: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is the most frequent perceptual disorder after stroke. Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a tool that has been used in the rehabilitation process to modify cortical excitability and improve perception and functional capacity. Objective: To assess the impact of NIBS on USN after stroke. Methods: An extensive search was conducted up to July 2016. Studies were selected if they were controlled and noncontrolled trials examining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and theta burst stimulation (TBS) in USN after stroke, with outcomes measured by standardized USN and functional tests. Results: Twelve RCTs (273 participants) and 4 non-RCTs (94 participants) proved eligible. We observed a benefit in overall USN measured by the line bisection test with NIBS in comparison to sham (SMD -2.35, 95% CI -3.72, -0.98; p = 0.0001); the rTMS yielded results that were consistent with the overall meta-analysis (SMD -2.82, 95% CI -3.66, -1.98; p = 0.09). The rTMS compared with sham also suggested a benefit in overall USN measured by Motor-Free Visual Perception Test at both 1 Hz (SMD 1.46, 95% CI 0.73, 2.20; p < 0.0001) and 10 Hz (SMD 1.19, 95% CI 0.48, 1.89; p = 0.54). There was also a benefit in overall USN measured by Albert's test and the line crossing test with 1 Hz rTMS compared to sham (SMD 2.04, 95% CI 1.14, 2.95; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The results suggest a benefit of NIBS on overall USN, and we conclude that rTMS is more efficacious compared to sham for USN after stroke.

13.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e131, 2018 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of unilateral spatial neglect during the acute phase of stroke and long-term functional independence. METHODS: This was a prospective study of right ischemic stroke patients in which the independent variable was the degree of spatial neglect and the outcome that was measured was functional independence. The potential confounding factors included sex, age, stroke severity, topography of the lesion, risk factors, glycemia and the treatment received. Unilateral spatial neglect was measured using the line cancellation test, the star cancellation test and the line bisection test within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Functional independence was measured using the modified Rankin and Barthel scales at 90 days after discharge. The relationship between unilateral spatial neglect and functional independence was analyzed using multiple logistic regression that was corrected for confounding factors. RESULTS: We studied 60 patients with a median age of 68 (34-89) years, 52% of whom were male and 74% of whom were Caucasian. The risk for moderate to severe disability increased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=1.14 [1.03-1.26], p=0.01) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically positive association with disability (OR=1.63 [1.13-2.65], p=0.01). The best chance of functional independence decreased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=0.86 [0.78-0.96], p=0.006) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically negative association with independence (OR=0.66 [0.48-0.92], p=0.017). CONCLUSION: The severity of unilateral spatial neglect in acute stroke worsens the degree of long-term disability and functional independence.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Front Neurol ; 9: 256, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720958

RESUMO

Background: The crossed leg sign in patients with right hemisphere stroke is thought to be associated with perceptual disorders, such as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). The aim of this study was to compare the crossed leg sign with the severity of USN during the acute phase of stroke. Experimental procedures: This was an observational and prospective clinical study of individuals with a diagnosis of right parietal stroke, as confirmed by neuroimaging. The occurrence of the crossed leg sign, the time at which this occurred after the stroke, and a clinical diagnosis of USN were measured and recorded. The patients' age, sex, and lesion severity, as determined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Glasgow coma scale, were included in the analyses as confounding variables. The outcome of interest was the degree of USN, as measured by the cancellation and bisection tests. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of crossed leg syndrome on the severity of USN. In the adjusted multiple regression model, a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Overall, 60 patients were included in this study. There were no associations between patient demographics and the presence of the crossed leg sign. There was, however, an association between the crossed leg sign and the absolute value of the deviation in the line bisection test (B = -0.234; p = 0.039). The crossed leg sign was not associated with other measures of USN. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, we can conclude that a crossed leg sign in the acute phase of stroke is associated with USN severity, specifically the misinterpretation of the midline.

15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 27(5): 1375-1380, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional status may influence outcome after stroke. It is possible that some obese individuals present reduced fat-free mass. AIMS: We aimed to determine if bedside evaluation of body composition by the body mass index (BMI), adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT) and arm muscle area (AMA), and the combination of low APMT or AMA with obesity are associated with disability 90 days after stroke. METHODS: A cohort study evaluating 120 patients hospitalized at the Stroke Unit was carried out. Data were expressed as average ± standard deviation or median and percentiles. Obesity was evaluated by BMI and fat-free mass by the APMT and AMA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to measure whether APMT and obesity were associated with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≥3 (disability) within 90 days of stroke. The data were adjusted for National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), sex, age, type of stroke, and thrombolysis. The significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Of 120 patients, we came up with the following demographics: men: 66 (55.0%); mean age: 66.6 ± 13.2 years; ischemic stroke: 109 (90.8%); mean NIHSS: 4 (2-10); thrombolysis: 18 (16.5%). Considering mRS ≥3, ROC curve analysis showed that the value of the cutoff for APMT was <12.5 mm. In multivariate analysis adjusted for the above factors, each 1 mm of increase in APTM reduced the chance of disability by 31%. The intersection of obesity with APMT <12.5 mm increased by 37-fold the risk of disability. AMA was not associated with mRS ≥3. CONCLUSION: Lower APMT alone or in combination with obesity was associated with poor functional status.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adiposidade , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Pregas Cutâneas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clinics ; 73: e131, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of unilateral spatial neglect during the acute phase of stroke and long-term functional independence. METHODS: This was a prospective study of right ischemic stroke patients in which the independent variable was the degree of spatial neglect and the outcome that was measured was functional independence. The potential confounding factors included sex, age, stroke severity, topography of the lesion, risk factors, glycemia and the treatment received. Unilateral spatial neglect was measured using the line cancellation test, the star cancellation test and the line bisection test within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Functional independence was measured using the modified Rankin and Barthel scales at 90 days after discharge. The relationship between unilateral spatial neglect and functional independence was analyzed using multiple logistic regression that was corrected for confounding factors. RESULTS: We studied 60 patients with a median age of 68 (34-89) years, 52% of whom were male and 74% of whom were Caucasian. The risk for moderate to severe disability increased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=1.14 [1.03-1.26], p=0.01) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically positive association with disability (OR=1.63 [1.13-2.65], p=0.01). The best chance of functional independence decreased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=0.86 [0.78-0.96], p=0.006) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically negative association with independence (OR=0.66 [0.48-0.92], p=0.017). CONCLUSION: The severity of unilateral spatial neglect in acute stroke worsens the degree of long-term disability and functional independence.

17.
Fisioter. Bras ; 19(2): f:215-I:222, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-911289

RESUMO

Objetivo: Demonstrar os efeitos da equoterapia sobre o equilíbrio estático e dinâmico em um indivíduo com transtorno neurocognitivo devido a Doença de Huntington. Metodologia: Desenvolveu-se um estudo de caso, com a realização de 12 sessões de equoterapia, com duração de 45 minutos. A amostra foi composta por um indivíduo do sexo masculino, de 52 anos de idade, com diagnóstico comprovado de Doença de Huntington. Os exercícios terapêuticos basearam-se em estímulos para obtenção de equilíbrio, coordenação, flexibilidade, dissociação de cintura pélvica e escapular e estímulos cognitivos. A avaliação foi realizada pré e pós programa de equoterapia, através da Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg, que avaliou os equilíbrio estático e dinâmico. Resultados: Após as 12 sessões de equoterapia, foi possível observar mudanças no escores segundo a Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg. Em pré-equoterapia, o escore foi de 26 pontos e, pós-equoterapia, foi de 45 pontos. Escores abaixo de 35 indicam altos índices de queda. Conclusão: Sugere-se que a prática da equoterapia pode contribuir para a melhoria do equilíbrio corporal de pessoas com transtorno neurocognitivo devido à Doença de Huntington, principalmente nos aspectos relacionados a alcançar, girar, transferir-se e permanecer em pé. (AU)


Objective: This article aims to demonstrate the effects of equine therapy on static and dynamic balance in an individual with neurocognitive disorder due to Huntington's Disease. Methods: This is a case report, with completion of 12 sessions of hippotherapy, with a duration of 45 minutes. The sample was composed by an individual male, 52 years, with diagnosis proved of Huntington Disease. The therapeutic exercises were based on stimuli to obtain balance, coordination, flexibility, decoupling of pelvic and scapular and stimuli for cognition. The evaluation was performed pre and post program of hippotherapy, through the Berg Balance Scale, which evaluated the static and dynamic balance. Results: After 12 sessions of hippotherapy, it was possible to observe changes in scores according to the Berg Balance Scale. In pre-hippotherapy, the score was 26 points and, post hippotherapy, was 45 points. Conclusion: according to the Berg Balance Scale, there was a change in the score pre and post hippotherapy. In pre-hippotherapy, the same was associated with elevated risk of falls and, in post hippotherapy, the same presented scores that represent a low risk of falls, improving mainly on aspects related to achieve, rotate, move and remain on foot, promoting a higher level of independence, with less unstable and clues to falls in that individual study. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Assistida por Cavalos , Doença de Huntington , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Equilíbrio Postural , Terapêutica
18.
Case Rep Neurol ; 9(3): 228-233, 2017 Sep-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279710

RESUMO

We report a case of a male patient with stroke caused by atrial fibrillation (AF) due to thyrotoxicosis. At hospital admission, he presented hypertension and AF. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right-side ischemic area. The thyrotoxicosis was confirmed by thyroid function and thyroid scintigraphy that showed goiter with diffuse hypercaptation. The patient was treated with tapazole and total thyroidectomy, and pathological findings suggested Graves' disease. Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased supraventricular ectopic activity in patients with a normal heart, and may be an important causal link between hyperthyroidism and AF. The patient experienced significant clinical improvement, but presented long-term neuropsychiatric disorders.

19.
Complement Ther Med ; 34: 170-185, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Spasticity remains highly prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. To summarize the effects of cannabinoids compared with usual care, placebo for spasticity due to multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraplegia. METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS to March 2017 were performed to identify randomized controlled trials. The primary outcomes were spasticity and spasm frequency. The criteria were any patient with MS and spasticity affecting upper or lower limbs or both, and that had a confirmed diagnosis of MS based on validated criteria, or however defined by the authors of the included studies. RESULTS: 16 trials including 2597 patients were eligible. Moderate-certainty evidence suggested a non-statistically significant decrease in spasticity (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.36 [confidential interval (CI) 95% -0.17 to 0.88; p=0.18; I2=88%]), and spasm frequency (SMD 0.04 [CI 95% -0.15 to 0.22]). There was an increase in adverse events such as dizziness (risk ratio (RR) 3.45 [CI 95% 2.71-4.4; p=0.20; I2=23%]), somnolence (RR 2.9 [CI 95% 1.98-4.23; p=0.77; I2=0%]), and nausea (RR 2.25 [CI 95% 1.62-3.13; p=0.83; I2=0%]). CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate certainty evidence regarding the impact of cannabinoids in spasticity (average 0.36 more spasticity; 0.17 fewer to 0.88 more) due to multiple sclerosis or paraplegia, and in adverse events such as dizziness (419 more dizziness/1000 over 19 weeks), somnolence (127 more somnolence/1000 over 19 weeks), and nausea (125 more somnolence/1000 over 19 weeks).


Assuntos
Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Paraplegia/complicações , Adulto , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Tontura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 26(10): 2300-2305, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During hospitalization, stroke patients are bedridden due to neurologic impairment, leading to loss of muscle mass, weakness, and functional limitation. There have been few studies examining respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in the acute phase of stroke. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the RMS of patients with acute stroke compared with predicted values and to relate this to anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in the acute phase of stroke. After admission, RMS was evaluated by maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP); anthropometric data were collected; and neurologic severity was evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. The analysis of MIP and MEP with predicted values was performed by chi-square test, and the relationship between anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity was determined through multiple linear regression followed by residue analysis by the Shapiro-Wilk test; P < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In the 32 patients studied, MIP and MEP were reduced when compared with the predicted values. MIP declined significantly by 4.39 points for each 1 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI), and MEP declined significantly by an average of 3.89 points for each 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between MIP or MEP and risk factors, and between MIP or MIP and neurologic severity in acute phase of stroke. CONCLUSION: There is a reduction of RMS in the acute phase of stroke, and RMS was lower in individuals with increased age and BMI.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
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