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1.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756733

RESUMO

Amorphous drug-polymer formulations are complex materials and often challenging to characterize, even more so if the small molecule component itself is increasingly complex. In this work, we present 14N-1H HMQC magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments in the solid state as a promising tool to study amorphous formulations. Poly(2-oxazoline) based polymer micelles loaded with different amounts of the cancer drug paclitaxel serve to highlight the possibilities offered by these experiments: while the dense core of these polymeric micelles prevents NMR spectroscopic analysis in solution and the very similar 15N chemical shifts hamper a solid-state NMR characterization based on this nucleus, 14N is a very versatile alternative. 14N-1H HMQC experiments yield well-separated signals, which are spread over a large ppm range, and provide information on the symmetry of the nitrogen environment and probe 14N-1H through-space proximities. In this way, the overall complexity can be narrowed down to specific N-containing environments. The results from the experiments presented here represent a valuable puzzle piece, which helps to improve the structural understanding of drug-polymer formulations. It can be straightforwardly combined with complementary NMR spectroscopic experiments and other analytical techniques.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562534

RESUMO

Preamble Polymer-drug conjugates have been intensively investigated for several decades, and even though their clinical success still lags behind the promise many researchers have placed in them, they are a mainstay in the fields of polymer therapeutics or nanomedicine. For many in the field, the seminal perspective paper by Helmut Ringsdorf from 1975 marks the beginning of this field of research. With more than one thousand citations, this paper has indubitably affected and inspired generations of researchers in the field, including the author of this translation. However, it is not the first paper describing the concept of polymer-drug conjugates. Some twenty years earlier, Horst Jatzkewitz described in two outstanding articles probably the historically first polymer-drug conjugates, detailed its synthesis, characterization and even first in vivo experiments. The results, carefully re-interpreted through the eyes of a scientist of the 21st century, clearly highlight several issues that need to be taken into consideration when designing polymer-drug conjugates. However, despite the pioneering nature of this paper, it is all but forgotten by the scientific community. In the author's opinion, Horst Jatzkewitz and these papers clearly did not receive the attention and praise they deserve. Whether this was because these paper were much ahead of it´s time, or because it was published in German language, or for some other reason, we cannot know. However, these papers are, in my opinion, an excellent piece of work that should be known more widely and available to students and experts world-wide, which is why the author decided to translate it. Also, to give some more context and to help understand some outdated terms or concepts, additional comments and explanations are added throughout. I hope that this will help for these papers to receive the attention I believe they deserve.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(22): 24531-24543, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378873

RESUMO

Polymeric micelles are typically characterized as core-shell structures. The hydrophobic core is considered as a depot for hydrophobic molecules, and the corona-forming block acts as a stabilizing and solubilizing interface between the core and aqueous milieu. Tremendous efforts have been made to tune the hydrophobic block to increase the drug loading and stability of micelles, whereas the role of hydrophilic blocks is rarely investigated in this context, with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) being the gold standard of hydrophilic polymers. To better understand the role of the hydrophilic corona, a small library of structurally similar A-B-A-type amphiphiles based on poly(2-oxazoline)s and poly(2-oxazine)s is investigated by varying the hydrophilic block A utilizing poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (pMeOx; A) or poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (pEtOx; A*). In terms of hydrophilicity, both polymers closely resemble PEG. The more hydrophobic block B bears either a poly(2-oxazoline) and poly(2-oxazine) backbone with C3 (propyl) and C4 (butyl) side chains. Surprisingly, major differences in loading capacities from A-B-A > A*-B-A > A*-B-A* is observed for the formulation with two poorly water-soluble compounds, curcumin and paclitaxel, highlighting the importance of the hydrophilic corona of polymer micelles used for drug formulation. The formulations are also characterized by various nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and (micro) differential scanning calorimetry. Our findings suggest that the interaction between the hydrophilic block and the guest molecule should be considered an important, but previously largely ignored, factor for the rational design of polymeric micelles.

4.
Mol Pharm ; 17(6): 1835-1847, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315193

RESUMO

Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of the family of statins have been suggested as therapeutic options in various tumors. Atorvastatin is a statin with the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier; however, the concentrations necessary for a cytotoxic effect against cancer cells exceed the concentrations achievable via oral administration, which made the development of a novel atorvastatin formulation necessary. We characterized the drug loading and basic physicochemical characteristics of micellar atorvastatin formulations and tested their cytotoxicity against a panel of different glioblastoma cell lines. In addition, activity against tumor spheroids formed from mouse glioma and mouse cancer stem cells, respectively, was evaluated. Our results show good activity of atorvastatin against all tested cell lines. Interestingly, in the three-dimensional (3D) models, growth inhibition was more pronounced for the micellar formulation compared to free atorvastatin. Finally, atorvastatin penetration across a blood-brain barrier model obtained from human induced-pluripotent stem cells was evaluated. Our results suggest that the presented micelles may enable much higher serum concentrations than possible by oral administration; however, if transport across the blood-brain barrier is sufficient to reach the therapeutic atorvastatin concentration for the treatment of glioblastoma via intravenous administration remains unclear.

5.
Langmuir ; 36(13): 3494-3503, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203667

RESUMO

Drug-loaded polymer micelles or nanoparticles are being continuously explored in the fields of drug delivery and nanomedicine. Commonly, a simple core-shell structure is assumed, in which the core incorporates the drug and the corona provides steric shielding, colloidal stability, and prevents protein adsorption. Recently, the interactions of the dissolved drug with the micellar corona have received increasing attention. Here, using small-angle neutron scattering, we provide an in-depth study of the differences in polymer micelle morphology of a small selection of structurally closely related polymer micelles at different loadings with the model compound curcumin. This work supports a previous study using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and we confirm that the drug resides predominantly in the core of the micelle at low drug loading. As the drug loading increases, neutron scattering data suggests that an inner shell is formed, which we interpret as the corona also starting to incorporate the drug, whereas the outer shell mainly contains water and the polymer. The presented data clearly shows that a better understanding of the inner morphology and the impact of the hydrophilic block can be important parameters for improved drug loading in polymer micelles as well as provide insights into the structure-property relationship.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(11): 12445-12456, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142257

RESUMO

Amphiphilic block copolymers that undergo (reversible) physical gelation in aqueous media are of great interest in different areas including drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and biofabrication. We investigated a small library of ABA-type triblock copolymers comprising poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) as the hydrophilic shell A and different aromatic poly(2-oxazoline)s and poly(2-oxazine)s cores B in an aqueous solution at different concentrations and temperatures. Interestingly, aqueous solutions of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-block-poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazine)-block-poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOx-b-PPheOzi-b-PMeOx) undergo inverse thermogelation below a critical temperature by forming a reversible nanoscale wormlike network. The viscoelastic properties of the resulting gel can be conveniently tailored by the concentration and the polymer composition. Storage moduli of up to 110 kPa could be obtained while the material retains shear-thinning and rapid self-healing properties. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) printing of excellently defined and shape-persistent 24-layered scaffolds at different aqueous concentrations to highlight its application potential, e.g., in the research area of biofabrication. A macroporous microstructure, which is stable throughout the printing process, could be confirmed via cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The absence of cytotoxicity even at very high concentrations opens a wide range of different applications for this first-in-class material in the field of biomaterials.

7.
Biomaterials ; 244: 119766, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199284

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix represents a dynamic microenvironment regulating essential cell functions in vivo. Tissue engineering approaches aim to recreate the native niche in vitro using biological scaffolds generated by organ decellularization. So far, the organ specific origin of such scaffolds was less considered and potential consequences for in vitro cell culture remain largely elusive. Here, we show that organ specific cues of biological scaffolds affect cellular behavior. In detail, we report on the generation of a well-preserved pancreatic bioscaffold and introduce a scoring system allowing standardized inter-study quality assessment. Using multiple analysis tools for in-depth-characterization of the biological scaffold, we reveal unique compositional, physico-structural, and biophysical properties. Finally, we prove the functional relevance of the biological origin by demonstrating a regulatory effect of the matrix on multi-lineage differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells emphasizing the significance of matrix specificity for cellular behavior in artificial microenvironments.

8.
Macromol Biosci ; 20(1): e1900178, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596553

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor and prognosis is overall poor but heterogeneous. Mitotane (MT) has been used for treatment of ACC for decades, either alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Even at doses up to 6 g per day, more than half of the patients do not achieve targeted plasma concentration (14-20 mg L-1 ) even after many months of treatment due to low water solubility, bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile. Here a novel MT nanoformulation with very high MT concentrations in physiological aqueous media is reported. The MT-loaded nanoformulations are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction which confirms the amorphous nature of the drug. The polymer itself does not show any cytotoxicity in adrenal and liver cell lines. By using the ACC model cell line NCI-H295 both in monolayers and tumor cell spheroids, micellar MT is demonstrated to exhibit comparable efficacy to its ethanol solution. It is postulated that this formulation will be suitable for i.v. application and rapid attainment of therapeutic plasma concentrations. In conclusion, the micellar formulation is considered a promising tool to alleviate major drawbacks of current MT treatment while retaining bioactivity toward ACC in vitro.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(51): 18540-18546, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529576

RESUMO

Detailed insight into the internal structure of drug-loaded polymeric micelles is scarce, but important for developing optimized delivery systems. We observed that an increase in the curcumin loading of triblock copolymers based on poly(2-oxazolines) and poly(2-oxazines) results in poorer dissolution properties. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy and complementary tools we propose a loading-dependent structural model on the molecular level that provides an explanation for these pronounced differences. Changes in the chemical shifts and cross-peaks in 2D NMR experiments give evidence for the involvement of the hydrophobic polymer block in the curcumin coordination at low loadings, while at higher loadings an increase in the interaction with the hydrophilic polymer blocks is observed. The involvement of the hydrophilic compartment may be critical for ultrahigh-loaded polymer micelles and can help to rationalize specific polymer modifications to improve the performance of similar drug delivery systems.

10.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11008-11021, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503443

RESUMO

Overexpressed extracellular matrix (ECM) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) limits drug penetration into the tumor and is associated with poor prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that a pretreatment based on a proteolytic-enzyme nanoparticle system disassembles the dense PDAC collagen stroma and increases drug penetration into the pancreatic tumor. More specifically, the collagozome, a 100 nm liposome encapsulating collagenase, was rationally designed to protect the collagenase from premature deactivation and prolonged its release rate at the target site. Collagen is the main component of the PDAC stroma, reaching 12.8 ± 2.3% vol in diseased mice pancreases, compared to 1.4 ± 0.4% in healthy mice. Upon intravenous injection of the collagozome, ∼1% of the injected dose reached the pancreas over 8 h, reducing the level of fibrotic tissue to 5.6 ± 0.8%. The collagozome pretreatment allowed increased drug penetration into the pancreas and improved PDAC treatment. PDAC tumors, pretreated with the collagozome followed by paclitaxel micelles, were 87% smaller than tumors pretreated with empty liposomes followed by paclitaxel micelles. Interestingly, degrading the ECM did not increase the number of circulating tumor cells or metastasis. This strategy holds promise for degrading the extracellular stroma in other diseases as well, such as liver fibrosis, enhancing tissue permeability before drug administration.

11.
J Funct Biomater ; 10(3)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394886

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of an ABA triblock copolymer based on hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (pMeOx) blocks A and a modestly hydrophobic poly(2-iso-butyl-2-oxazoline) (piBuOx) block B is described. Aqueous polymer solutions were prepared at different concentrations (1-20 wt %) and their thermogelling capability using visual observation was investigated at different temperatures ranging from 5 to 80 °C. As only a 20 wt % solution was found to undergo thermogelation, this concentration was investigated in more detail regarding its temperature-dependent viscoelastic profile utilizing various modes (strain or temperature sweep). The prepared hydrogels from this particular ABA triblock copolymer have interesting rheological and viscoelastic properties, such as reversible thermogelling and shear thinning, and may be used as bioink, which was supported by its very low cytotoxicity and initial printing experiments using the hydrogels. However, the soft character and low yield stress of the gels do not allow real 3D printing at this point.

12.
Biomacromolecules ; 20(8): 3041-3056, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318531

RESUMO

Despite decades of research, our understanding of the molecular interactions between drugs and polymers in drug-loaded polymer micelles does not extend much beyond concepts such as "like-dissolves-like" or hydrophilic/hydrophobic. However, polymer-drug compatibility strongly affects formulation properties and therefore the translation of a formulation into the clinics. Specific interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, π-π stacking, or coordination interactions can be utilized to increase drug loading. This is commonly based on trial and error and eventually leads to an optimized drug carrier. Unfortunately, due to the unique characteristics of each drug, the deduction of advanced general concepts remains challenging. Furthermore, the introduction of complex moieties or specifically modified polymers hampers systematic investigations regarding polymer-drug compatibility as well as clinical translation. In this study, we reduced the complexity to isolate the crucial factors determining drug loading. Therefore, the compatibility of 18 different amphiphilic polymers for five different hydrophobic drugs was determined empirically. Subsequently, the obtained specificities were compared to theoretical compatibilities derived from either the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters or the Hansen solubility parameters. In general, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters were less suited to correctly estimate the experimental drug solubilization compared to the Hansen solubility parameters. The latter were able to correctly predict some trend regarding good and poor solubilizers, yet the overall predictive strength of Hansen solubility parameters is clearly unsatisfactory.

13.
Chemistry ; 25(54): 12601-12610, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291028

RESUMO

Polymer micelles are an attractive means to solubilize water insoluble compounds such as drugs. Drug loading, formulations stability and control over drug release are crucial factors for drug-loaded polymer micelles. The interactions between the polymeric host and the guest molecules are considered critical to control these factors but typically barely understood. Here, we compare two isomeric polymer micelles, one of which enables ultra-high curcumin loading exceeding 50 wt.%, while the other allows a drug loading of only 25 wt.%. In the low capacity micelles, steady-state fluorescence revealed a very unusual feature of curcumin fluorescence, a high energy emission at 510 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence upconversion showed that the fluorescence life time of the corresponding species is too short in the high-capacity micelles, preventing an observable emission in steady-state. Therefore, contrary to common perception, stronger interactions between host and guest can be detrimental to the drug loading in polymer micelles.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Corantes/química , Curcumina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Micelas , Polímeros/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Luz , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Temperatura
14.
J Control Release ; 303: 162-180, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981815

RESUMO

Curcumin (CUR) is a natural extract from the plant Curcuma longa and part of turmeric, a spice and herbal remedy in traditional medicine. Thousands of papers claim a plethora of health benefits by CUR, but a growing number of reports and contributions caution that many experimental data may be artifacts or outright deny any suitability of CUR due to its problematic physicochemical properties. Two major issues often encountered with CUR are its extraordinarily low solubility in water and its limited chemical stability. Here, we report on a novel nanoformulation of CUR that enables CUR concentrations in water of at least 50 g/L with relative drug loadings of >50 wt% and high dose efficacy testing in 3D tumor models. Despite this high loading and concentration, the CUR nanoformulation comprises polymer-drug aggregates with a size <50 nm. Most interestingly, this is achieved using an amphiphilic block copolymer, that by itself does not form micelles due to its limited hydrophilic/lipophilic contrast. The ultra-high loaded nanoformulations exhibit a very good stability, reproducibility and redispersibility. In order to test effects of CUR in conditions closer to an in vivo situation, we utilized a 3D tumor test system based on a biological decellularized tissue matrix that better correlates to clinical results concerning drug testing. We found that in comparison to 2D culture, the invasively growing breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 requires high concentrations of CUR for tumor cell eradication in 3D. In addition, we supplemented a 3D colorectal cancer model of the malignant cell line SW480 with fibroblasts and observed also in this invasive tumor model with stroma components a decreased tumor cell growth after CUR application accompanied by a loss of cell-cell contacts within tumor cell clusters. In a flow bioreactor simulating cancer cell dissemination, nanoformulated CUR prevented SW480 cells from adhering to a collagen scaffold, suggesting an anti-metastatic potential of CUR. This offers a rationale that the presented ultra-high CUR-loaded nanoformulation may be considered a tool to harness the full therapeutic potential of CUR.

15.
Biopolymers ; 110(4): e23259, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730564

RESUMO

The self-assembly of block copolymers has captured the interest of scientists for many decades because it can induce ordered structures and help to imitate complex structures found in nature. In contrast to proteins, nature's most functional hierarchical structures, conventional polymers are disperse in their length distribution. Here, we synthesized hydrophilic and hydrophobic polypeptoids via solid-phase synthesis (uniform) and ring-opening polymerization (disperse). Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the uniform hydrophobic peptoids converge to a maximum of the melting temperature at a much lower chain length than their disperse analogs, showing that not only the chain length but also the dispersity has a considerable impact on the thermal properties of those homopolymers. These homopolymers were then coupled to yield amphiphilic block copolypeptoids. SAXS and AFM measurements confirm that the dispersity plays a major role in microphase separation of these macromolecules, and it appears that uniform hydrophobic blocks form more ordered structures.


Assuntos
Peptoides/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Peptoides/síntese química , Polimerização , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
16.
Macromol Biosci ; 18(11): e1800155, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256527

RESUMO

A known limitation of polymer micelles for the formulation of hydrophobic drugs is their low loading capacity (LC), which rarely exceeds 20 wt%. One general strategy to overcome this limitation is to increase the amphiphilic contrast, that is, to make the hydrophobic core of the micelles more hydrophobic. However, in the case of poly(2-oxazoline) (POx)-based amphiphilic triblock copolymers, a minimal amphiphilic contrast was reported to be beneficial. Here, this subject is revisited in more detail using long hydrophobic side chains that are either linear (nonyl) or branched (3-ethylheptyl). Two different backbones within the hydrophobic block are investigated, in particular POx and poly(2-oxazine) (POzi), for the solubilization and co-solubilization of the two highly water insoluble compounds, curcumin and paclitaxel. Even though high loading capacities can be achieved for curcumin using POzi-based triblock copolymers, the solubilization capacity of all investigated polymers with longer side chains is significantly lower compared to POx and poly(2-oxazine)s with shorter side chains. Although the even lower LC for paclitaxel can be somehow improved by co-formulating curcumin, this study corroborates that in the case of POx and POzi-based polymer micelles, an increased amphiphilic contrast leads to less drug solubilization.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Oxazóis/química , Paclitaxel , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Curcumina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Paclitaxel/química , Paclitaxel/farmacocinética , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Solubilidade
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9893, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967422

RESUMO

Among external stimuli used to trigger release of a drug from a polymeric carrier, ultrasound has gained increasing attention due to its non-invasive nature, safety and low cost. Despite this attention, there is only limited knowledge about how materials available for the preparation of drug carriers respond to ultrasound. This study investigates the effect of ultrasound on the release of a hydrophobic drug, dexamethasone, from poly(2-oxazoline)-based micelles. Spontaneous and ultrasound-mediated release of dexamethasone from five types of micelles made of poly(2-oxazoline) block copolymers, composed of hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) and hydrophobic poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline) or poly(2-butyl-2-oxazoline-co-2-(3-butenyl)-2-oxazoline), was studied. The release profiles were fitted by zero-order and Ritger-Peppas models. The ultrasound increased the amount of released dexamethasone by 6% to 105% depending on the type of copolymer, the amount of loaded dexamethasone, and the stimulation time point. This study investigates for the first time the interaction between different poly(2-oxazoline)-based micelle formulations and ultrasound waves, quantifying the efficacy of such stimulation in modulating dexamethasone release from these nanocarriers.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Oxazóis/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Micelas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Polímeros/química
18.
Biomaterials ; 178: 204-280, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945064

RESUMO

Poly(2-oxazoline)s have been investigated for decades as biomaterials. Pioneering early work suggested that hydrophilic poly(2-oxazoline)s are comparable to poly(ethylene glycol) regarding their potential as biomaterials, but the ready commercial availability of the latter has led to its meteoric rise to become the gold standard of hydrophilic synthetic biomaterials. In contrast, poly(2-oxazoline)s almost fell into oblivion. However, in the last decade, this family of polymers has gained much more interest in general and as biomaterials in particular. The rich chemistry and comparably straightforward synthesis of poly(2-oxazoline)s gives many opportunities for tailoring the properties of the resulting biomaterials, allowing the chemist to explore new conjugation chemistry, and to fine-tune the molar mass, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance as well as architecture. Thus, the wide range of demands for various applications of biomaterials can be suitably addressed. This review aims to give a comprehensive and critical update of the development of poly(2-oxazoline) based biomaterials, focusing on the last 5 years, which have seen an explosive increase of interest. We believe that the research regarding this diverse family of polymers will remain strong and will keep growing, in particular after the promising first-in-human studies of a poly(2-oxazoline) drug conjugate. This review aims at researchers and students new to this polymer family and seasoned poly(2-oxazoline) experts alike and attempts to showcase how the chemical diversity of poly(2-oxazoline)s allows a relatively facile and broad access to biomaterials of all kinds.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Oxazóis/química , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazóis/imunologia , Oxazóis/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Biomacromolecules ; 19(7): 3119-3128, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746117

RESUMO

Many natural compounds with interesting biomedical properties share one physicochemical property, namely, low water solubility. Polymer micelles are, among others, a popular means to solubilize hydrophobic compounds. The specific molecular interactions between the polymers and the hydrophobic drugs are diverse, and recently it has been discussed that macromolecular engineering can be used to optimize drug-loaded micelles. Specifically, π-π stacking between small molecules and polymers has been discussed as an important interaction that can be employed to increase drug loading and formulation stability. Here, we test this hypothesis using four different polymer amphiphiles with varying aromatic content and various natural products that also contain different relative amounts of aromatic moieties. In the case of paclitaxel, having the lowest relative content of aromatic moieties, the drug loading decreases with increasing relative aromatic amount in the polymer, whereas the drug loading of curcumin, having a much higher relative aromatic content, is increased. Interestingly, the loading using schizandrin A, a dibenzo[ a, c]cyclooctadiene lignan with intermediate relative aromatic content is not influenced significantly by the aromatic content of the polymers employed. The very high drug loading, long-term stability, ability to form stable highly loaded binary coformulations in different drug combinations, small-sized formulations, and amorphous structures in all cases corroborate earlier reports that poly(2-oxazoline)-based micelles exhibit an extraordinarily high drug loading and are promising candidates for further biomedical applications. The presented results underline that the interaction between the polymers and the incorporated small molecules may be more complex and are significantly influenced by both sides, the used carrier and drug, and must be investigated in each specific case.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/análise , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Produtos Biológicos/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Oxazóis/química , Tensoativos/química
20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(32): 10980-10983, 2017 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750162

RESUMO

Polymer micelles offer the possibility to create a nanoscopic environment that is distinct from the bulk phase. They find applications in catalysis, drug delivery, cleaning, etc. Often, one simply distinguishes between hydrophilic and hydrophobic, but fine-tuning of the microenvironment is possible by adjusting the structure of the polymer amphiphile. Here, we investigated a small library of structurally similar amphiphiles based on poly(2-oxazoline)s and poly(2-oxazine)s with respect to their solubilization capacity for two extremely water insoluble drugs, curcumin and paclitaxel. We found very significant and orthogonal specificities even if only one methylene group is exchanged between the polymer backbone and side chain. More strikingly, we observed profound synergistic and antagonistic solubilization patterns for the coformulation of the two drugs. Our findings shed new light on host-guest interaction in polymer micelles and such pronounced host-guest specificities in polymer micelles may not only be interesting in drug delivery but also for applications such as micellar catalysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Oxazinas/química , Oxazóis/química , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Curcumina/química , Micelas , Paclitaxel/química , Solubilidade , Água/química
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