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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
2.
Genomics ; 113(6): 3501-3511, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293474

RESUMO

Archaeological and genetic evidence show that sheep were originally domesticated in area around the North of Zagros mountains, North-west of Iran. The Persian plateau exhibits a variety of native sheep breeds with a common characteristic of coarse-wool production. Therefore, knowledge about the genetic structure and diversity of Iranian sheep and genetic connections with other sheep breeds is of great interest. To this end, we genotyped 154 samples from 11 sheep breeds distributed across Iran with the Ovine Infinium HD SNP 600 K BeadChip array, and analyzed this dataset combined with the retrieved data of 558 samples from 19 worldwide coarse-wool sheep breeds. The average genetic diversity ranged from 0.315 to 0.354, while the FST values ranged from 0.016 to 0.177 indicating a low differentiation of Iranian sheep. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 90.21 and 9.79% of the source of variation were related to differences within and between populations, respectively. Our results indicated that the coarse-wool sheep from Europe were clearly different from those of the Asia. Accordingly, the Asiatic mouflon was positioned between Asian and European countries. In addition, we found that the genetic background of Iranian sheep is present in sheep from China and Kyrgyzstan, as well as India. The revealed admixture patterns of the Iranian sheep and other coarse-wool sheep breeds probably resulted from the expansion of nomads and through the Silk Road trade network.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , , Animais , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/genética
3.
Front Genet ; 12: 670582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093663

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs) are a major source of structural variation in mammalian genomes. Here, we characterized the genome-wide CNV in 2059 sheep from 67 populations all over the world using the Ovine Infinium HD (600K) SNP BeadChip. We tested their associations with distinct phenotypic traits by conducting multiple independent genome-wide tests. In total, we detected 7547 unique CNVs and 18,152 CNV events in 1217 non-redundant CNV regions (CNVRs), covering 245 Mb (∼10%) of the whole sheep genome. We identified seven CNVRs with frequencies correlating to geographical origins and 107 CNVRs overlapping 53 known quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses of CNV-overlapping genes revealed their common involvement in energy metabolism, endocrine regulation, nervous system development, cell proliferation, immune, and reproduction. For the phenotypic traits, we detected significantly associated (adjusted P < 0.05) CNVRs harboring functional candidate genes, such as SBNO2 for polycerate; PPP1R11 and GABBR1 for tail weight; AKT1 for supernumerary nipple; CSRP1, WNT7B, HMX1, and FGFR3 for ear size; and NOS3 and FILIP1 in Wadi sheep; SNRPD3, KHDRBS2, and SDCCAG3 in Hu sheep; NOS3, BMP1, and SLC19A1 in Icelandic; CDK2 in Finnsheep; MICA in Romanov; and REEP4 in Texel sheep for litter size. These CNVs and associated genes are important markers for molecular breeding of sheep and other livestock species.

4.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803851

RESUMO

Currently, the intraspecific taxonomy of snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) is controversial and needs to be specified using DNA molecular genetic markers. In our previous work using whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, we found that the population inhabiting Kharaulakh Ridge was genetically different from the other populations of Yakut subspecies to which it was usually referred. Here, our study was aimed at the clarification of taxonomic status of Kharaulakh snow sheep using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A total of 87 specimens from five different geographic locations of Yakut snow sheep as well as 20 specimens of other recognized subspecies were included in this study. We identified 19 haplotypes, two of which belonged to the population from Kharaulakh Ridge. Median-joining network and Bayesian tree analyses revealed that Kharaulakh population clustered separately from all the other Yakut snow sheep. The divergence time between Kharaulakh population and Yakut snow sheep was estimated as 0.48 ± 0.19 MYA. Thus, the study of the mtDNA cytb sequences confirmed the results of genome-wide SNP analysis. Taking into account the high degree of divergence of Kharaulakh snow sheep from other groups, identified by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we propose to classify the Kharaulakh population as a separate subspecies.

5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101438

RESUMO

Even in individuals without diabetes, the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) increases with the rise in fasting plasma glucose (FPG); however, the threshold of FPG for CHD in rural areas of China is unclear. We retrospectively examined 2,987 people. Coronary angiography records were used to determine the presence of CHD as well as its severity. Risk factors for CHD and the relationship between different levels of FPG and CHD were analyzed. After adjusting for age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, drinking, chronic kidney disease, and previous ischemic stroke, the incidence of CHD in nondiabetic women began to increase when FPG exceeded 5.2 mmol/L (odds ratio (OR) = 1.438, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.099-1.880, p=0.008), and the degree of coronary artery lesions also became more severe (OR = 1.406, 95% CI = 1.107-1.788, p=0.005). However, no such correlations were found in nondiabetic men. In conclusion, among the nondiabetic women in rural areas of northern Henan, both the incidence of CHD and the severity of lesions increased when FPG levels were greater than 5.2 mmol/L, while no significant correlation between FPG and CHD was observed in diabetes-free men.

7.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Selvagens/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(2): 283-303, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445533

RESUMO

Tibetan sheep are the most common and widespread domesticated animals on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and have played an essential role in the permanent human occupation of this high-altitude region. However, the precise timing, route, and process of sheep pastoralism in the QTP region remain poorly established, and little is known about the underlying genomic changes that occurred during the process. Here, we investigate the genomic variation in Tibetan sheep using whole-genome sequences, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal variants in 986 samples throughout their distribution range. We detect strong signatures of selection in genes involved in the hypoxia and ultraviolet signaling pathways (e.g., HIF-1 pathway and HBB and MITF genes) and in genes associated with morphological traits such as horn size and shape (e.g., RXFP2). We identify clear signals of argali (Ovis ammon) introgression into sympatric Tibetan sheep, covering 5.23-5.79% of their genomes. The introgressed genomic regions are enriched in genes related to oxygen transportation system, sensory perception, and morphological phenotypes, in particular the genes HBB and RXFP2 with strong signs of adaptive introgression. The spatial distribution of genomic diversity and demographic reconstruction of the history of Tibetan sheep show a stepwise pattern of colonization with their initial spread onto the QTP from its northeastern part ∼3,100 years ago, followed by further southwest expansion to the central QTP ∼1,300 years ago. Together with archeological evidence, the date and route reveal the history of human expansions on the QTP by the Tang-Bo Ancient Road during the late Holocene. Our findings contribute to a depth understanding of early pastoralism and the local adaptation of Tibetan sheep as well as the late-Holocene human occupation of the QTP.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genoma , Migração Humana , Hibridização Genética , Ovinos/genética , Altitude , Animais , Ecótipo , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Tibet
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11677, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076315

RESUMO

Domestic animals play a key role in human survival and the development of civilization. However, the genetic resources of domestic animals are facing an alarming rate of erosion due to socioeconomic changes, economic globalization and financial constraints. In this study, through genome-wide SNP analysis, we estimated the heterozygosity, inbreeding coefficient, effective population size, and runs of homozygosity to identify the breeds facing the risk of extinction for sheep and cattle across the world. In particular, we quantified the contribution of 97 sheep breeds and 53 cattle breeds to genomic diversity (within-breed, between-breed and total) and prioritized the breeds for conservation. Additionally, we compared the average values of genomic diversity between breeds from regions (or countries) in different economic categories (underdeveloped, developing and developed), and found that breeds in developed regions exhibit significantly higher levels of total genomic diversity than those in underdeveloped and developing regions. Altogether, our results suggested that conservation priority should be given to breeds in developed regions to secure the future genomic diversity hotspots of domestic animal resources.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma , Animais , Bovinos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Homozigoto , Endogamia , Densidade Demográfica , Análise de Regressão , Ovinos/genética
11.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(5): 1282-1297, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790980

RESUMO

Analyses of genomic diversity along the X chromosome and of its correlation with autosomal diversity can facilitate understanding of evolutionary forces in shaping sex-linked genomic architecture. Strong selective sweeps and accelerated genetic drift on the X-chromosome have been inferred in primates and other model species, but no such insight has yet been gained in domestic animals compared with their wild relatives. Here, we analyzed X-chromosome variability in a large ovine data set, including a BeadChip array for 943 ewes from the world's sheep populations and 110 whole genomes of wild and domestic sheep. Analyzing whole-genome sequences, we observed a substantially reduced X-to-autosome diversity ratio (∼0.6) compared with the value expected under a neutral model (0.75). In particular, one large X-linked segment (43.05-79.25 Mb) was found to show extremely low diversity, most likely due to a high density of coding genes, featuring highly conserved regions. In general, we observed higher nucleotide diversity on the autosomes, but a flat diversity gradient in X-linked segments, as a function of increasing distance from the nearest genes, leading to a decreased X: autosome (X/A) diversity ratio and contrasting to the positive correlation detected in primates and other model animals. Our evidence suggests that accelerated genetic drift but reduced directional selection on X chromosome, as well as sex-biased demographic events, explain low X-chromosome diversity in sheep species. The distinct patterns of X-linked and X/A diversity we observed between Middle Eastern and non-Middle Eastern sheep populations can be explained by multiple migrations, selection, and admixture during the domestic sheep's recent postdomestication demographic expansion, coupled with natural selection for adaptation to new environments. In addition, we identify important novel genes involved in abnormal behavioral phenotypes, metabolism, and immunity, under selection on the sheep X-chromosome.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Seleção Genética , Ovinos/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Pseudoautossômicas , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 34(9): 2380-2395, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645168

RESUMO

China has a rich resource of native sheep (Ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. However, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient China remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the genomic diversity of Chinese sheep using genome-wide SNPs, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal variations in > 1,000 modern samples. Population genomic analyses combined with archeological records and historical ethnic demographics data revealed genetic signatures of the origins, secondary expansions and admixtures, of Chinese sheep thereby revealing the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in East Asia. Originating from the Mongolian Plateau ∼5,000‒5,700 years ago, Chinese sheep were inferred to spread in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River ∼3,000‒5,000 years ago following the expansions of the Di-Qiang people. Afterwards, sheep were then inferred to reach the Qinghai-Tibetan and Yunnan-Kweichow plateaus ∼2,000‒2,600 years ago by following the north-to-southwest routes of the Di-Qiang migration. We also unveiled two subsequent waves of migrations of fat-tailed sheep into northern China, which were largely commensurate with the migrations of ancestors of Hui Muslims eastward and Mongols southward during the 12th‒13th centuries. Furthermore, we revealed signs of argali introgression into domestic sheep, extensive historical mixtures among domestic populations and strong artificial selection for tail type and other traits, reflecting various breeding strategies by nomadic societies in ancient China.


Assuntos
Filogeografia/métodos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Cruzamento , China , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Extremo Oriente , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética , Migrantes , Cromossomo Y/genética
13.
Mol Biol Evol ; 33(10): 2576-92, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401233

RESUMO

Global climate change has a significant effect on extreme environments and a profound influence on species survival. However, little is known of the genome-wide pattern of livestock adaptations to extreme environments over a short time frame following domestication. Sheep (Ovis aries) have become well adapted to a diverse range of agroecological zones, including certain extreme environments (e.g., plateaus and deserts), during their post-domestication (approximately 8-9 kya) migration and differentiation. Here, we generated whole-genome sequences from 77 native sheep, with an average effective sequencing depth of ∼5× for 75 samples and ∼42× for 2 samples. Comparative genomic analyses among sheep in contrasting environments, that is, plateau (>4,000 m above sea level) versus lowland (<100 m), high-altitude region (>1500 m) versus low-altitude region (<1300 m), desert (<10 mm average annual precipitation) versus highly humid region (>600 mm), and arid zone (<400 mm) versus humid zone (>400 mm), detected a novel set of candidate genes as well as pathways and GO categories that are putatively associated with hypoxia responses at high altitudes and water reabsorption in arid environments. In addition, candidate genes and GO terms functionally related to energy metabolism and body size variations were identified. This study offers novel insights into rapid genomic adaptations to extreme environments in sheep and other animals, and provides a valuable resource for future research on livestock breeding in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Ambientes Extremos , Genoma , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
14.
Exp Ther Med ; 12(6): 3877-3884, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105120

RESUMO

Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the protective effect of curcumin on myocardial injury in rats as well as the mechanisms underlying these effects, and examined the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) following myocardial infarction. A rat model of myocardial infarction was successfully established. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed cellular atrophy and hyperchromatic cytoplasm in the myocardial infarction area. The myocardial cells displayed lysis and breakage of cardiac muscle fibers, karyopyknosis and karyorrhexis associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells and proliferation of fibrous tissue. Curcumin treatment at a dosage of 150 mg/kg/body weight resulted in an increase in surviving cells, fewer apoptotic cells, decreased proliferation of fibrous tissue and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, though necrosis was still present compared with the rats without curcumin treatment. The immunohistochemical assay demonstrated that curcumin treatment inhibited the expression of NF-κB, but increased the expression of PPAR-γ. The results of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that curcumin treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2 (P<0.01). Therefore, curcumin antagonizes cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration following myocardial infarction, which may be associated with its inhibitory effects on the expression of NF-κB, and activating effects on the expression of PPAR-γ and Bcl-2 in myocardial cells. Curcumin may be useful in clinical practice for saving more living heart muscle in the area of myocardial infarction and improving cardiac function following the elective opening of obstructed coronary arteries.

15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 32(10): 2515-33, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085518

RESUMO

Despite much attention, history of sheep (Ovis aries) evolution, including its dating, demographic trajectory and geographic spread, remains controversial. To address these questions, we generated 45 complete and 875 partial mitogenomic sequences, and performed a meta-analysis of these and published ovine mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 3,229) across Eurasia. We inferred that O. orientalis and O. musimon share the most recent female ancestor with O. aries at approximately 0.790 Ma (95% CI: 0.637-0.934 Ma) during the Middle Pleistocene, substantially predating the domestication event (∼8-11 ka). By reconstructing historical variations in effective population size, we found evidence of a rapid population increase approximately 20-60 ka, immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum. Analyses of lineage expansions showed two sheep migratory waves at approximately 4.5-6.8 ka (lineages A and B: ∼6.4-6.8 ka; C: ∼4.5 ka) across eastern Eurasia, which could have been influenced by prehistoric West-East commercial trade and deliberate mating of domestic and wild sheep, respectively. A continent-scale examination of lineage diversity and approximate Bayesian computation analyses indicated that the Mongolian Plateau region was a secondary center of dispersal, acting as a "transportation hub" in eastern Eurasia: Sheep from the Middle Eastern domestication center were inferred to have migrated through the Caucasus and Central Asia, and arrived in North and Southwest China (lineages A, B, and C) and the Indian subcontinent (lineages B and C) through this region. Our results provide new insights into sheep domestication, particularly with respect to origins and migrations to and from eastern Eurasia.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Genômica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Geografia , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Anim Genet ; 45(6): 903-7, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25204383

RESUMO

Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Frequência do Gene , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação
17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 31(12): 3324-43, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25249477

RESUMO

Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic "footprints" in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Clima , Evolução Molecular , Frequência do Gene , Ontologia Genética , Genes , Haplótipos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Exp Ther Med ; 6(1): 184-188, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23935743

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia may lead to endothelial injury, due to its effects on homocysteine and vascular endothelial growth factor in the serum, and the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and caspase-3 and -8 in the vascular wall. In order to prevent and mitigate the high-fat state that results from endothelial injury, this study examined the effect of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) on the expression of PPARγ and caspase-3 and -8 mRNA in the abdominal aortas of rats with hyperlipidemia. Sixty 4-week-old healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (each n=12): the normal control (NC), high-fat diet (HL), FA, VB12 and FA+VB12 groups. Following one week of adaptive feeding, the FA, VB12 and FA+VB12 groups were subject to the intraperitoneal injection of FA (0.5 mg/day), VB12 (0.05 mg/day) and FA+VB12 (0.5 mg/day and 0.05 mg/day), respectively, while fed a high-fat diet. The rats in the NC group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl solution (0.5 ml/day) and fed a normal diet, whereas those in the HL group were fed a high-fat diet only. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay demonstrated that at the end of week 12, the FA treatment had effectively increased the PPARγ mRNA level, while reducing the caspase-3 and -8 mRNA levels, compared with the high-fat diet treatment (P<0.05). The effect of FA on the expression of PPARγ and caspase-3 and -8 was enhanced when used in combination with VB12 (P<0.05). These results revealed that the application of FA, alone or in combination with VB12, improves and mitigates the high-fat state that results from endothelial injury.

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