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1.
Mol Cell Probes ; : 101531, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062018

RESUMO

The incidence of foodborne infections caused by Shigella spp. is still very high in every year, which poses a great potential threat to public health. Conventional quantification methods based on culture techniques, biochemical, and serological identification are time-consuming and labor-intensive. To develop a more rapid and efficient detection method of Shigella spp., we compared the sensitivity and specificity of three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, including conventional PCR, quantitative real-time PCR (RTQ-PCR), and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Our results indicated that ddPCR method exhibited higher sensitivity, and the limit of detection was 10-5 ng/µl for genomic DNA templates, 10-1 cfu/ml for Shigella bacteria culture. In addition, we found that ddPCR was a time-saving method, which required a shorter pre-culturing time. Collectively, ddPCR assay was a potentially reliable method for rapid and effective detection of Shigella spp.

2.
J Environ Radioact ; 217: 106202, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063554

RESUMO

Uranium mining and milling activities for many years resulted in release of uranium into the adjoining soil in varying degrees. Bioremediation approaches (i.e., immobilization via the action of bacteria) resulting in uranium bearing solid is supposed as an economic and clean in-situ approach for the treatment of uranium contaminated sites. This study purposes to determine the immobilization efficiency of uranium in soil by Leifsonia sp. The results demonstrated that cells have a good proliferation ability under the stress of uranium and play a role in retaining uranium in soil. Residual uranium in active Leifsonia-medium group (66%) was higher than that in the controls, which was 31% in the deionised water control, 46% in the Leifsonia group, and 47% in the medium group, respectively. This indicated that Leifsonia sp. facilitates the immobilization efficiency of uranium in soil by converting part of the reducible and oxidizable fraction of uranium into the residual fraction. X-ray photoelectron fitting results showed that tetravalent states uranium existed in the soil samples, which indicated that the hexavalent uranium was converted into tetravalent by cells. This is the first report of effect of Leifsonia sp. on uranium immobilization in soil. The findings implied that Leifsonia sp. could, to some extent, prevent the migration and diffusion of uranium in soil by changing the chemical states into less toxicity and less risky forms.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033747

RESUMO

Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors activate the expression of downstream functional genes in combination with a dehydration-responsive element (DRE), and thereby improve the resistance of plants to abiotic stresses such as heat. However, the upstream regulatory mechanism of DREB genes under heat is unclear. A DREBA4 subfamily transcription factor (SlDREBA4), which is heat-responsive and improves heat resistance, was isolated from Solanum lycopersicum 'Microtom'. In this study, promoter truncation experiments were performed to verify changes in ß-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme activity and GUS gene expression levels in transgenic plants with different lengths of promoter fragments under heat and to identify specific regions in the promoter that respond to heat. Our results showed that the GUS reporter gene was constitutively expressed in tissues of the full-length promoter transgenic 'Microtom' plants, with higher expression in conducting tissues of root, stem, and leaf, as well as sepals of flowers and fruits. Under heat treatment, GUS enzyme activity and GUS gene expression levels in tissues of the full-length promoter transgenic plants increased. Promoter deletion analysis identified two positive regulatory regions (-1095 to -730 bp and -162 to -38 bp) responsible for the promoter's response to heat. These results indicated that the heat shock element (HSE) and MYC recognition sequences may cooperate in heat-induced activation of SlDREBA4 promoter.

4.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025688

RESUMO

Low photoconversion efficiency, high charge transfer resistance and fast recombination rate are the bottlenecks of semiconductor nanomaterials in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, where the introduction of an appropriate co-catalyst is an effective strategy to improve their performance. In the present study, we have purposely designed atomic-scale dispersed bismuth (Bi) assembled on titanium dioxide nanorods (TiO2), and demonstrated its effective role as a co-catalyst in enhancing the PEC water splitting performance of TiO2. As a result, functionalized Bi/TiO2 generates a high photocurrent intensity at 1.23 VRHE under simulated solar light irradiation, which is 4-fold higher than that of pristine TiO2, exhibiting a significantly improved PEC performance for water splitting. The strategy presented in this study opens a new window for the construction of non-precious metals dispersed at atomic scales as efficient co-catalysts for realizing sustainable solar energy-driven energy conversion and storage.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921043, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049295

RESUMO

Importance: Depression is associated with increased disease burden worldwide and with higher risk of mortality in Western populations. Objective: To investigate whether depression is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in adults in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study prospectively followed adults aged 30 to 79 years in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from June 1, 2004, to December 31, 2016, and adults aged 32 to 104 years in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) study from September 1, 2008, to December 31, 2016. Data analysis was conducted from June 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depression was evaluated using the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form in the CKB cohort and a 7-item symptoms questionnaire modified from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form in the DFTJ cohort. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association of depression with mortality. Covariates in the final models included sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and personal and family medical history. Results: Among 512 712 individuals (mean [SD] age, 52.0 [10.7] years; 302 509 [59.0%] women) in the CKB cohort, there were 44 065 deaths, including 18 273 CVD deaths. The 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode in the CKB cohort was 0.64%, and the 1-month prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 17.96% in the DFTJ cohort. Among 26 298 individuals (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [7.8] years; 14 508 [55.2%] women) in the DFTJ cohort, there were 2571 deaths, including 1013 CVD deaths. In the multivariable-adjusted model, depression was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.20-1.46]; P < .001; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06-1.29]; P = .002) and CVD mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.04-1.44]; P = .02; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.14-1.54]; P < .001). In both cohorts, men had statistically significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.32-1.76]; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.10-1.41]) and CVD mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.10-1.76]; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.23-1.80]), while the association of depression with mortality among women was only significant for all-cause mortality in the CKB cohort (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.03-1.37]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that depression is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in adults in China, particularly in men. These findings highlight the importance and urgency of depression management as a measure for preventing premature deaths in China.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cooking practice has transitioned from use of solid fuels to use of clean fuels, with addition of better ventilation facilities. However, the change in mortality risk associated with such a transition remains unclear. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) Study enrolled participants (aged 30-79 years) from ten areas across China; we chose to study participants from five urban areas where transition from use of solid fuels to clean fuels for cooking was prevalent. Participants who reported regular cooking (weekly or more frequently) at baseline were categorised as persistent clean fuel users, previous solid fuel users, or persistent solid fuel users, according to self-reported fuel use histories. All-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality were identified through linkage to China's Disease Surveillance Point system and local mortality records. FINDINGS: Between June 24, 2004, and July 15, 2008, 226 186 participants living in five urban areas of China were enrolled in the CKB Study. Among 171 677 participants who reported cooking regularly (weekly or more frequently), 75 785 (44%) were persistent clean fuel users, 80 511 (47%) were previous solid fuel users, and 15 381 (9%) were persistent solid fuel users. During a mean of 9·8 (SD 1·7) years of follow-up, 10 831 deaths were documented, including 3819 cardiovascular deaths and 761 respiratory deaths. Compared with persistent clean fuel users, persistent solid fuel users had significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·19, 95% CI 1·10-1·28), cardiovascular mortality (1·24, 1·10-1·39), and respiratory mortality (1·43, 1·10-1·85). The excess risk of all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality fell by more than 60% in 5 years after cessation of solid fuel use and continued to decrease afterwards. Use of ventilation was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk, even among persistent clean fuel users (HR 0·78, 0·69-0·89). INTERPRETATION: Solid fuel use for cooking is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and cessation of solid fuel use cuts excess mortality risks swiftly and substantially within 5 years. Ventilation use also lowers the risk of mortality, even among people who persistently use clean fuels. It is of prime importance for both policy makers and the public to accelerate the transition from solid fuels to clean fuels and promote efficient ventilation to minimise further adverse health effects. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Wellcome Trust, and Kadoorie Charitable Foundation.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes is modified by a healthy lifestyle among Chinese remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether genetic risk and adherence to a healthy lifestyle contribute independently to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We defined a lifestyle score using BMI, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activities, and diets in 461,030 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank and 38,434 participants from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. A genetic risk score was constructed based on type 2 diabetes loci among 100,175 and 16,172 participants in each cohort, respectively. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the interaction between genetic and lifestyle factors on the risk of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In 2 independent Asian cohorts, we consistently found a healthy lifestyle (the bottom quintile of lifestyle score) was associated with a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes than an unhealthy lifestyle (the top quintile of lifestyle score) regardless of genetic risk. In those at a high genetic risk, the risk of type 2 diabetes was 57% lower among participants with a healthy lifestyle than among those with an unhealthy lifestyle in the pooled cohorts. Among participants at high genetic risk, the standardized 10-y incidence of type 2 diabetes was 7.11% in those with an unhealthy lifestyle vs. 2.45% in those with a healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 independent cohorts involving 558,302 Chinese participants, we did not observe an interaction between genetics and lifestyle with type 2 diabetes risk, but our findings provide replicable evidence to show lifestyle factors and genetic factors were independently associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Within any genetic risk category, a healthy lifestyle was associated with a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes among the Chinese population.

8.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970429

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous evidence linking red meat consumption with diabetes risk mainly came from western countries, with little evidence from China, where patterns of meat consumption are different. Moreover, global evidence remains inconclusive about the associations of poultry and fish consumption with diabetes. Therefore we investigated the associations of red meat, poultry and fish intake with incidence of diabetes in a Chinese population. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited ~512,000 adults (59% women, mean age 51 years) from ten rural and urban areas across China in 2004-2008. At the baseline survey, a validated interviewer-administered laptop-based questionnaire was used to collect information on the consumption frequency of major food groups including red meat, poultry, fish, fresh fruit and several others. During ~9 years of follow-up, 14,931 incidences of new-onset diabetes were recorded among 461,036 participants who had no prior diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or cancer at baseline. Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted HRs for incident diabetes associated with red meat, poultry and fish intake. RESULTS: At baseline, 47.0%, 1.3% and 8.9% of participants reported a regular consumption (i.e. ≥4 days/week) of red meat, poultry and fish, respectively. After adjusting for adiposity and other potential confounders, each 50 g/day increase in red meat and fish intake was associated with 11% (HR 1.11 [95% CI 1.04, 1.20]) and 6% (HR 1.06 [95% CI 1.00, 1.13]) higher risk of incident diabetes, respectively. For both, the associations were more pronounced among men and women from urban areas, with an HR (95% CI) of 1.42 (1.15, 1.74) and 1.18 (1.03, 1.36), respectively, per 50 g/day red meat intake and 1.15 (1.02, 1.30) and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23), respectively, per 50 g/day fish intake. There was no significant association between diabetes and poultry intake, either overall (HR 0.96 [95% CI 0.83, 1.12] per 50 g/day intake) or in specific population subgroups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In Chinese adults, both red meat and fish, but not poultry, intake were positively associated with diabetes risk, particularly among urban participants. Our findings add new evidence linking red meat and fish intake with cardiometabolic diseases. DATA AVAILABILITY: Details of how to access the China Kadoorie Biobank data and rules of China Kadoorie Biobank data release are available from www.ckbiobank.org/site/Data+Access.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980495

RESUMO

Bodyweight and fat distribution may be related to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk. Limited prospective evidence linked COPD to abdominal adiposity. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI) and measures of abdominal adiposity with COPD risk in a prospective cohort study.The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recruited participants aged 30-79 years from ten areas across China. Anthropometric indexes were objectively measured at the baseline survey during 2004-2008. After exclusion of participants with prevalent COPD and major chronic diseases, 452 259 participants were included and followed up through the end of 2016. We used Cox models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios relating adiposity to risk of COPD hospitalisation or death.Over an average of 10.1-year follow-up, 10 739 COPD hospitalisation events and deaths were reported. Compared with normal BMI (BMI 18.5 to <24.0 kg·m-2), underweight (BMI<18.5 kg·m-2) individuals had increased risk of COPD, with adjusted HR (95% CI) to be 1.78 (1.66-1.89). Overweight (BMI 24.0 to <28.0 kg·m-2) and obesity (BMI≥28.0 kg·m-2) were not associated with an increased risk after adjustment for waist circumference. A higher waist circumference (≥85 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) was positively associated with COPD risk after adjustment for BMI. Waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio were also positively related to COPD risk.Abdominal adiposity and underweight were risk factors for COPD in Chinese adults. Both BMI and measures of Abdominal adiposity should be considered in the prevention of COPD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk of certain gastrointestinal (e.g. colorectal, pancreatic, and liver) cancers in Western populations. Evidence is very limited in China where correlates and determinants of SES differ from those in the West. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,715 adults (59% women, mean age 51 years) from 10 (5 urban, 5 rural) regions. During 10 years of follow-up, 27,940 incident cancers (including 3061 colorectal, 805 pancreatic, and 2904 liver) were recorded among 510,131 participants without prior cancer at baseline. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for specific cancers associated with area-level (e.g. per capita gross domestic product, disposable income) and individual-level (e.g. education, household income) SES. RESULTS: Area-level SES and household income showed positive associations with incident colorectal and pancreatic cancer and inverse associations with liver cancer (p for trend <0.05). Education showed no association with colorectal cancer but inverse associations with pancreatic and liver cancer, with adjusted HRs comparing university to no formal schooling being 1.05 (95% CI 0.85-1.29), 0.49 (0.28-0.85), and 0.61 (0.47-0.81), respectively. Potential risk factors (e.g. smoking, alcohol) explained partly the inverse associations of education with pancreatic and liver cancer (17.6% and 60.4%, respectively), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, the associations of SES with gastrointestinal cancers differed by cancer type and SES indicator. Potential risk factors partially explained the inverse associations of education with pancreatic and liver cancer. IMPACT: The different associations between SES with gastrointestinal cancers may inform cancer prevention strategies.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e031028, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The application of bowel movement frequency (BMF) in primary care is limited by the lack of solid evidence about the associations of BMF with health outcomes apart from Parkinson's disease and colorectal cancer. We examined the prospective associations of BMF with major vascular and non-vascular diseases outside the digestive system. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: The China Kadoorie Biobank in which participants from 10 geographically diverse areas across China were enrolled between 2004 and 2008. PARTICIPANTS: 487 198 participants aged 30 to 79 years without cancer, heart disease or stroke at baseline were included and followed up for a median of 10 years. The usual BMF was self-reported once at baseline. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident events of predefined major vascular and non-vascular diseases. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants having bowel movements 'more than once a day' had higher risks of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD) when compared with the reference group ('once a day'). The respective HRs (95% CIs) were 1.12 (1.09 to 1.16), 1.33 (1.22 to 1.46), 1.28 (1.22 to 1.36), 1.20 (1.15 to 1.26) and 1.15 (1.07 to 1.24). The lowest BMF ('less than three times a week') was also associated with higher risks of IHD, major coronary events, ischaemic stroke and CKD. The respective HRs were 1.07 (1.02 to 1.12), 1.22 (1.10 to 1.36), 1.11 (1.05 to 1.16) and 1.20 (1.07 to 1.35). CONCLUSION: BMF was associated with future risks of multiple vascular and non-vascular diseases. The integration of BMF assessment and health counselling into primary care should be considered.

12.
Heart ; 106(3): 213-220, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively examine the potential impacts of prenatal experience of the Chinese Great Famine on chronic disease risks in the middle age. METHODS: This study included 92 284 participants aged 39-51 years from China Kadoorie Biobank born around the famine period and without major chronic diseases at baseline. We categorised participants into non-famine births (born between 1 October 1956 and 30 September 1958, and 1 October 1962 and 30 September 1964) and famine births (born between 1 October 1959 and 30 September 1961). The outcomes were incident cardiovascular disease, cancer and respiratory system disease. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted HR and 95% CI for famine exposure. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics. RESULTS: During a median 10.1 years of follow-up, we identified 4626 incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD) cases, 7332 cerebrovascular disease cases, 3111 cancer cases and 16 081 respiratory system disease cases. In the whole population, prenatal famine exposure was not statistically associated with the risks of developing any chronic diseases in adulthood. However, for urban participants, compared with non-famine births, famine births had a higher risk of cerebrovascular disease (HR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28); such association was not shown for rural participants (p for interaction <0.001). Also, we observed the associations of prenatal famine exposure with IHD (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.26) and cerebrovascular disease (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21) in participants with lower physical activity level, but not in those with higher ones (all p for interaction=0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine might be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and such risk may be modified by adult lifestyle.

13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 197-206, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cohort studies have explored the relation between tea consumption and stroke risk; however, the conclusions have been inconsistent. In addition, evidence is lacking in China, where the patterns of tea consumption and main types of tea consumed differ substantially from those in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically assess the association of tea consumption with the risk of stroke based on a Chinese large-scale cohort study. METHODS: A total of 487,377 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in the present study. Detailed information about tea consumption (including frequency, duration, amount, and tea type) was self-reported at baseline. After ∼4.3 million person-years of follow-up, 38,727 incident cases of stroke were recorded, mainly through linkage with mortality and morbidity registries and based on the national health insurance system. RESULTS: Overall, 128,280 adults (26.3%) reported drinking tea almost daily (41.4% men, 15.9% women), predominantly green tea (86.7%). Tea consumption had an inverse and dose-response relation with the risk of stroke (Ptrend < 0.001). Compared with nonconsumers, those who consumed tea occasionally, weekly, and daily had adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of 0.96 (0.94, 0.99), 0.94 (0.90, 0.98), and 0.92 (0.89, 0.95) respectively, with little difference by stroke type. Among those who consumed tea daily, the HRs for stroke decreased with the increasing duration and amount of tea consumed (all P < 0.001). These inverse associations were significant for green tea but not for other types of tea. Among men, but not women, the inverse relations could be detected, and similar inverse associations could be found for male noncurrent alcohol-consumers and noncurrent smokers as well. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, higher consumption of tea, especially green tea, was associated with a lower risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113369, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662254

RESUMO

Soil contains large amounts of humic acid (HA), iron ions and manganese ions, all of which affect U(VI) migration in the soil. HA interacts with iron and manganese ions to form HA salts (called HA-Fe and HA-Mn in this paper); however, the effects of HA-Fe and HA-Mn on the migration of U(VI) is not fully understood. In this study, HA-Fe and HA-Mn were compounded by HA interactions with ferric chloride hexahydrate and manganese chloride tetrahydrate, respectively. The influence of HA, HA-Fe and HA-Mn on U(VI) immobilization and migration was investigated by bath adsorption experiments and adsorption-desorption experiments using soil columns. The results showed that the presence of HA, HA-Fe and HA-Mn retarded the migration of U(VI) in soil. Supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and BCR sequential extraction analyses, a plausible explanation for the retardation was that HA-Fe and HA-Mn could reduce hexavalent uranium to stable tetravalent uranium and increase the specific gravity of Fe/Mn oxide-bound uranium and organic/sulfide-bound uranium, which made it difficult for them to longitudinally migrate in soil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area and pore size analyses indicated that the complex formed between the hydroxyl, amino and carboxyl groups of HA-Fe and U(VI) increased the crystallinity of HA-Fe. The reaction between U(VI) and the hydroxyl, amino, aldehyde, keto and chlorine-containing groups of HA-Mn had no effect on the crystallinity of HA-Mn. Notably, the column desorption experiment found that the U(VI) immobilized in the soil remigrated under the effect of rain leaching, and acid rain promoted uranium remigration better than neutral rain. The findings provide some guidance for the decommissioning disposal of uranium contaminated site and it's risk assessments.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 987-998, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115907

RESUMO

High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Evidence relating body fatness, especially based on different anthropometric measures, to risk of major cancers in China from prospective cohort studies is lacking. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas across China during 2004-2008, recording 21,474 incident cancers during 8.95 years of follow-up. BMI, body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline. We assessed the associations of body fatness with 15 major cancers by calculating Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with an increased risk of endometrial (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.72-2.35), postmenopausal breast (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.18-1.40), colorectal (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10-1.25) and cervical (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29) cancer, whereas it was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67-0.79), lung (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82), liver (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92) and gastric (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.94) cancer. Significant linear trends of BMI-cancer associations were observed, excluding for lung, gastric and cervical cancer (both overall and nonlinear p < 0.05). The relation between BFP, WC and WHR and the above cancers was similar to that of BMI. Our study indicates that either high or low body fatness contributes to the incidence of different types of cancer in China.

17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109640, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810114

RESUMO

Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling, which ultimately leads to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Osthole has been previously shown to inhibit tumor cell growth. Our previous experiments demonstrated that osthole could prevent monocrotaline-induced PAH and pulmonary artery remodeling in rats and that its effects might be associated with inhibiting PASMC proliferation. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we observed the inhibitory effect of osthole on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced rat PASMC growth, cell cycle progression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, as measured by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometric analysis and western blotting, respectively. We also detected the expression and activities of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1/CDK4, cyclin E1/CDK2, p53, p27 and p21 and the TGF-ß1/Smad/p38 signaling pathways in rat PASMCs by western blotting. Our results show that osthole effectively suppressed PDGF-BB-stimulated proliferation, PCNA protein expression, and cell cycle progression in rat PASMCs in vitro. We further demonstrated that treatment with osthole significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in PASMCs, which was supported by the finding that osthole significantly decreased cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin E1/CDK2 protein levels and increased p53, p27 and p21 protein levels. These effects may partly be attributed to the downregulation of TGF-ß1/Smad/p38 signaling pathway activation. Our findings suggest that osthole is a potential therapeutic candidate that warrants further investigation regarding its potential use for the treatment of PAH.

18.
Talanta ; 208: 120410, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816701

RESUMO

A novel method using mesoporous g-C3N4 and ß-cyclodextrin nanocomposite (mpg-C3N4/ß-CD) for the electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. The unique structure of the mesoporous g-C3N4/ß-CD nanocomposite facilitates both mpg-C3N4 electrocatalysis and ß-CD inclusion-complexation of the analytes. When compared to GCE or mpg-C3N4 modified GCE, the mpg-C3N4/ß-CD modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits superior performance in the detection of TNT. Hence, we used mpg-C3N4/ß-CD modified GCE for the development of TNT detection method using linear sweep voltammetry at -0.45 V reduction potential with 100 s accumulation time. The TNT calibration curve is linear within the 1-100 µM concentration range and the corresponding sensitivity and LOD values are 0.2 µA/µM and 68 ppb respectively. When p-nitrophenol and o-nitrophenol introduced into the matrix, the mpg-C3N4/ß-CD modified GCE sensor showed high selectivity and sensitivity to the nitroaromatic compounds. Optimized mpg-C3N4/ß-CD modified GCE sensor was used for the detection of TNT in a natural lake water sample with an 96.8% peak recovery. The results shown in work illustrate the potential of using g-C3N4/ß-CD modified GCE sensors in monitoring TNT and other nitroaromatic compounds in environmental analysis.

19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(2): 468-474, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence on the association between sleep duration and obesity among adults is inconsistent. Prospective studies investigating the association in Chinese adults have been limited. This study aims to prospectively evaluate sleep duration in relation to subsequent weight gain and general and central obesity risk among Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 21,958 participants aged 30 to 79 years reported their daily sleep duration. Obesity indicators were objectively measured; then significant weight gain (≥ 5 kg) and general and central obesity were modeled as the outcome. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Average sleep duration was 7.5 hours at baseline. During 8.0 ± 0.8 years of follow-up, participants who reported sleeping ≤ 6 hours had higher risk for significant weight gain than those who slept 7 hours (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29). The association was stronger among those who were physically inactive at baseline (P = 0.04 for interaction). Short sleep duration was also associated with subsequent incident central obesity, with odds ratio of 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00-1.28), but not with incident general obesity (P = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with those who slept 7 hours per day, short sleepers had an increased risk of significant weight gain and central obesity.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(1): 538-545, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842539

RESUMO

The introduction of plasmonic additives is a promising approach to boost the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) since they may improve the light harvesting of a solar cell. Herein, we design broadband and strong plasmonic absorption Au@Ag@SiO2 nanocuboids (GSS NCs) as nanophotonic inclusions to achieve plasmon-enhanced DSSCs. These multiple-resonance absorptions arising from GSS NCs can be readily adjusted by altering their structures to complementarily match the absorption spectra of the dyes, especially in weak absorption zones. By subtly regulating the position of nanophotonic inclusions in the photoanodes, not only the plasmonic near-field enhancement but also far-field light scattering could be adequately developed to promote the light harvest and thus the efficiency of DSSCs. The resulting solar cells yield an average efficiency of 10.34%, with a champion value of 10.58%. The electromagnetic simulations are consistent with the experimental observations, further corroborating the synergistic effect of plasmonic improvement in these DSSCs.

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