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1.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous sinus stenosis (VSS) is a type of cerebral venous vascular disease. Cerebral autoregulation is an indicator of cerebral arterial function. The cerebral circulatory system is composed of the venous system and arterial system. Impaired venous function may affect arterial function. Thus, cerebral venous stenosis may influence cerebral autoregulation. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case, a 50-year-old woman with transient blindness and headache was admitted to the hospital. The patient was diagnosed with VSS. A stent was placed at the stenosis. The stent released the intravenous pressure and remitted the patient's symptoms. Measurements of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) were performed at 3 time points: before stenting, after stenting, and 3 months later. The dCA gradually improved after stenting. CONCLUSION: VSS may have an influence on cerebral autoregulation, and effective treatment improves cerebral autoregulation in patients with VSS.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(1): 179-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855529

RESUMO

China has made remarkable progress in reducing schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum over the past 7 decades but now faces a severe threat from imported schistosomiasis. Results from national surveillance during 2010-2018 indicate integrating active surveillance into current surveillance models for imported cases is urgently needed to achieve schistosomiasis elimination in China.

3.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 273, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes can contribute to their hosts in food digestion, nutrient absorption, and inhibiting the growth of pathogens. However, only limited studies have focused on the gut microbiota of freshwater snails. Pomacea canaliculata is considered one of the worst invasive alien species in the world. Elucidating the diversity and composition of the microbiota in the gut of P. canaliculata snails may be helpful for better understanding the widespread invasion of this snail species. In this study, the buccal masses, stomachs, and intestines were isolated from seven P. canaliculata snails. The diversity and composition of the microbiota in the three gut sections were then investigated based on high-throughput Illumina sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: The diversity of the microbiota was highest in the intestine but lowest in the buccal mass. A total of 29 phyla and 111 genera of bacteria were identified in all of the samples. In general, Ochrobactrum, a genus of putative cellulose-degrading bacteria, was the most abundant (overall relative abundance: 13.6%), followed by Sediminibacterium (9.7%), Desulfovibrio (7.8%), an unclassified genus in the family Aeromonadaceae (5.4%), and Cloacibacterium (5.4%). The composition of the microbiota was diverse among the different gut sections. Ochrobactrum (relative abundance: 23.15% ± 7.92%) and Sediminibacterium (16.95 ± 5.70%) were most abundant in the stomach, an unclassified genus in the family Porphyromonadaceae (14.28 ± 7.29%) and Leptotrichia (8.70 ± 4.46%) were highest in the buccal mass, and two genera in the families Aeromonadaceae (7.55 ± 4.53%) and Mollicutes (13.47 ± 13.03%) were highest in the intestine. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity and composition of the microbiome vary among different gut sections of P. canaliculata snails. Putative cellulose-degrading bacteria are enriched in the gut of P. canaliculata.

4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845200

RESUMO

Sarcopenic obesity (SO) refers to an obesity disease accompanied by low skeletal muscle quality, strength and/or function, which is more common in the elderly and seriously affects their quality of life and can lead to falls, unstable walking, balance disorders and fractures in the elderly. The increase in aging populations and the various health problems and medical costs associated with SO have aroused widespread concern in society. However, the pathogenesis of SO has not been fully clarified and the diagnostic criteria are not uniform, meaning that there are inconsistent data on the prevalence of SO and the potential correlation between SO and health outcomes. Therefore, we review the research progress on delineating the pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria of SO, to assist in the early diagnosis and evaluation of SO and subsequent interventions.

5.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 23-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530394

RESUMO

Over the past 20 years, RNAS+ has been generating research results from highly collaborative projects meant to promote and advance understanding in various aspects of schistosomiasis. Epidemiological studies in endemic countries like the Philippines, the People's Republic of China (PR China), the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and Cambodia clarified the role of reservoir hosts in transmission and the use of spatio-temporal methods such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) in surveillance of schistosomiasis. Morbidity studies proposed factors that might influence development of fibrosis, anaemia and malnutrition in schistosomiasis. Immune responses in schistosomiasis continue to be an interesting focus in research to explain possible development of resistance with age. Results of evaluation of candidate vaccine molecules are also presented. New diagnostics are continually being developed in response to the call for more sensitive and field applicable techniques that will be used for surveillance in areas nearing elimination of the disease. Several studies presented here show the insufficiency of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel in eliminating the disease. Emphasis is given to an integrated control approach that can be accomplished through intensive and extensive intersectoral collaboration.

6.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 53-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530395

RESUMO

For the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonosis (RNAS+), capacity building with emphasis on modern technology with correspondence to traditional techniques was found to be a priority. This article summarized the actual needs of capacity building among RNAS+ member countries and the working mechanism of capacity building during the last 20 years. The needs with respect to the RNAS+ target diseases are highly correlated with the research priorities, since most problems with regard to the performance of the national disease control programme in the member countries are connected with inadequate capacity in relation to implementation of innovative research, epidemiological investigations, laboratory performance; and sociological investigations. The capacity building arranged through RNAS+ platform includes short training courses, individual training in member institutions, e.g., supervision of Ph.D./Masters students; postdoctoral training; and internship training in institutions of southeast Asia as well as in famous institutions of Europe and the United States. In the future, capacity building will focus on platform design and technical standardization aiming at fostering research capacity in the future. Moreover, new training projects, such as massive online courses (MOOC) will be explored under RNAS+ platform.

7.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 95-110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530397

RESUMO

In 2005, the network decided to increase its number of target diseases to include other helminthic zoonoses such as fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis and in the process expanding membership to include South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand and Japan. NTDs were eventually included as awareness is heightened on these diseases affecting poor and developing countries. Researches on clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis unravel the mechanism by which these diseases eventually predispose to cholangiocarcinoma. The liver cancer associated with these liver fluke infections necessitate the need to clarify the global burden of disease of these infections. The magnitude of these liver fluke diseases in endemic countries like China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand is described. Success in elimination of lymphatic filariasis in PR China and Cambodia is highlighted to show how intensified multisectoral collaboration and strong political become strong ingredients in elimination of parasitic diseases like LF. New advances are presented that clarify species and strain differences in Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Taenia spp. and Echinococcocus spp. Conventional diagnostic techniques are compared with new serologic techniques that are being developed. New control strategies such as the Lawa model are presented.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(71): 10623-10626, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429452

RESUMO

The first example of transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activations of 2-phenylisatogens with alkynes and sulfonyl azides has been developed using N-oxide as the directing group. Ru(ii)-Catalyzed C-H alkenylation/cyclization and Ir(iii)-catalyzed direct C-H sulfamidation proceeded with good yields and excellent functional group tolerance. Importantly, these two transformations provided straightforward routes for the synthesis of indol-3-one derivatives and sulfamidated 2-phenylisatogens respectively, which might be of considerable bioactivities.

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258489

RESUMO

Background: Patients with depression tend to have various comorbid neurological symptoms, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in depressed patients. Methods: Patients (aged ≥ 18 years) who were diagnosed with depression [17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) > 17] or suspected of depression (HAMD > 7) were enrolled in this study. Medically healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. The subjects also received the 7-item HAMD. We simultaneously recorded noninvasive continuous arterial blood pressure and bilateral middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity from each subject. Cerebral autoregulation was assessed by analyzing the phase difference using transfer function analysis. Results: This study enrolled 54 patients with suspected depression, 45 patients with depression, and 48 healthy volunteers. The mean phase difference values were significantly lower in the patients with depression (F = 9.071, P < 0.001). In the multiple regression analysis, depression was negatively correlated with the phase difference values. Conclusions: Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was compromised in patients with depression and negatively correlated with the depression score. Improving dynamic cerebral autoregulation may be a potential therapeutic method for treating the neurological symptoms of depression.

10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 48, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An "integrated control" strategy has been implemented within seven provinces at highest risk for schistosomiasis along Yangtze River in Peoples' Republic of China (P. R. China) since 2004. Since Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of the blood fluke (Schistosoma japonicum), controlling the distribution of snails is considered an essential and effective way to reduce the risk of schistosomiasis infection. The study aimed to determine the snail area burden and annual trend among provinces with potential risk for schistosomiasis along the Yangtze River, above and below the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). METHODS: This retrospective study utilized data previously collected from the National Parasitic Diseases Control Information Management System (NPDCIMS) on annual snail surveys from 2009 to 2017. Descriptive statistics were performed for analyzing the snail burden by provinces, counties, type of environmental location and year, and mapping was conducted to present the snails distribution. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2017, the total snail infested area decreased by 4.22%, from 372 253 hm2 to 356 553 hm2 within the seven high risk provinces. The majority of snails were found in the marshland and lake regions, outside of control embankments. The total snail burden trend remained relatively stable in upstream regions above the TGD from 2010 to 2015, while the trend decreased within downstream regions during this period. In 2016 and 2017, the total snail burden trend increased in both upstream and downstream provinces, however, upstream saw a larger increase. From 2009 to 2017, there were a total of 5990 hm2 of newly developed snail areas in the seven study provinces and the majority were concentrated in regions below the TGD, accounting for 5610 hm2 (93.70%). CONCLUSIONS: There has been a decline in total snail counts from 2009 to 2017. Meanwhile, new snail breeding areas were formed mainly within provinces downstream the TGD due to spread of snails, indicated that the oncomelanid snail would be difficult to completely eliminate. We suggest that the national schistosomiasis integrated control strategy, including mollusciding and environmental modification, will need to be enhanced significantly going forward to achieve a greater reduction in snail burden and ultimately to achieve elimination.


Assuntos
Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Caramujos/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
12.
Acta Trop ; 195: 135-141, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047863

RESUMO

World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control conducted from 1992 to 2001, resulted in significant reduction of schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality in People's Republic of China (P.R. China), with implementation of morbidity control. Thereafter, an integrated control strategy, which targeted blocking disease transmission from reservoir hosts to the environment, was initiated in order to conquer schistosomiasis rebound after WBLP completion. Data obtained from the national schistosomiasis control reporting systems was collected and analyzed. The number of confirmed cases and infected cattle decreased significantly from 2002 to 2017, while no infected snails were found by dissection for four consecutive years. However, lake and marshland regions and some parts areas of Yunnan Province require attention for rigorous schistosomiasis control efforts. There is need to strengthen precise interventions and sensitive surveillance to achieve schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Morbidade , Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose/mortalidade , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5030-5038, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942407

RESUMO

Osteopetrosis refers to a group of rare genetic bone diseases that are clinically characterized by increased bone mass and fragility. The principal pathogenic defect in patients with chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene­dependent osteopetrosis is reduced osteoclast activity, which leads to decreased bone resorption. Mutations in the CLCN7 gene result in autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO­II), autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) and intermediate ARO (IARO). In the present study, eight mutations in the CLCN7 gene were identified in six patients with familial osteopetrosis and one patient with sporadic osteopetrosis. Heterozygous mutations c.856C>T (R286W), c.2236T>G (Y746D), c.296A>G (Y99C) and c.937G>A (E313K), and a splice mutation (c.2232­2A>G) in the CLCN7 gene were detected in patients with ADO­II. A homozygous mutation c.2377G>C (G793R), and a compound heterozygous mutation c.1409C>T (P470L) and c.647_648dupTG (K217X) were detected in two Chinese families with IARO. Among these mutations, two heterozygous mutations (c.2236T>G and c.2232­2A>G), one homozygous mutation (c.2377G>C) and the compound heterozygous mutation (c.1409C>T and c.647_648dupTG) are novel, to the best of our knowledge. The present findings not only broaden the allelic spectrum of CLCN7 mutations, but also provide increased knowledge of the clinical phenotypes observed in Chinese patients with osteopetrosis.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/genética , Osteopetrose/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteopetrose/metabolismo , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 27, 2019 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control of snail intermediate hosts has been proved to be a fast and efficient approach for interrupting the transmission of schistosomiasis. Some plant extracts have shown obvious molluscicidal activity, and a new compound Luo-Wei, also named tea-seed distilled saponin (TDS), was developed based on the saponins extracted from Camellia oleifera seeds. We aimed to test the molluscicidal activity of 4% TDS against the intermediate host snails in China and Egypt, and evaluate its environmental safety to non-target organisms. METHODS: In the laboratory, Oncomelania hupensis, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were exposed to 4% TDS, and the median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated at 24, 48 and 72 h. In the field, snail mortalities were assessed 1, 2, 3 and 7 d post-immersion with 2.5 g/m3 4% TDS and 1, 3, 7 and 15 d post-spraying with 5 g/m2 4% TDS. In addition, the acute toxicity of 4% TDS to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) and freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) was assessed by estimations of LC50 or median lethal dose (LD50). RESULTS: In the laboratory, the LC50 values of 4% TDS for O. hupensis were 0.701, 0.371 and 0.33 mg/L at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, and 4% TDS showed a 1.975 mg/L [corrected] 24 h LC50 against B. alexandrina, and a 1.396 mg/L 24 h LC50 against B. truncatus. Across all study regions, the pooled mortalities of O. hupensis were 72, 86, 94 and 98% at 1, 2, 3 and 7 d, following field immersion of 4% TDS at a dose of 2.5 g/m3, and were 69, 77, 85 and 88% at 1, 3, 7 and 15 d, following field spraying at 5 g/m2, respectively. 4% TDS had moderate toxicity to Japanese quail (7 d LD50 > 60 mg/kg) and to shrimp (96 h LC50 = 6.28 mg/L; 95% CI: 3.53-11.2 mg/L), whereas its toxicity to zebrafish was high (96 h LC50 = 0.15 mg/L; 95% CI: 0.14-0.17 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: 4% TDS is active against O. hupensis, B. alexandrina and B. truncatus under laboratory and field conditions, and it may be a candidate molluscicide of plant origin.


Assuntos
Moluscocidas/administração & dosagem , Moluscocidas/toxicidade , Schistosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Biomphalaria , Bulinus , China , Egito , Dose Letal Mediana , Extratos Vegetais , Codorniz , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Testes de Toxicidade
15.
Cell Prolif ; 52(3): e12591, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date, many efforts have been made to establish porcine embryonic stem (pES) cells without success. Extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) cells can self-renew and differentiate into the visceral endoderm and parietal endoderm. XEN cells are derived from the primitive endoderm of the inner cell mass of blastocysts and may be an intermediate state in cell reprogramming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porcine XEN cells (pXENCs) were generated from porcine pluripotent stem cells (pPSCs) and were characterized by RNA sequencing and immunofluorescence analyses. The developmental potential of pXENCs was investigated in chimeric mouse embryos. RESULTS: Porcine XEN cells derived from porcine pPSCs were successfully expanded in N2B27 medium supplemented with bFGF for least 30 passages. RNA sequencing and immunofluorescence analyses showed that pXENCs expressed the murine and canine XEN markers Gata6, Gata4, Sox17 and Pdgfra but not the pluripotent markers Oct4, Sox2 and TE marker Cdx2. Moreover, these cells contributed to the XEN when injected into four-cell stage mouse embryos. Supplementation with Chir99021 and SB431542 promoted the pluripotency of the pXENCs. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully derived pXENCs and showed that supplementation with Chir99021 and SB431542 confer them with pluripotency. Our results provide a new resource for investigating the reprogramming mechanism of porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells.


Assuntos
Endoderma/citologia , Endoderma/embriologia , Suínos/embriologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cães , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Endoderma/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Quimeras de Transplante
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778336

RESUMO

Objective: Long-term dysregulation of energy balance is the key component of the obesity epidemic. Given the harm of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue (WAT), enhancing the energy-expending or "browning" ability of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has become of therapeutic interest. In this study, we focused on the regulating role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in mice epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) browning. Methods: High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice model was constructed. Expression of miR-27b-3p and Ucp1 in eWAT was measured during the course of HFD. Through tail vein injection of antimiR-27b-3p, miR-27b-3p expression was inhibited to analyze the potential role of miR-27b-3p in fat browning and metabolism. Results: miR-27b-3p was predominantly expressed in eWAT and browning ability of eWAT in HFD induced obese mice was impaired. Inhibition of miR-27b-3p enhanced browning capacity of eWAT in mice fed an HFD and led to weight loss and insulin sensitivity improvement. Conclusions: High expression of miR-27b-3p in eWAT inhibits browning ability and leads to visceral fat accumulation. It is suggested miR-27b-3p may become a potential therapeutic option for visceral obesity and its associated diseases.

17.
Front Neurol ; 9: 1006, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534111

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is probably impaired in the acute and even subacute phases after acute ischemic stroke (AIS); however, the relationship between relevant clinical factors and dCA after AIS has not been investigated. The identification of possible determinants may therefore provide potential therapeutic targets to improve dCA in AIS. Methods: This study enrolled 67 consecutive patients diagnosed with AIS within 3 days from symptom onset. Serial measurements were performed 1-3 days (measurement 1) and 7-10 days (measurement 2) after the onset. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities and simultaneous arterial blood pressure (ABP) were recorded continuously with transcranial Doppler combined with a servo-controlled finger plethysmograph. Transfer function analysis was used to derive dCA parameters, phase difference (PD), and coherence in low-frequency range (0.06-0.12 Hz). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between clinical factors and PD within the two time points of measurements. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to reveal the relationship between PD and clinical outcomes. Results: Bilateral PD was significantly lower (indicating impaired dCA) in AIS patients, both in measurement 1 and measurement 2 when compared with those of healthy controls (all P < 0.001). After controlling for relevant clinical factors, in measurement 1, age (ß = -0.29, P = 0.01), recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) intravenous thrombolysis (ß = 0.25, P = 0.034), subtype of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) (ß = -0.31, P = 0.007), and uric acid level (ß = -0.32, P = 0.009) were significant independent predictors of ipsilateral PD. In measurement 2, subtype of LAA (ß = -0.28, P = 0.049) and uric acid level (ß = -0.43, P = 0.005) were still significant predictive values for ipsilateral PD. After adjusting for age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at admission, ipsilateral PD >35.37° in measurement 2 was independent predictor of good clinical outcomes (adjusted OR = 6.97, 95% CI: 1.27-38.14, P = 0.03). Conclusion: DCA was sustained to be bilaterally impaired in the acute and even subacute phase after AIS. Patients who receiving rt-PA thrombolysis tended to have a better dCA in the acute phase. Increasing age, subtype of LAA, and higher uric acid level had prognostic value for disturbed autoregulation. A relatively preserved dCA may predict good clinical outcomes.

18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 129, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis was severely prevalent in Yunnan Province, and it is difficult to achieve its elimination by convention approaches due to complexity of the nature. We explored the comprehensive model to eliminate schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, the People's Republic of China, through integration with the ecological protection programme in Erhai Lake, in order to promote an efficient elimination strategy. We expected that this model is able to be tailored to other local settings, which help achieve the goal of precisely eliminating the disease in Yunnan Province. METHODS: Eryuan County of Yunnan Province was chosen as the study area, where the data on environmental protection activities in Erhai Lake and on the schistosomiasis control programme were collected through different departments of Erhai County government since 2015. System modelling was performed using system dynamics software to establish a simulation model in order to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention activities. RESULTS: Ecological approaches to control schistosomiasis in Eryuan County consist of three major components: (i) implementing precise interventions to stop schistosomiasis transmission by means of controlling the source of infection, blocking the biological transmission chains and cutting off the route of disease transmission; (ii) employing ecological approaches to improve the co-effectiveness of environmental protection and schistosomiasis prevention in the study area; and (iii) strengthening the professional skills of personnel involving in the schistosomiasis control programme. Simulation results showed that this strategy could speed up the progress of schistosomiasis control programme moving from the control stage to the elimination stage. CONCLUSIONS: Ecological approaches implemented in schistosomiasis endemic areas of the Eryuan region are able to improve the co-effectiveness of environmental protection and schistosomiasis control, providing a new avenue for eliminating schistosomiasis thanks to the application of precise interventions.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Humanos , Schistosoma japonicum
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 120, 2018 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease designated as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis mansoni is a form of the disease that is caused by the digenean trematode Schistosoma mansoni, transmitted through Biomphalaria spp. as an intermediate host. Biomphalaria was introduced to Hong Kong, China in aquatic plants shipments coming from Brazil and the snail rapidly established its habitats in southern China. Earlier studies of Biomphalaria spp. introduced to southern China identified the snails as Biomphalaria straminea, one of the susceptible species implicated in S. mansoni transmission in South America. However, recent molecular investigations also indicated the presence of another South American species, B. kuhniana, which is refractory to infection. As such, it is important to identify accurately the species currently distributed in southern China, especially with emerging reports of active S. mansoni infections in Chinese workers returning from Africa. METHODS: We combined morphological and molecular taxonomy tools to precisely identify Biomphalaria spp. distributed in Guangdong Province, southern China. In order to clearly understand the molecular profile of the species, we constructed a phylogeny using mtDNA data (COI and 16S rRNA sequences) from six populations of Biomphalaria spp. from Shenzhen City in Guangdong Province. In addition, we examined the external morphology of the shell and internal anatomy of the reproductive organs. RESULTS: Both morphological and molecular evidences indicated a close affinity between Biomphalaria spp. populations from Guangdong and B. straminea from Brazil. The shell morphology was roughly identical in all the populations collected with rounded whorls on one side and subangulated on the other, a smooth periphery, an egg-shaped aperture bowed to one side, and a deep umbilicus. The shape and number of prostate diverticula (ranged from 11.67 to 17.67) in Guangdong populations supports its close affinity to B. straminea rather than B. kuhniana. Molecular analysis did not conflict with morphological analysis. Little genetic differentiation was observed within Biomphalaria populations collected. Phylogenetic analysis of COI and 16S rRNA haplotypes from snails collected and B. straminea sequences from Brazil and China using Bayesian inference revealed that Guangdong populations were clustered in one clade with B. straminea from Hong Kong of China and B. straminea from Brazil indicating their close affinity to each other. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained in the current study clearly show that the populations of Biomphalaria spp. investigated are B. straminea, and we assume that those snails were either introduced via passive dispersal from Hong Kong of China or as a result of multiple introduction routes from Brazil.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria/genética , Biomphalaria/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Haplótipos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Physiol Rep ; 6(23): e13940, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536574

RESUMO

Age-related alterations in whole body composition, particularly, reduced fat free mass (FFM) and increased fat mass (FM), lead to a progressive decline in resting energy expenditure (REE). Similarly, regional body composition and fat distribution changes with age might also contribute to an overall lower REE. This study investigated the influence of age on REE, regional body composition and fat distribution, including subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF), in a Chinese Han population as well as their contributions to age-related changes in REE. One hundred and two males aged 31-83 years old underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which measured whole body and regional FM and FFM. SF and VF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and REE by indirect calorimetry. Age was significantly negatively correlated with REE (r = -0.37), total FFM (r = -0.25), upper limbs FFM (r = -0.32), lower limbs FFM (r = -0.34) and showed positive association with trunk FFM (ß=0.926). FM, SF and VF decreased in older age groups after an initial rise up to 55-65 years. REE correlated positively to FM, FFM, SF, VF and showed significant association with age (ß = -0.254) independent of age-associated changes in body composition. The regional alterations in body composition with age were explained by changes in trunk FFM (ß = 0.926). Age-related decline in REE were not solely due to alterations in FM and FFM. Therefore, the changes in regional body composition, fat distribution and REE which occur during aging could be explained by disparities in race, ethnicity, diet, physical activity, and lower specific metabolic rates of FFM components.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Metabolismo Basal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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