Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 103
Filtrar
1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 136, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The People's Republic of China (P. R. China) has made significant progress on schistosomiasis control. Among the 12 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs) with schistosomiasis endemic in P. R. China, Guangdong, Shanghai, Fujian, Guangxi and Zhejiang PLADs (following as five PLADs) had successively eliminated schistosomiasis during 1985-1995. However, consolidation of the schistosomiasis elimination in these five PLADs remains challenging. In the current study, we sought to understand the epidemic situation in these post-elimination areas and their surveillance capabilities on schistosomiasis. METHODS: Annual data reflecting the interventions and surveillance on human beings, cattle and snails based on county level from 2005 to 2016 were collected through the national schistosomiasis reporting system and the data were analyzed to understand the epidemic status of schistosomiasis in the five PLADs. A standardized score sheet was designed to assess the surveillance capacity for schistosomiasis of selected disease control agencies in five PLADs and ten counties. Assessment on surveillance capacity including schistosomiasis diagnostic skills, identification of snails' living and infection status and knowledge about schistosomiasis and its control were made. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the epidemic status and evaluation results on surveillance capacities. RESULTS: The assessments showed that no local cases in humans and cattle or infected snail were found in these five PLADs since 2005. However, from 2005 to 2016, a total of 221 imported cases were detected in Zhejiang, Shanghai and Fujian, and 11.98 hm2 of new snail habitats were found in Zhejiang, Shanghai and Guangxi. In addition, snail infestation reoccurred in 247.55 hm2 of former snail habitats since 2011. For the surveillance capacity assessment, the accuracy rate of IHA and MHT were 100 and 89.3%, respectively. All participants could judge the living status of snails accurately and 98.1% on the infection status of snails. The accuracy rate of the questionnaire survey was 98.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Elimination of schistosomiasis was consolidated successfully in five PLADs of P. R. China due to effective and strong post-elimination surveillance. Comprehensive consolidation strategies should be focused on the elimination of residual snails and the prevention of imported infection sources to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038089, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether sarcopenia is detrimental to depression is still controversial, which may be due to the three components of the sarcopenia. Our objective was to define the correlation between depression and sarcopenia in older Chinese community dwellers. DESIGN: The study has a cross-sectional design. SETTING: The study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 101 men and 149 women aged 60 years or older were recruited. OUTCOME MEASURES: Lean tissue mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength in the upper and lower limbs was measured by a handheld dynamometer and a chair stand test, respectively. Physical performance was assessed by gait speed and standing balance tests. Depressive mood was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (range 0-30). RESULTS: Participants in the sarcopenia group had a higher mean depression score than the normal group (p=0.002). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that depression was negatively associated with muscle strength (handgrip strength: R=-0.170, p=0.028 for women, R=-0.196, p=0.048 for men; chair stand test performance: R=0.252, p=0.002 for women, R=0.311, p=0.001 for men) and physical performance (gait speed: R=-0.200, p=0.009, standing balance test performance: R=-0.224, p=0.006, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB): R=-0.218, p=0.007 for women; SPPB: R=-0.252, p=0.01 for men). Multiple linear regression models revealed that depressive mood was inversely associated with chair stand test (ß=0.325, p<0.001), gait speed (ß=-0.009, p=0.041) and standing balance test (ß=-0.24, p=0.016) after adjusting for confounding factors, while no significant correlation was observed between depressive mood and muscle mass. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic components of sarcopenia-strength of the leg muscles (chair stand test) and physical performance (gait speed and standing balance test)-were associated with depressive mood.

3.
Endocrine ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Skeletal muscle (SM) has been shown as a target of thyroid hormones (THs). However, the status of TH signaling in aged SM remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of TH signaling in SM of aging mice. METHODS: Thirty C57BL/6J male mice were divided into 6-, 15- and 22-month (6, 15 and 22M) groups according to different age. Physical parameters were evaluated by analytical balance, grip strength test and histological analysis. Thyroid function was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TH signaling was compared among the three groups by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. RESULTS: p16, p21, and p53 mRNA levels in SM increased in age-dependent manner. The muscle weight and strength decreased in 22M group compared to 6 and 15M groups. Concentrations of thyroid hormones, including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 22 M mice were not shown significant difference compared to 6M or 15M mice, although FT3 showed slightly decrease and TSH appeared a mild increase accompanying with age. mRNA levels of TH transporters, including MCT8 and MCT10, as well as iodothyronine deiodinase type 2 (DIO2) and type 3 (DIO3), were higher in 22M, while TH receptor α (TRα) mRNA and protein expression was lower in 22M, compared to the other groups. Type-I myosin heavy chain (MyHC I), MyHC IIx, and MyHC IIa were upregulated and Type-IIb MyHC (MyHC IIb) was downregulated in SM with advancing age. CONCLUSIONS: TH signaling in SM changes with aging.

4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(4): 1453-1461, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related loss of the muscle mass is linked to obesity and diabetes because the muscle is the major site for fat oxidation which is influenced by exercise. We aimed to explore the association between fat oxidation rates (FORs) and exercise intensity during age-related muscle loss. METHODS: A total of 224 healthy Chinese men aged 23-92 years were recruited. Fat and lean tissue masses were measured by DXA. The subjects were also tested using graded incremental exercise with an increased intensity of 10 W until maximal fat oxidation rate (Fatmax) was achieved. Real-time contribution (%) of fat to total energy expenditure were determined using indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: We found that appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight (ASM/Wt) decreased during ageing and positively correlated with FORs during low-intensity exercise. In multiple linear regression models, FORs was positively related with ASM/Wt (ß =0.446, P=0.0091) but negatively associated with exercise intensity (ß =-0.573, P<0.0001), whereas fat oxidation rate did not show any association with age. Moreover, there was a significantly negative correlation between ASM/Wt and Fatmax. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of muscle mass in fat utilization during low-intensity exercise. A higher exercise intensity indicated by Fatmax is recommended for improving fat oxidation in Chinese men with decreased muscle mass.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 273, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fishermen and boatmen are a population at-risk for contracting schistosomiasis due to their high frequency of water contact in endemic areas of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China (P. R. China). To develop specific interventions towards this population, the present study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) towards schistosomiasis of fishermen and boatmen, and to identify the risk factors associated with schistosome infection using a molecular technique in a selected area of Hunan Province in P. R. China. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted in the Dongting Lake Basin of Yueyang County, Hunan Province. A total of 601 fishermen and boatmen were interviewed between October and November 2017. Information regarding sociodemographic details and KAPs towards schistosomiasis were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Fecal samples of participants were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the risk factors related to the positive results of PCR. RESULTS: Of the 601 respondents, over 90% knew schistosomiasis and how the disease was contracted, the intermediate host of schistosomes and preventive methods. The majority of respondents had a positive attitude towards schistosomiasis prevention. However, only 6.66% (40/601) of respondents had installed a latrine on their boats, while 32.61% (196/601) of respondents defecated in the public toilets on shore. In addition, only 4.99% (30/601) respondents protected themselves while exposed to freshwater. The prevalence of schistosomiasis, as determined by PCR, among fishermen and boatmen in Yueyang County was 13.81% (83/601). Age, years of performing the current job, number of times receiving treatment, and whether they were treated in past three years were the main influencing factors of PCR results among this population. CONCLUSIONS: Fishermen and boatmen are still at high risk of infection in P. R. China and gaps exist in KAPs towards schistosomiasis in this population group. Chemotherapy, and health education encouraging behavior change in combination with other integrated approaches to decrease the transmission risk in environments should be improved.

6.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 1-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563322

RESUMO

Being a zoonotic parasitic disease, schistosomiasis was widely spread in 12 provinces of Southern China in the 1950s, severly harming human health and hindering economic development. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, and Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research (NIPD-CTDR), as the only professional institution focussing on parasitic diseases at the national level, has played an important role in schistosomiasis control in the country. In this article, we look back at the changes of schistosomiasis endemicity and the contribution of NIPD-CTDR to the national schistosomiasis control programme. We review NIPD-CTDR's activities, including field investigations, design of control strategies and measures, development of diagnostics and drugs, surveillance-response of endemic situation, and monitoring & evaluation of the programme. The NIPD-CTDR has mastered the transmission status of schistosomiasis, mapped the snail distribution, and explored strategies and measures suitable for different types of endemic areas in China. With a good understanding of the life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum and transmission patterns of the disease, advanced research carried out in the NIPD-CTDR based on genomics and modern technology has made it possible to explore highly efficient and soft therapeutic drugs and molluscicides, making it possible to develop new diagnostic tools and produce vaccine candidates. In the field, epidemiological studies, updated strategies and targeted intervention measures developed by scientists from the NIPD-CTDR have contributed significantly to the national schistosomiasis control programme. This all adds up to a strong foundation for eliminating schistosomiasis in China in the near future, and recommendations have been put forward how to reach this goal.

7.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 269-288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563328

RESUMO

Rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major infective agent of human eosinophilic meningitis (EM) in the world. The parasite was first noted in China in 1933. However, the public health importance was not realized until several EM outbreaks occurred recent years. Such disease is considered as emerging infectious disease in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) since the major source of infection is invasive snail species, particularly Pomacea spp. National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) initiated a systematic implementation research on this disease since 2003. Our researchers in NIPD developed the lung-microscopy for detecting A. cantonensis larvae in Pomacea snails and further accomplished the atlas of larval morphology by this method. We studied the determinants in infection, which helped the field collection of snails and improved the infection procedure in laboratory. Our researches promoted the promulgation of diagnosis criteria of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis by the Ministry of Health. We explored the molecular diversity of rat lungworm and its major snail host for development of source-tracing technique. The transmission modelling could provide the vulnerable area for surveillance. All the studies supported the surveillance system of EM caused by A. cantonensis in P.R. China. Such implementation research will provide a case study for control of emerging infectious diseases.

8.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 401-427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563333

RESUMO

China has achieved a great success in control and elimination of key parasitic diseases. In 2007, the elimination of lymphatic filariasis was verified by WHO. The schistosomiasis incidence and snail-distributed areas have reduced to the lowest level in the history. The transmission and disease burden of echinococcosis have been contained largely, and the populations infected with soil-transmitted trematode and food-borne parasites have also shown a significantly declining trend. Because of rapid globalization and climate changes, however, many new challenges have arisen. In his paper, the 2020-2030 roadmaps towards the control and elimination of these key parasitic diseases are described. Moreover, China is actively implementing its global health strategy, and will be more and more engaged into global health affairs, in which a series of China-Africa health cooperation projects have been in planning with a wish of making a greater contribution to the SDGs.

9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 63, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A steady progress on schistosomiasis control in the Peoples' Republic of China (P.R. China) was achieved and broadened into the twelve-year medium and long term national plan (MLNP) which marled the implementation of an integrated control strategy across all endemic areas in P.R. China in 2004. To understand the endemic trends of schistosomiasis to assess the effectiveness of an integrated strategy, we conducted an analysis of schistosomiasis surveillance data spanned from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: The schistosomiasis sentinel surveillance data from sentinel sites were collected and analyzed from 2005 to 2015. In these sentinel sites, residents aged 6 years or above were screened annually by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), while only antibody positives were followed by stool examination either Kato-katz method (KK) and/or hatching technique (HT). Domestic animals raised in sentinel sites were examined by HT for confirming the infection of schistosomes. Snail investigation was conducted each year through systematic sampling method combined with environmental sampling method. The snails collected from field were tested by microscopic dissection method. The infection rates of schistosomes in residents, domestic animals and snails, as well as the indicators reflecting the snails' distribution were calculated and analyzed. ANOVA analysis was used to examine the changes of the number of eggs per gram feces in population and Chi-square test was used to examine any change in proportions among groups. RESULTS: A total of 148 902 residents from sentinel sites attended this study and 631 676 blood samples were examined by IHA test during the 11 covered years. The annual average antibody positive rates presented a significant decrease trends, from 17.48% (95% CI: 17.20-17.75%) in 2005 to 5.93% (95% CI: 5.71-6.15%) (χ2 = 8890.47, P < 0.001) in 2015. During 2005-2015, the average infection rate of schistosomes in residents declined from 2.07% (95% CI: 1.96-2.17%) to 0.13% (95% CI: 0.09-0.16%), accompanied by significant decrease of infection intensity in population. In 2015, the stool positives were only found in farmers, fishermen and boatmen with infection rate of 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11-0.20%), 0.17% (95% CI: 0-0.50%) respectively. The infection rate of schistosomes in domestic animals dropped from 9.42% (538/5711, 95% CI: 8.66-10.18%) to 0.08% (2/2360, 95% CI: 0-0.20%) from 2005 to 2015. Infections were found in eight species of domestic animals at the beginning of surveillance while only two cattle were infected in 2015. Totally 98 ha of new snail habitats were found, while 94.90% (93/98) distributed in lake and marshland regions. The percentage of frames with snails decreased from 16.96% (56 884/33 5391, 95% CI: 16.83-17.09%) in 2005 to 4.28% (18 121/423 755, 95% CI: 4.22-4.34%) in 2014, with a slightly increase in 2015. Meanwhile, the infection rate of schistosomes in snails was decreased from 0.26% (663/256 531, 95% CI: 0.24-0.28%) to zero during 2005-2015. CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of schistosomes declined significantly, providing evidence that the goal of the MLNP was achieved. Elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem defined as WHO was also reached in P.R. China nationwide. Surveillance-response system should be improved and strengthened to realize the final goal of schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Esquistossomose , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222773

RESUMO

Age-related adipose tissue dysfunction is potentially important in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disorder. Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust intervention to reduce adiposity, improve metabolic health, and extend healthy lifespan. Both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are involved in energy homeostasis. CR triggers the beiging of WAT in young mice, however, the effects of CR on beiging of WAT and function of BAT during aging are unclear. This study aimed to investigate how age and CR impact the beiging of WAT, the function of BAT, and metabolic health in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed CR diet (40% less than the ad libitum diet) for 3 months initiated in young (3 months), middle-aged (12 months), and old (19 months) stage. We found age-related changes in different types of adipose tissue including adipocyte enlargement, declined beiging of WAT, and declined thermogenic and ß-oxidational function of BAT. Moreover, CR attenuated age-associated adipocyte enlargement and prevented the age-related decline in beiging potential of WAT. These protective effects on the beiging potential were significant in iWAT at all three ages, which were significant in eWAT at young and old age. In contrast, thermogenic and ß-oxidational function of BAT further declined after CR in the young age group. In conclusion, our findings reveal the contribution of WAT beiging decline to age-related metabolic disorder, and suggest nutritional intervention, specifically targeting WAT beiging, as an effective approach to metabolic healthy during aging.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(6): 1188-1202, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078184

RESUMO

In the growing skeleton, angiogenesis is intimately coupled with osteogenesis. Chronic, high doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) are associated with decreased bone vasculature and induce osteoporosis and growth failure. The mechanism of GC-suppression of angiogenesis and relationship to osteoporosis and growth retardation remains largely unknown. Type H vessels, which are regulated by preosteoclast (POC) platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), are specifically coupled with bone formation and development. We determined the effect of GCs on POC synthesis of PDGF-BB in relation to type H vessel formation, bone mass, and bone growth in the distal femur of 2-week-old young mice receiving prednisolone or vehicle for 2, 4, or 6 weeks. After 2 weeks of prednisolone, the number of POCs were unchanged while POC synthesis of PDGF-BB was reduced. Longer treatment with prednisolone reduced POCs numbers and PDGF-BB. These changes were associated with a reduction in type H vessels, bone formation rate, bone mass, and bone length at each time point. In vitro, excessive concentrations of prednisolone (10-6 M) resulted in decreased PDGF-BB concentration and POC numbers. Conditioned medium from POC cultures treated with control concentration of prednisolone (10-7 M) or recombinant PDGF-BB stimulated endothelial tube formation, whereas conditioned medium from control concentration of prednisolone-treated POC cultures neutralized by PDGF-BB antibody or excessive prednisolone inhibited endothelial tube formation. Administration of excessive prednisolone attenuated the P65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) binding to the Pdgfb promoter, resulting in lower Pdgfb transcription. Co-treatment with excessive prednisolone and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist (RU486), GR siRNA, or TNFα rescued NF-κB binding to the Pdgfb promoter and endothelial tube formation. These results indicate that PDGF-BB synthesis in POCs is suppressed by GCs through transrepression of GR/NF-κB, thus inhibiting type H vessel formation and associated osteoporosis and growth failure. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

12.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous sinus stenosis (VSS) is a type of cerebral venous vascular disease. Cerebral autoregulation is an indicator of cerebral arterial function. The cerebral circulatory system is composed of the venous system and arterial system. Impaired venous function may affect arterial function. Thus, cerebral venous stenosis may influence cerebral autoregulation. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case, a 50-year-old woman with transient blindness and headache was admitted to the hospital. The patient was diagnosed with VSS. A stent was placed at the stenosis. The stent released the intravenous pressure and remitted the patient's symptoms. Measurements of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) were performed at 3 time points: before stenting, after stenting, and 3 months later. The dCA gradually improved after stenting. CONCLUSION: VSS may have an influence on cerebral autoregulation, and effective treatment improves cerebral autoregulation in patients with VSS.


Assuntos
Cavidades Cranianas/patologia , Cavidades Cranianas/cirurgia , Homeostase , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Veias Cerebrais/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/cirurgia , Constrição Patológica , Cavidades Cranianas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/instrumentação , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105202, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580848

RESUMO

Oncomelania hupensis plays a significant role in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica, which remains a major public health concern in China. Understanding the biological characteristics of O. hupensis is a prerequisite for its control; however, there are currently no studies investigating the intestinal microbiota of the O. hupensis snail. This study aimed to profile the intestinal microbiome of O. hupensis across different ecological landscapes in mainland China. DNA was extracted from the intestines of the collected snails and the bacterial communities were detected using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 3,799 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were identified as the dominant bacterial taxa at the phylum level. Bacillus and Lactococcus were the most common genera in samples obtained from the four ecological landscapes. Snail specimens were clustered into three clades according to microbial community diversity, and thirty-seven genera that contributed to differential microbiota distributions were identified. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated a symbiotic relationship for the intestinal microbiota of O. hupensis, and PICRUSt analysis predicted forty-one metabolic functions in all snail samples, including membrane transport, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, replication and repair, energy metabolism, as well as xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism. These findings improve our understanding of bacterial ecology in the O. hupensis intestine; further studies will focus on the relationship between O. hupensis intestinal microbiota and the microbiota in their specific ecological environments.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Caramujos/microbiologia , Animais , Esquistossomose Japônica/transmissão
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(1): 179-180, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855529

RESUMO

China has made remarkable progress in reducing schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum over the past 7 decades but now faces a severe threat from imported schistosomiasis. Results from national surveillance during 2010-2018 indicate integrating active surveillance into current surveillance models for imported cases is urgently needed to achieve schistosomiasis elimination in China.

15.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 273, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes can contribute to their hosts in food digestion, nutrient absorption, and inhibiting the growth of pathogens. However, only limited studies have focused on the gut microbiota of freshwater snails. Pomacea canaliculata is considered one of the worst invasive alien species in the world. Elucidating the diversity and composition of the microbiota in the gut of P. canaliculata snails may be helpful for better understanding the widespread invasion of this snail species. In this study, the buccal masses, stomachs, and intestines were isolated from seven P. canaliculata snails. The diversity and composition of the microbiota in the three gut sections were then investigated based on high-throughput Illumina sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: The diversity of the microbiota was highest in the intestine but lowest in the buccal mass. A total of 29 phyla and 111 genera of bacteria were identified in all of the samples. In general, Ochrobactrum, a genus of putative cellulose-degrading bacteria, was the most abundant (overall relative abundance: 13.6%), followed by Sediminibacterium (9.7%), Desulfovibrio (7.8%), an unclassified genus in the family Aeromonadaceae (5.4%), and Cloacibacterium (5.4%). The composition of the microbiota was diverse among the different gut sections. Ochrobactrum (relative abundance: 23.15% ± 7.92%) and Sediminibacterium (16.95 ± 5.70%) were most abundant in the stomach, an unclassified genus in the family Porphyromonadaceae (14.28 ± 7.29%) and Leptotrichia (8.70 ± 4.46%) were highest in the buccal mass, and two genera in the families Aeromonadaceae (7.55 ± 4.53%) and Mollicutes (13.47 ± 13.03%) were highest in the intestine. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity and composition of the microbiome vary among different gut sections of P. canaliculata snails. Putative cellulose-degrading bacteria are enriched in the gut of P. canaliculata.

16.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845200

RESUMO

Sarcopenic obesity (SO) refers to an obesity disease accompanied by low skeletal muscle quality, strength and/or function, which is more common in the elderly and seriously affects their quality of life and can lead to falls, unstable walking, balance disorders and fractures in the elderly. The increase in aging populations and the various health problems and medical costs associated with SO have aroused widespread concern in society. However, the pathogenesis of SO has not been fully clarified and the diagnostic criteria are not uniform, meaning that there are inconsistent data on the prevalence of SO and the potential correlation between SO and health outcomes. Therefore, we review the research progress on delineating the pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria of SO, to assist in the early diagnosis and evaluation of SO and subsequent interventions.

17.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 23-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530394

RESUMO

Over the past 20 years, RNAS+ has been generating research results from highly collaborative projects meant to promote and advance understanding in various aspects of schistosomiasis. Epidemiological studies in endemic countries like the Philippines, the People's Republic of China (PR China), the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and Cambodia clarified the role of reservoir hosts in transmission and the use of spatio-temporal methods such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) in surveillance of schistosomiasis. Morbidity studies proposed factors that might influence development of fibrosis, anaemia and malnutrition in schistosomiasis. Immune responses in schistosomiasis continue to be an interesting focus in research to explain possible development of resistance with age. Results of evaluation of candidate vaccine molecules are also presented. New diagnostics are continually being developed in response to the call for more sensitive and field applicable techniques that will be used for surveillance in areas nearing elimination of the disease. Several studies presented here show the insufficiency of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel in eliminating the disease. Emphasis is given to an integrated control approach that can be accomplished through intensive and extensive intersectoral collaboration.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa/tendências , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ásia , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Pesquisa/normas , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/imunologia
18.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 53-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530395

RESUMO

For the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonosis (RNAS+), capacity building with emphasis on modern technology with correspondence to traditional techniques was found to be a priority. This article summarized the actual needs of capacity building among RNAS+ member countries and the working mechanism of capacity building during the last 20 years. The needs with respect to the RNAS+ target diseases are highly correlated with the research priorities, since most problems with regard to the performance of the national disease control programme in the member countries are connected with inadequate capacity in relation to implementation of innovative research, epidemiological investigations, laboratory performance; and sociological investigations. The capacity building arranged through RNAS+ platform includes short training courses, individual training in member institutions, e.g., supervision of Ph.D./Masters students; postdoctoral training; and internship training in institutions of southeast Asia as well as in famous institutions of Europe and the United States. In the future, capacity building will focus on platform design and technical standardization aiming at fostering research capacity in the future. Moreover, new training projects, such as massive online courses (MOOC) will be explored under RNAS+ platform.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Cooperação Internacional , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Humanos , Medicina Tropical/educação , Medicina Tropical/tendências
19.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 95-110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530397

RESUMO

In 2005, the network decided to increase its number of target diseases to include other helminthic zoonoses such as fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis and in the process expanding membership to include South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand and Japan. NTDs were eventually included as awareness is heightened on these diseases affecting poor and developing countries. Researches on clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis unravel the mechanism by which these diseases eventually predispose to cholangiocarcinoma. The liver cancer associated with these liver fluke infections necessitate the need to clarify the global burden of disease of these infections. The magnitude of these liver fluke diseases in endemic countries like China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand is described. Success in elimination of lymphatic filariasis in PR China and Cambodia is highlighted to show how intensified multisectoral collaboration and strong political become strong ingredients in elimination of parasitic diseases like LF. New advances are presented that clarify species and strain differences in Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Taenia spp. and Echinococcocus spp. Conventional diagnostic techniques are compared with new serologic techniques that are being developed. New control strategies such as the Lawa model are presented.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Animais , Ásia , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Humanos
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(71): 10623-10626, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429452

RESUMO

The first example of transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activations of 2-phenylisatogens with alkynes and sulfonyl azides has been developed using N-oxide as the directing group. Ru(ii)-Catalyzed C-H alkenylation/cyclization and Ir(iii)-catalyzed direct C-H sulfamidation proceeded with good yields and excellent functional group tolerance. Importantly, these two transformations provided straightforward routes for the synthesis of indol-3-one derivatives and sulfamidated 2-phenylisatogens respectively, which might be of considerable bioactivities.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA