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Chemosphere ; 251: 126340, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135373


Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may increase risk of childhood obesity, however, prospective evidence of birth cohort is limited and inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations of maternal and childhood BPA exposure with child adiposity measures, including body mass index, waist circumference and skinfold thickness and waist to height ratio of children at 7 years. 430 mother-child pairs were examined from a population-based prospective cohort in a rural area of East China. BPA concentrations of spot urine samples were quantified in mothers and their children aged 3 and 7 years. Maternal urinary BPA concentration was significantly positively associated with waist circumference in children aged 7 years (ß = 0.508 cm, 95% CI: 0.067, 0.950). These significant associations were not modified by child sex, but they were only observed among girls in sex-stratified analyses. Risk of central obesity related to prenatal BPA exposure was significantly higher in the second and the third tertile than those in the first tertile (odds ratio, OR = 2.510, 95% CI = 1.146, 5.499; OR = 2.584, 95% CI = 1.186, 5.631, respectively; p for trend = 0.022). The present findings suggested that prenatal exposure to BPA may enhance waist circumference of children and thereby increase risk of central obesity in school-age girls.

Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113427, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978725


BACKGROUND: Early life exposure to triclosan, an emerging endocrine disrupting chemical, may adversely impact childhood neurodevelopment, but limited epidemiologic studies have examined the associations. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the associations between prenatal and postnatal triclosan exposure and child neurodevelopment at 3 years. METHODS: The study included 377 mother-child pairs who participated in Sheyang Mini Birth Cohort Study (SMBCS), a longitudinal birth cohort in China. Triclosan concentrations in maternal and 3-year-old child urine samples were quantified using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS) were used to assess child neurodevelopment at 3 years of age. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to estimate associations of prenatal and postnatal urinary triclosan concentrations with children's developmental quotients (DQs). RESULTS: Detection frequencies of triclosan in maternal and childhood urine samples were 100% and 99.5%, respectively. The median values of prenatal and postnatal urinary triclosan levels were 0.65 and 0.44 µg/L, respectively. One ln-unit increase of maternal urinary triclosan concentration was associated with increase of DQ scores in motor area of children (regression coefficient, ß = 0.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03, 0.54; p = 0.03). In sex-stratified analyses, maternal urinary triclosan levels were significantly related to increases in DQ scores in motor area among boys (ß = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.50; p = 0.04), while postnatal urinary triclosan concentrations were inversely associated with DQ scores in social area in boys (ß = -0.37, 95%CI: -0.72, -0.03; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that prenatal triclosan exposure predicted increases in motor scores, while postnatal triclosan exposure was related to reductions in social scores of 3-year-old children. These associations were only observed in boys. The biological mechanisms linking triclosan exposure to neurodevelopment await further studies.

Environ Pollut ; 251: 538-546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108286


Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental effects in animal studies. However, little is known about long-term neurotoxicity of early-life CPF exposure in humans. We aimed to evaluate the associations of both prenatal and early childhood CPF exposure with neurodevelopment of children. In this observational study based on Sheyang Mini Birth Cohort, pregnant women were recruited from an agricultural region between June 2009 and January 2010, and their children were followed up from birth to age three. Urinary 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific metabolite of CPF, was quantified using large-volume-injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Developmental quotients (DQs) of children in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas were assessed by trained pediatricians. Data from 377 mother-child pairs were used in the current study. Associations between CPF exposure and neurodevelopmental indicators were estimated using generalized linear models with adjustment for potential confounders. The median concentrations of TCPy in maternal and children's urine were 5.39 µg/L and 5.34 µg/L, respectively. No statistically significant association was found between maternal urinary TCPy concentrations and children neurodevelopment. While for postnatal exposure, we found lower motor area DQ score 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.13, -0.09; p = 0.02] and social area DQ score 0.55 (95% CI: -1.07, -0.03; p = 0.04) per one-unit increase in the ln-transformed childhood urinary TCPy concentrations. Further stratification by sex indicated that the inverse associations were only observed in boys, but not in girls. Our findings suggest that adverse neurodevelopmental effects were associated with early childhood CPF exposure, but not prenatal exposure. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to replicate these results and to further understand the toxicological mechanisms of CPF.

Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Clorpirifos/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/urina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridonas/urina , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
Chemosphere ; 228: 204-211, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029966


BACKGROUND: Chlorophenols (CPs), suspected as endocrine disrupting chemicals, exposure during early life may contribute to body size. However, limited human data with inconsistent findings have examined the developmental effects of CPs exposure. OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between prenatal and postnatal CPs exposure and anthropometric parameters in children aged 3 years. METHODS: A subset of 377 mother-child pairs with urinary five CP concentrations were enrolled from a prospective birth cohort. Generalized linear models were conducted to evaluate associations of CPs exposure with children's anthropometric measures. RESULTS: Maternal urinary 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) concentrations were significantly negatively associated with weight z scores [regression coefficient (ß) = -0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.96, -0.05; p = 0.01], weight for height z scores (ß = -0.54, 95% CI: -1.02, -0.06; p = 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) z scores (ß = -0.53, 95% CI: -1.03, -0.03; p = 0.01) of children aged 3 years, after adjustment for potential confounders and postnatal CPs exposure. In the sex-stratified analyses, these inverse associations remained among boys, while in girls, positive associations of prenatal 2,4,6-TCP exposure with weight for height z scores and BMI z scores were observed. Postnatal exposure to 2,5-diclorophenol (2,5-DCP) was positively associated with weight z scores (ß = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.50; p = 0.04), after controlling for possible confounders and maternal CPs exposure during pregnancy. Considering potential sex-specific effects, these associations were only observed in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prenatal 2,4,6-TCP exposure and postnatal 2,5-DCP exposure may have adverse and sex-specific effects on children's physical development.

Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofenóis/farmacologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Clorofenóis/efeitos adversos , Clorofenóis/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
Environ Pollut ; 214: 478-484, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27131805


Exposures to chlorophenols (CPs) have been linked with adverse health effects on wildlife and humans. This study aimed to evaluate prenatal exposure to five CP compounds using maternal urinary concentrations during pregnancy and the potential associations with birth outcomes of their infants at birth. A total of 1100 mother-newborn pairs were recruited during June 2009 to January 2010 in an agricultural region, China. Urinary concentrations of five CPs from dichlorophenol (DCP) to pentachlorophenol (PCP), namely, 2,5-DCP, 2,4-DCP, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), 2,4,6-TCP and PCP, were measured using large-volume-injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS-MS), and associations between CP levels and weight, length as well as head circumference at birth were examined. Median urinary creatinine-adjusted concentrations of 2,5-DCP, 2,4-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were 3.34 µg/g, 1.03 µg/g, < LOD, 1.78 µg/g and 0.39 µg/g creatinine, respectively. We found lower birth weight 30 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -57, -3; p = 0.03] for per SD increase in log10-transformed concentrations of 2,4,6-TCP and lower birth weight 37 g (95% CI: -64, -10; p = 0.04) for PCP, respectively. Similarly, head circumference decrease in associations with creatinine-corrected 2,4,6-TCP and PCP concentrations were also achieved. Considering sex difference, the associations of lower birth weight were only found among male neonates, while head circumference was associated with 2,4-DCP and 2,5-DCP only found among female neonates. This study showed significant negative associations between CPs exposure and reduction in neonatal anthropometric measures. The biological mechanisms concerning CPs exposure on fetal growth deserved further investigations.

Clorofenóis/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Clorofenóis/urina , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
Environ Pollut ; 212: 65-70, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840518


Exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in animals and humans, while epidemiological studies about associations between prenatal exposure to tOP and fetal growth are extremely limited. We measured urinary tOP concentrations in 1100 pregnant women before their delivery, and examined whether tOP levels were associated with birth outcomes, including weight, length, head circumference and ponderal index at birth. tOP could be detected in all samples, and the median uncorrected and creatinine-corrected tOP concentrations were 0.90 µg/L (range from 0.25 to 20.05 µg/L) and 1.33 µg/g creatinine (range from 0.15 to 42.49 µg/g creatinine), respectively. Maternal urinary log-transformed tOP concentrations were significantly negatively associated with adjusted birth weight [ß (g) = -126; 95% confidence interval (CI): -197, -55], birth length [ß (cm) = -0.53; 95% CI:-0.93, -0.14], and head circumference [ß (cm) = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.54, -0.07], respectively. Additionally, considering sex difference, these significant negative associations were also found among male neonates, while only higher maternal tOP concentrations were associated with a significant decrease in birth weight among female neonates. This study suggested significant negative associations between maternal urinary tOP concentrations and neonatal sizes at birth, and they differed by neonatal sex. Further epidemiological studies are required to more fully elaborate the associations between prenatal tOP exposure and birth outcomes.

Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenóis/urina , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem