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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 731100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603308

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a serious infectious disease that has led to a global pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. High-affinity neutralizing antibody is important for controlling infection, which is closely regulated by follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Tfh cells play a central role in promoting germinal center reactions and driving cognate B cell differentiation for antibody secretion. Available studies indicate a close relationship between virus-specific Tfh cell-mediated immunity and SARS-CoV-2 infection progression. Although several lines of evidence have suggested that Tfh cells contribute to the control of SARS-CoV-2 infection by eliciting neutralizing antibody productions, further studies are needed to elucidate Tfh-mediated effector mechanisms in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Here, we summarize the functional features and roles of virus-specific Tfh cells in the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and in COVID-19 vaccines, and highlight the potential of targeting Tfh cells as therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/citologia
2.
Scanning ; 2021: 6337768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630821

RESUMO

We report luminous polylactic acid (PLA) composite prepared via a solvent casting method using different amounts of phosphor strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4: Eu2+ and Dy3+) (SAO). The reason for doing this is that the changes of fluorescence and mechanical properties in the composites with different SAO contents can be directly evaluated. The SAO particles should have a variety of excellent characteristics in the PLA matrix, among which dispersibility and compatibility are particularly important; so, they can be modified by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) to achieve the target characteristics. The results showed that the fluorescence and mechanical properties were affected by SAO addition. The mechanical properties significantly improved with 5 wt% SAO; further, addition had no impact. And the emission band of fluorescence and phosphorescence is just at the peak of 524 nm. The composites with 15 wt% SAO have the best fluorescence properties. The fluorescence decreased with further doping. Fluorescence decay curves with various amounts of SAO particles show a similar tendency as pure SAO particles; the speed of decrease in afterglow intensity was higher for the first 30 min. In addition, the detailed morphological scanning and study by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the particles had good adhesion to the matrix. In conclusion, the concentration of SAO into the PLA matrix impacts the fluorescence and mechanical properties of a SAO/PLA composite material.

3.
Food Chem ; 371: 131145, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600366

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN) poses a serious threat to human and animal health. The development of sensitive determination methods for ZEN is of great significance for ensuring the quality and safety of food. Herein, based on a stimuli-responsive aptamer-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) nano-container and trivalent DNA peroxidase mimicking enzyme (DNAzyme), an efficient aptasensor was constructed initially for the colorimetric determination of ZEN. The proposed aptasensor only required simple operations but exhibited outstanding specificity, reproducibility, storage stability and reusability simultaneously. Under the optimal conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the changed absorbance and logarithm concentration of ZEN within 0.01-100 ng mL-1, and the limit of detection (LOD) could reach 0.36 pg mL-1. Moreover, the proposed aptasensor was reliable in quantifying ZEN in spiked food samples. The current bioassay provides a promising scheme for constructing stable, specific and rapid colorimetric platforms with potential applications in the fields of food safety.

4.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450250

RESUMO

Cold tumor microenvironment (TME) marked with low effector T cell infiltration leads to weak response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. Thus, switching cold to hot TME is critical to improve potent ICI therapy. Previously, we reported extracellular vesicle (EV)-like ginseng-derived nanoparticles (GDNPs) that were isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey and can alter M2 polarization to delay the hot tumor B16F10 progression. However, the cold tumor is more common and challenging in the real world. Here, we explored a combinatorial strategy with both GDNPs and PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), which exhibited the ability to alter cold TME and subsequently induce a durable systemic anti-tumor immunity in multiple murine tumor models. GDNPs enhanced PD-1 mAb anti-tumor efficacy in activating tumor-infiltrated T lymphocytes. Our results demonstrated that GDNPs could reprogram tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to increase CCL5 and CXCL9 secretion for recruiting CD8+ T cells into the tumor bed, which have the synergism to PD-1 mAb therapy with no detected systemic toxicity. In situ activation of TAMs by GDNPs may broadly serve as a facile platform to modulate the suppressive cold TME and optimize the PD-1 mAb immunotherapy in future clinical application.

5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 225: 113775, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411894

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrugs are the essential clinical drugs for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, the drug resistance of 5-FU has caused high mortality of CRC patients. Thus, it is urgent to develop reversal agents of 5-FU resistance. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) was proved to be a potential target for reversing 5-FU resistance, but the activity of known S1PR2 antagonists JTE-013 were weak in 5-FU-resistant cell lines. To develop more potent S1PR2 antagonists to treat 5-FU-resistant cancer, a series of JTE-013 derivatives were designed and synthesized. The most promising compound 40 could markedly reverse the resistance in 5-FU-resistant HCT116 cells and 5-FU-resistant SW620 cells via inhibiting the expression of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). The key was that compound 40 with improved pharmacokinetic properties significantly increased the inhibitory rate of 5-FU in the SW620/5-FU cells xenograft model with no observable toxicity by inhibiting the expression of DPD in tumor and liver tissues. Altogether, these results suggest that compound 40 may be a promising drug candidate to reverse 5-FU resistance in the treatment of CRC.

6.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407320

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by the formation of plaques in the arterial walls, leading to a decrease of blood flow to the heart and myocardium injury as a result of hypoxia. Ferroptosis is a crucial event in myocardial injury, and icariin (ICA) exerts protective effects against myocardial injury. Here, we investigated the protective mechanism of ICA in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced ferroptosis of cardiomyocytes. H9C2 cells were subjected to H/R induction. The content of lactate dehydrogenase and the levels of oxidative stress and intracellular ferrous ion Fe2+ were measured. The levels of ferroptosis markers (ACSL4 and GPX4) were detected. H/R-induced H9C2 cells were cultured with ICA in the presence or absence of ferroptosis inducer (erastin). Znpp (an HO-1 inhibitor) was added to ICA-treated H/R cells to verify the role of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. H/R-induced H9C2 cells showed reduced viability, enhanced oxidative stress and lactate dehydrogenase content, increased levels of Fe2+ and ACSL4, and decreased levels of GPX4. ICA inhibited H/R-induced ferroptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Erastin treatment reversed the inhibitory effect of ICA on ferroptosis in H/R cells. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in H/R-induced H9C2 cells was reduced, whereas ICA treatment reversed this trend. Inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway reversed the protective effect of ICA on H/R-induced ferroptosis. Collectively, our results suggest that ICA attenuates H/R-induced ferroptosis of cardiomyocytes by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439430

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important enzyme that acts as the first line of protection in the plant antioxidant defense system, involved in eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) under harsh environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the SOD gene family was yet to be reported in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Thus, a genome-wide investigation was carried out to identify the rapeseed SOD genes. The present study recognized 31 BnSOD genes in the rapeseed genome, including 14 BnCSDs, 11 BnFSDs, and six BnMSDs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SOD genes from rapeseed and other closely related plant species were clustered into three groups based on the binding domain with high bootstrap values. The systemic analysis exposed that BnSODs experienced segmental duplications. Gene structure and motif analysis specified that most of the BnSOD genes displayed a relatively well-maintained exon-intron and motif configuration within the same group. Moreover, we identified five hormones and four stress- and several light-responsive cis-elements in the promoters of BnSODs. Thirty putative bna-miRNAs from seven families were also predicted, targeting 13 BnSODs. Gene ontology annotation outcomes confirm the BnSODs role under different stress stimuli, cellular oxidant detoxification processes, metal ion binding activities, SOD activity, and different cellular components. Twelve BnSOD genes exhibited higher expression profiles in numerous developmental tissues, i.e., root, leaf, stem, and silique. The qRT-PCR based expression profiling showed that eight genes (BnCSD1, BnCSD3, BnCSD14, BnFSD4, BnFSD5, BnFSD6, BnMSD2, and BnMSD10) were significantly up-regulated under different hormones (ABA, GA, IAA, and KT) and abiotic stress (salinity, cold, waterlogging, and drought) treatments. The predicted 3D structures discovered comparable conserved BnSOD protein structures. In short, our findings deliver a foundation for additional functional investigations on the BnSOD genes in rapeseed breeding programs.

8.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 213, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381021

RESUMO

Phosphorylation of MAP4 (p-MAP4) causes cardiac remodeling, with the cardiac microvascular endothelium being considered a vital mediator of this process. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism underlying p-MAP4 influences on cardiac microvascular density. We firstly confirmed elevated MAP4 phosphorylation in the myocardium of MAP4 knock-in (KI) mice. When compared with the corresponding control group, we detected the decreased expression of CD31, CD34, VEGFA, VEGFR2, ANG2, and TIE2 in the myocardium of MAP4 KI mice, accompanied by a reduced plasma concentration of VEGF. Moreover, we observed apoptosis and mitochondrial disruption in the cardiac microvascular endothelium of MAP4 KI animals. Consistently, we noted a decreased cardiac microvascular density, measured by CD31 and lectin staining, in MAP4 KI mice. To explore the underlying mechanism, we targeted the NLRP3-related pyroptosis and found increased expression of the corresponding proteins, including NLRP3, ASC, mature IL-1ß, IL-18, and GSDMD-N in the myocardium of MAP4 KI mice. Furthermore, we utilized a MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus to mimic cellular p-MAP4. After incubating HUVECs with MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus, the angiogenic ability was inhibited, and NLRP3-related pyroptosis were significantly activated. Moreover, both cytotoxicity and PI signal were upregulated by the MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus. Finally, NLRP3 inflammasome blockage alleviated the inhibited angiogenic ability induced by MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus. These results demonstrated that p-MAP4 reduced cardiac microvascular density by activating NLRP3-related pyroptosis in both young and aged mice. We thus managed to provide clues explaining MAP4 phosphorylation-induced cardiac remodeling and enriched current knowledge regarding the role of MAP4.

9.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(3): 247-253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390629

RESUMO

Demyelination throughout the brain stem and spinal cord caused by acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has not been previously reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revealed that acute CO poisoning primarily affects the subcortical white matter of the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia. Here we report the case of a patient with delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) due to acute CO poisoning. A 28-year-old man was admitted to our department following a suicide attempt by acute CO poisoning. After a six-month pseudo-recovery period, he was diagnosed with DNS, with MRI evidence of demyelinating change of the bilateral cerebral peduncles. Demyelination was identified throughout the brain stem, expanding from the bilateral cerebral peduncles to the medulla oblongata, occurring approximately six months after poisoning. One and a half years after acute CO poisoning, demyelination of the cervical and thoracic spine was observed, most notable in the lateral and posterior cords. It is evident that previously published research on this topic is extremely limited. Perhaps in severe cases of acute CO poisoning the fatality rate is higher, leading to fewer surviving cases for possible study. This may be because a more severe case of acute CO poisoning would result in the higher likelihood of secondary demyelination. This research indicates that clinicians should be aware of the risk of secondary demyelination and take increased precautions such as vitamin B supplementation and administration of low-dose corticosteroids for an extended period of time in order to reduce the extent and severity of demyelination.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/etiologia , Tronco Encefálico , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/complicações , Doenças Desmielinizantes/etiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Adulto , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/terapia , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal/terapia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Fatores de Tempo
11.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 239, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miR-92b is a carcinogenic miRNA that has great potential as a biomarker for disease prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment in the clinic. It is of great significance to analyse the relationship between miR-92b and the clinicopathological characteristics of cancer patients. This paper aimed to investigate the expression levels and clinical values of miR-92b-3p in breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Altogether, 112 female BC patients who were treated in our hospital were included as a study group, and 108 healthy women who came to our hospital for physical examinations were included as a control group. miR-92b-3p expression in the serum of subjects in both groups was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) to analyse the correlation of this miRNA with the patients' pathological features and prognoses. The diagnostic value of miR-92b-3p expression for BC was analysed by plotting a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: miR-92b-3p expression was remarkably higher in the study group (P < 0.05), and its area under the curve (AUC) for detecting BC was 0.88. The expression was correlated with the tumour size, degree of differentiation, TNM staging, and lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.05). miR-92b-3p was significantly positively correlated with the TNM staging (r = 0.40, P < 0.05), was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of differentiation of the breast cancer cells (r = - 0.35, P < 0.05), and was significantly positively correlated with the expression of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) (r = 0.39, P < 0.05). The overall survival rate (OSR) of the 99 patients who had follow-up was 73.74%. The survival status was remarkably better in the low expression group (P < 0.05). miR-92b-3p expression was remarkably higher in the death group (P < 0.05). The AUC of miR-92b-3p alone in the death and survival groups was 0.76. CONCLUSION: miR-92b-3p expression obviously rises in the serum of BC patients and is closely related to the clinical staging, degree of differentiation, and CA125 in BC, so the detection of this miRNA is of great significance to the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of BC. This miRNA can be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , MicroRNAs , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Prognóstico
12.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(20): 5695-5700, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary ascariasis is rare but remains the most common parasitic infection in remote areas and in people with poor medical conditions. Here, we reported a case of biliary ascariasis in order to raise awareness of possible parasitic infections. CASE SUMMARY: A 68-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University on 28 September 2017, with chief complaint of pain in the right upper abdomen. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed that the upper segment of the common bile duct was slightly dilated with parallel tubular structures, indicative of biliary ascariasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed under general anesthesia on 29 September 2017, and an adult Ascaris lumbricoides worm was observed. After the worm was removed from the bile duct, the patient's pain immediately subsided. The patient was successfully cured, without any complications. CONCLUSION: This report emphasizes the need for physicians to consider biliary ascariasis as a possible cause when treating cases of biliary colic.

13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 548, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP) are critical for regulating the production and degradation of phosphatidic acid (PA), an essential signaling molecule under stress conditions. Thus far, the LPP family genes have not been reported in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). RESULTS: In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify LPP family genes in rapeseed that respond to different stress conditions. Eleven BnLPPs genes were identified in the rapeseed genome. Based on phylogenetic and synteny analysis, BnLPPs were classified into four groups (Group I-Group IV). Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that similar intron/exon and motifs patterns occur in the same group. By evaluating cis-elements in the promoters, we recognized six hormone- and seven stress-responsive elements. Further, six putative miRNAs were identified targeting three BnLPP genes. Gene ontology analysis disclosed that BnLPP genes were closely associated with phosphatase/hydrolase activity, membrane parts, phosphorus metabolic process, and dephosphorylation. The qRT-PCR based expression profiles of BnLPP genes varied in different tissues/organs. Likewise, several gene expression were significantly up-regulated under NaCl, PEG, cold, ABA, GA, IAA, and KT treatments. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to describe the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the rapeseed LPP gene family. We identified different phytohormones and abiotic stress-associated genes that could help in enlightening the plant tolerance against phytohormones and abiotic stresses. The findings unlocked new gaps for the functional verification of the BnLPP gene family during stresses, leading to rapeseed improvement.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Fosfolipases , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
14.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 190, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a prominent feature of solid cancer. This research aims to expose the role of mitochondrial creatine kinase 1 (CKMT1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression and hypoxia adaptation. METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression of CKMT1 in NSCLC tissues were detected by using GEPIA web, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. For hypoxia, cells were exposed to the 1% O2 atmosphere. The protein levels of HIF-1α and CKMT1 in H1650 and H1299 cells exposed to hypoxia were determined by western blot. The roles of CKMT1 on the proliferation, invasion and hypoxia adaptation of NSCLC cells were measured by CCK8, colony formation and transwell assays. Luciferase activity assay and HIF1 specific inhibitor (LW6) assay indicated the related function of hypoxia and CKMT1. RESULTS: CKMT1 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues, and the high level of CKMT1 was significantly correlated with the high pathological grade of NSCLC. Knockdown of CKMT1 inhibited the cell proliferation and invasion of H1650 and H1299 cells, which could be rescued by hypoxia. Hypoxia induced the accumulation of HIF-1α and the expression of CKMT1 in H1650 and H1299 cells. Furthermore, HIF-1 as a transcription factor of CKMT1, could up-regulated the expression of CKMT1 under hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, CKMT1 has the potential as a target for NSCLC hypoxic targeted therapy.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(18): 4803-4809, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous myiasis is frequently observed; however, eosinophilic pleural effusion induced by this condition is rare. CASE SUMMARY: We report the case of a 65-year-old female Tibetan patient from Qinghai Province, who presented to West China Hospital of Sichuan University around mid-November 2011 with a chief complaint of recurrent cough, occasional hemoptysis, and right chest pain. There was no past medical and surgical history of note, except for occasional dietary habit of eating raw meat. Clinical examination revealed a left lung collapse and diminished breathing sounds in her left lung, with moist rales heard in both lungs. Chest X-rays demonstrated a left hydropneumothorax and a right lung infection. Chest computed tomography revealed a left hydropneumothorax with partial compressive atelectasis and patchy consolidation on the right lung. Laboratory data revealed peripheral blood eosinophilia of 37.2%, with a white blood cell count of 10.4 × 109/L. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were elevated (1650 unit/mL). Serum parasite antibodies were negative except for cysticercosis immunoglobulin G. Bone marrow aspirates were hypercellular, with a marked increase in the number of mature eosinophils and eosinophilic myelocytes. An ultrasound-guided left-sided thoracentesis produced a yellow-cloudy exudative fluid. Failure to respond to antibiotic treatment during hospitalization for her symptoms and persistent blood eosinophilia led the team to start oral albendazole (400 mg/d) for presumed parasitic infestation for three consecutive days after the ninth day of hospitalization. Intermittent migratory stabbing pain and swelling sensation on both her upper arms and shoulders were reported; tender nodules and worm-like live organisms were observed in the responding sites 1 wk later. After the removal of the live organisms, they were subsequently identified as first stage hypodermal larvae by the Sichuan Institute of Parasites. The patient's symptoms were relieved soon afterwards. Telephonic follow-up 1 mo later indicated that the blood eosinophilia and pleural effusion were resolved. CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic pleural fluid can be present in a wide array of disorders. Myiasis should be an important consideration for the differential diagnosis when eosinophilic pleural effusion with blood eosinophilia is observed.

16.
Rice (N Y) ; 14(1): 50, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrapyrroles play indispensable roles in various biological processes. In higher plants, glutamate 1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase (GSAM) converts glutamate 1-semialdehyde (GSA) to 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is the rate-limiting step of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Up to now, GSAM genes have been successively identified from many species. Besides, it was found that GSAM could form a dimeric protein with itself by x-ray crystallography. However, no mutant of GSAM has been identified in monocotyledonous plants, and no experiment on interaction of GSAM protein with itself has been reported so far. RESULT: We isolated a yellow leaf mutant, ys53, in rice (Oryza sativa). The mutant showed decreased photosynthetic pigment contents, suppressed chloroplast development, and reduced photosynthetic capacity. In consequence, its major agronomic traits were significantly affected. Map-based cloning revealed that the candidate gene was LOC_Os08g41990 encoding GSAM protein. In ys53 mutant, a single nucleotide substitution in this gene caused an amino acid change in the encoded protein, so its ALA-synthesis ability was significantly reduced and GSA was massively accumulated. Complementation assays suggested the mutant phenotype of ys53 could be rescued by introducing wild-type OsGSAM gene, confirming that the point mutation in OsGSAM is the cause of the mutant phenotype. OsGSAM is mainly expressed in green tissues, and its encoded protein is localized to chloroplast. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the mutation of OsGSAM not only affected the expressions of tetrapyrrole biosynthetic genes, but also influenced those of photosynthetic genes in rice. In addition, the yeast two-hybrid experiment showed that OsGSAM protein could interact with itself, which could largely depend on the two specific regions containing the 81th-160th and the 321th-400th amino acid residues at its N- and C-terminals, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully characterized rice GSAM gene by a yellow leaf mutant and map-based cloning approach. Meanwhile, we verified that OsGSAM protein could interact with itself mainly by means of the two specific regions of amino acid residues at its N- and C-terminals, respectively.

17.
Anaesthesist ; 70(10): 854-862, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Only few studies have analyzed the global distribution of anesthesia research. This study was designed to reveal the current global research status of anesthesiology. METHODS: Articles published between 1999 and 2018 in international journals in the field of anesthesiology were retrieved from the PubMed database. The top 20 ranked countries were identified. The gross domestic product (GDP) of each country was also retrieved to reveal the correlation between research outputs and the economy. The total outputs and outputs per 10 million inhabitants in each country were calculated and compared. To analyze the quality of publications among the top 10 ranked countries, the impact factor (IF), article influence score (AIS), and immediacy index (ImI) were calculated and analyzed. In addition, the keywords of publications were retrieved to conduct co-occurrence analysis in order to determine the research focus in anesthesiology. RESULTS: A total of 112,918 articles were published in 30 selected journals from 1999 to 2018. There was a positive correlation between research outputs and GDP of 10 countries (p < 0.001, r = 0.825). The USA ranked 1st with 21,703 articles, followed by the UK (8393 articles) and Germany (6504 articles). Canada had the highest number of publications per 10 million inhabitants in 2018. The UK had the highest average IF (4.70), average AIS (1.16), and average ImI (1.64) among the 10 countries. The research highlights in the field of anesthesiology included "mechanism and management of pain", "cardiac anesthesia", "pediatric anesthesia and airway management", "analgesia" and "anesthetic agents". CONCLUSION: Regarding quantity trend, the output of global production in anesthesiology increased continuously as the number of articles from the high-output countries showed an increasing trend; however, there was still a gap between developing and developed countries in research quality. High-quality research should be encouraged in developing countries.

18.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 126, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH) is a rare form of adrenal Cushing's syndrome. The slowly progressing expansion of bilateral adrenal tissues usually persists for dozens of years, leading to delayed onset with severe conditions due to chronic mild hypercortisolism. About 20-50% cases were found to be caused by inactivating mutation of armadillo repeat-containing protein 5 (ARMC5) gene. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old man was admitted for severe diabetes mellitus, resistant hypertension, centripedal obesity and edema. PBMAH was diagnosed after determination of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels, dexamethasone suppression tests and abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scanning. The metabolic disorders of the patient remarkably improved after sequentially bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy combined with hormone replacement. Sanger sequencing showed germline nonsense mutation of ARMC5 c.967C>T (p.Gln323Ter). The second somatic missense mutation of ARMC5 was detected in one out of two resected nodules, reflecting the second-hit model of tumorigenesis. Routine genetic testing in his apparently healthy offspring showed one of two daughters and one son harbored the germline mutation. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our case report highlight the importance of genetic testing in the molecular diagnosis of PBMAH. Genetic screening in related family members will find out asymptomatic variant carriers to guide life-long follow-up.

19.
Front Psychol ; 12: 603553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935859

RESUMO

Background: With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in China, the general public but also medical staff were confronted with psychological challenges, suffering from the highly infectious and unknown characteristics of COVID-19. In this study, we surveyed psychological symptoms including anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in medical staff. Method: A questionnaire star/WeChat link-based survey assessing the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression, the Insomnia Severity Index, Social Support scales in addition to lifestyle, and income level was conducted and included 8,288 medical staff from 24 provinces in China. Pearson Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to evaluate single risk factors and significant differences in psychological symptoms before and during the outbreak of COVID-19. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted for the risk factors of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorder symptoms. Results: Medical staff had a high incidence of psychological symptoms, which was more prominent during the COVID-19 epidemic. Comparatively, females, nurses, first-line department, never exercised, and low income were risk factors for psychological symptoms. Social support including objective support, subjective support, support utility, and regular sports over 3 times per week were protective and manageable elements that could protect from and manage the psychological symptoms of medical staff. Conclusion: The susceptibility of psychological symptoms among medical staff should be of concern to policymakers and the public in the long-term, and the aggravation of mental health problems of medical staff could be eased by providing adequate social support during and after the COVID-19 outbreak.

20.
Open Life Sci ; 16(1): 354-361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954255

RESUMO

This article attempts to determine the most accurate classification method for different abalone-flavoring liquids. Three common voltammetric detection methods, namely, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and square-wave voltammetry (SWV), were considered. To compare their classification accuracies of abalone-flavoring liquids, three methods were separately adopted to classify five different abalone-flavoring liquids, using a four-electrode (Au, Pt, Pd, and W) sensor array. Then the data acquired by each method were subject to the principal component analysis (PCA): the first three principal components whose eigenvalues were greater than 1 were extracted from each set of data; the cumulative variance contribution rate and the principal component scores of each method were obtained. The PCA results show that the first three principal components obtained by the CV had the highest cumulative variance contribution rate (91.307%), indicating that the CV can more comprehensively characterize the information of abalone-flavoring liquid samples than the other two methods. According to the principal component scores, compared with those of LSV and SWV, the same kind of samples detected by the CV were highly clustered and the different kinds of samples detected by the CV were greatly dispersed. This indicates that the CV can effectively distinguish between the five abalone-flavoring liquids. Finally, the detection data were further verified through probabilistic neural network and a support vector machine algorithm optimized by genetic algorithm. The results further confirm that the CV is more accurate than the other two methods in the classification of abalone-flavoring liquids. Therefore, the CV was recommended for the classification of abalone-flavoring liquids.

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