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J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075


BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

JIMD Rep ; 36: 41-48, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105569


Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. It is a cellular lipid trafficking disorder characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and various sphingolipids in the lysosomes and late endosomes, and it exhibits a broad clinical spectrum. Today, over 420 disease-causing mutations have been identified in the NPC1 and the NPC2 genes. We present the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in 14 cases diagnosed in Greece during the last 28 years. Age at diagnosis ranged from 2.5 months to 48 years. Systemic manifestations were present in 7/14 patients. All developed neurological manifestations (age of onset 5 months to 42 years). Six patients are still alive (age: 5-50 years). Classical filipin staining pattern was observed in all but four patients (3 NPC1, 1 NPC2). The rate of LDL-induced cholesteryl ester formation was severely reduced in 4/7 and significantly reduced in 3/7 patients studied. Increased chitotriosidase activity was observed in 9/12 patients. Mutation analysis in 11 unrelated patients identified 12 different mutations in the NPC1 gene: eight previously described p.E1089K (c.3265G>A), p.F284Lfs*26 (c.852delT), p.A1132P(c.3394G>C), del promoter region and exons 1-10, p.R1186H (c.3557G>A), p.P1007A (c.3019C>G), p.Q92R(c.275A>G),p.S940L (c.2819C>T), and four novel ones: (p.N701K fs*13 (c.2102-2103insA), p.K1057R (c.3170A>G), IVS23+3insT(c.3591+3insT), p.C1119*(c.3357T>C); and the previously described IVS2+5G>A(c.190+5G>A) mutation in the NPC2 gene. All patients were of Greek origin. Assuming a birth rate of 100,000/year, a rough incidence estimate for NPC disease in Greece would be 0.5/100,000 births.

Eur J Pediatr ; 169(9): 1097-104, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20336466


BACKGROUND: Reticulocyte indices are easy to obtain, low cost parameters and have gained interest in the field of diagnosing anaemias of childhood. METHODS: We assessed distribution, age and gender variation, relation to indices of iron metabolism and diagnostic performance of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr), percentage of microcytic reticulocytes (micro_r), percentage of hypochromic reticulocytes (hypo_r), and percentage of reticulocytes with low CHr (low_CHr) in 386 pre-school children classified in four groups: healthy, iron deficiency (ID), iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), and beta-thalassaemia carriers (beta-thal). RESULTS: Age had a positive effect in CHr (Spearman's rho = 0.21) and a negative effect in hypo_r (Spearman's rho = -0.2) in healthy children. CHr and low_CHr were related to ferritin in the IDA group (Spearman's rho 0.55 and -0.53, respectively). In the beta-thal group, HbA(2) is strongly related to all reticulocyte indices. micro_r and CHr performed best in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity (ROC analysis, area under the curve (AUC): 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). CHr achieved the best AUC (0.58) in identifying ID among children without anaemia. CONCLUSION: Age, IDA and beta-thal significantly affect reticulocyte indices. CHr and micro_r may have a role as screening tools in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity.

Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Índices de Eritrócitos , Ferro/deficiência , Reticulócitos/metabolismo , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Curva ROC , Contagem de Reticulócitos/métodos , Reticulócitos/citologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Talassemia beta/sangue , Talassemia beta/epidemiologia
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 43(2): 163-8, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19394251


Soluble transferrin receptors have gained interest in the field of diagnosing anemias. Reference ranges differ according to the method used for the quantification of sTfR. We aim to explore the distributional properties and diagnostic performance of sTfR in pre-school healthy children as well as in children with beta-thalassemia carriers, iron deficiency with normal hematological phenotype (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Circulating sTfR as well as biochemical and hematological indices were determined in 521 pre-school children and four groups (normal children, beta-thalassemia traits, ID and IDA) were formed. Diagnostic performance and distribution of sTfR according to age and in relation to several parameters were evaluated in every group. Three hundred eighty one children (261 normal, 60 beta-thalassemia traits, 44 ID and 16 IDA) aged 1-6 years were included. We found that distribution of sTfR differed significantly among the four groups (Kruskal Wallis p<0.001) with children in the normal group exhibiting lower concentrations compared to all other. A negative correlation between sTfR and age occurred in the normal (beta=-0.12, p<0.001) and the ID groups (beta=-0.13, p=0.035). In the beta-thal and IDA groups sTfR is correlated to HbA(2) (beta=0.34, p=0.001) and ferritin (Spearman's rho=-0.6, p=0.014) respectively. An area under the curve equal to 0.63 was achieved by sTfR in distinguishing between normal and ID children. Sensitivity and specificity were 70.5% and 50% respectively at a cut-off of 2.5 mg/l. Levels of sTfR are negatively correlated to age in pre-school children while dyserythropoietic procedures like beta-thal, ID, and IDA significantly affect them. These findings indicated that the accuracy of sTfR in diagnosing ID from normal children is limited. Standardization will allow the use of formulas that combine sTfR and ferritin which are of greater diagnostic value than sTfR alone.

Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Ferritinas/sangue , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Talassemia beta/sangue
Pediatr Nephrol ; 24(1): 203-6, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18769944


Membranous nephritis (MN) is a rare form of glomerulonephritis in childhood, with an incidence of 0.8 to 6.7% based on renal biopsy specimens. Although the disease is considered to be idiopathic in the majority of cases, especially in adults, MN has been associated with various infectious agents, such as hepatitis Beta virus. The natural history of MN in childhood remains unknown because of its rarity, and to the best of our knowledge, no case of MN linked to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in an immunocompetent child has been described to date. We report here a 19-month-old female infant who presented with a maculopapular rash, fever, and nephritic-nephrotic syndrome. Virology tests for infectious diseases revealed a recent CMV infection. The renal biopsy findings were compatible with MN, while PCR analysis of the renal tissue specimen was positive for CMV DNA. Antiviral treatment (ganciclovir) resulted in full remission of proteinuria and hematuria. Two years after the initial diagnosis, the child remains well and asymptomatic without clinical or laboratory evidence of the disease.

Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Hematúria/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/patologia , Rim/virologia , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal/patologia , Insuficiência Renal/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 43(1): 49-53, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15653442


Hematological and biochemical tests, including white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and other acute-phase reactants, have been used in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. However, there is controversy among physicians about the value of this practice in children. The objective of our study was to evaluate serum amyloid A protein (SAA) levels in children with confirmed acute appendicitis and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of this marker of inflammation with those for WBC and CRP. A prospective cohort study of 60 children admitted with abdominal pain to rule out appendicitis was used in the study. Of these, 42 underwent surgery, while 18 children who had spontaneous amelioration within 24 h of admission were not operated on and served as controls. WBC and serum SAA and CRP levels were obtained preoperatively. Serum concentrations of the analytes were determined with particle-enhanced immunonephelometric methods. Patients with acute appendicitis had WBC, SAA and CRP levels higher than those of the control group (p<0.001). There was no appendicitis patient with a normal SAA value, while 21.4% of the patients had CRP values within the normal range. The performance of each test was measured by receiver-operating characteristic curves. Area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.849 for WBC, 0.868 for CRP and 0.964 for SAA. The sensitivity and specificity of these methods were 76% and 75% for WBC>10.0 x 10(9) /L, 62% and 94% for CRP>10 mg/L and 86% and 83% for SAA >45.0 mg/L, respectively. Circulating SAA levels have better discriminatory value than WBC or CRP in the assessment of acute appendicitis in children. Thus, this test appears to be of higher value than the current standards of care in the diagnosis of this condition.

Apendicite/diagnóstico , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Apendicite/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo