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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 135575, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784172

RESUMO

The atmosphere is a key component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury, acting as a reservoir, transport mechanism, and facilitator of chemical reactions. The chemical and physical behavior of atmospheric mercury determines how, when, and where emitted mercury pollution impacts ecosystems. In this review, we provide current information about what is known and what remains uncertain regarding mercury in the atmosphere. We discuss new ambient, laboratory, and theoretical information about the chemistry of mercury in various atmospheric media. We review what is known about mercury in and on solid- and liquid-phase aerosols. We present recent findings related to wet and dry deposition and spatial and temporal trends in atmospheric mercury concentrations. We also review atmospheric measurement methods that are in wide use and those that are currently under development.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 619-620: 896-905, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734635

RESUMO

We measured fluxes of methane, a suite of non-methane hydrocarbons (C2-C11), light alcohols, and carbon dioxide from oil and gas produced water storage and disposal ponds in Utah (Uinta Basin) and Wyoming (Upper Green River Basin) United States during 2013-2016. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of produced water composition and air-water fluxes, with a focus on flux chamber measurements. In companion papers, we will (1) report on inverse modeling methods used to estimate emissions from produced water ponds, including comparisons with flux chamber measurements, and (2) discuss the development of mass transfer coefficients to estimate emissions and place emissions from produced water ponds in the context of all regional oil and gas-related emissions. Alcohols (made up mostly of methanol) were the most abundant organic compound group in produced water (91% of total volatile organic concentration, with upper and lower 95% confidence levels of 89 and 93%) but accounted for only 34% (28 to 41%) of total organic compound fluxes from produced water ponds. Non-methane hydrocarbons, which are much less water-soluble than methanol and less abundant in produced water, accounted for the majority of emitted organics. C6-C9 alkanes and aromatics dominated hydrocarbon fluxes, perhaps because lighter hydrocarbons had already volatilized from produced water prior to its arrival in storage or disposal ponds, while heavier hydrocarbons are less water soluble and less volatile. Fluxes of formaldehyde and other carbonyls were low (1% (1 to 2%) of total organic compound flux). The speciation and magnitude of fluxes varied strongly across the facilities measured and with the amount of time water had been exposed to the atmosphere. The presence or absence of ice also impacted fluxes.

3.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 68(7): 637-642, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652219

RESUMO

Solid or sludgy hydrocarbon waste is a by-product of oil and gas exploration and production. One commonly used method of disposing of this waste is landfarming. Landfarming involves spreading hydrocarbon waste on soils, tilling it into the soil, and allowing it to biodegrade. We used a dynamic flux chamber to measure fluxes of methane, a suite of 54 nonmethane hydrocarbons, and light alcohols from an active and a remediated landfarm in eastern Utah. Fluxes from the remediated landfarm were not different from a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet or from undisturbed soils in the region. Fluxes of methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and alcohols from the landfarm in active use were 1.41 (0.37, 4.19) (mean and 95% confidence limits), 197.90 (114.72, 370.46), and 4.17 (0.03, 15.89) mg m-2 hr-1, respectively. Hydrocarbon fluxes were dominated by alkanes, especially those with six or more carbons. A 2-ha landfarm with fluxes of the magnitude we observed in this study would emit 95.3 (54.3, 179.7) kg day-1 of total hydrocarbons, including 11.2 (4.3, 33.9) kg day-1 of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes). IMPLICATIONS: Solid and sludgy hydrocarbon waste from the oil and gas industry is often disposed of by landfarming, in which wastes are tilled into soil and allowed to decompose. We show that a land farm in Utah emitted a variety of organic compounds into the atmosphere, including hazardous air pollutants and compounds that form ozone. We calculate that a 2-ha landfarm facility would emit 95.0 ± 66.0 kg day-1 of total hydrocarbons, including 11.1 ± 1.5 kg day-1 of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Metano/análise , Utah
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 627: 860-868, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426211

RESUMO

A common method for treating the aqueous phase (produced water) brought to the surface along with oil and natural gas is to discharge it into surface impoundments, also known as produced water ponds. Here we analyze data on the concentration of organic compounds in the water and on the flux of the same compounds into the atmosphere. Flux data extending from about 5 × 10-2 to 10+3 mg m-2 h-1 are consistent with mass-transfer laws given by the WATER9 semi-empirical algorithm, although empirical data display a noise level of about one order of magnitude and predictions by WATER9 are biased high. The data suggest partitioning between hydrocarbons in aqueous solution and in suspension, especially at higher overall concentrations. Salinity of the produced water does not have a detectable effect on hydrocarbon fluxes. Recently impounded waters are stronger emitters of hydrocarbons, while emissions of older waters are dominated by CO2. This aging effect can be explained by assuming, first, poor vertical mixing in the ponds, and second, gradual oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2. Our measurements account for about 25% of the produced water ponds in the Uinta Basin, Eastern Utah, and when extrapolated to all ponds in the basin, account for about 4% to 14% of all organic compound emissions by the oil and natural gas sector of the basin, depending on the emissions inventory, and about 13% and 58%, respectively, of emissions of aromatics and alcohols.

5.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 68(7): 713-724, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341852

RESUMO

In this study, the authors apply two different dispersion models to evaluate flux chamber measurements of emissions of 58 organic compounds, including C2-C11 hydrocarbons and methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol from oil- and gas-produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin. Field measurement campaigns using the flux chamber technique were performed at a limited number of produced water ponds in the basin throughout 2013-2016. Inverse-modeling results showed significantly higher emissions than were measured by the flux chamber. Discrepancies between the two methods vary across hydrocarbon compounds and are largest in alcohols due to their physical chemistries. This finding, in combination with findings in a related study using the WATER9 wastewater emission model, suggests that the flux chamber technique may underestimate organic compound emissions, especially alcohols, due to its limited coverage of the pond area and alteration of environmental conditions, especially wind speed. Comparisons of inverse-model estimations with flux chamber measurements varied significantly with the complexity of pond facilities and geometries. Both model results and flux chamber measurements suggest significant contributions from produced water ponds to total organic compound emission from oil and gas productions in the basin. IMPLICATIONS: This research is a component of an extensive study that showed significant amount of hydrocarbon emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, Utah. Such findings have important meanings to air quality management agencies in developing control strategies for air pollution in oil and gas fields, especially for the Uintah Basin in which ozone pollutions frequently occurred in winter seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Ozônio/análise , Tanques/química , Estações do Ano , Utah , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/química
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(20): 11625-11633, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880540

RESUMO

We measured fluxes of methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide from natural gas well pad soils and from nearby undisturbed soils in eastern Utah. Methane fluxes varied from less than zero to more than 38 g m-2 h-1. Fluxes from well pad soils were almost always greater than from undisturbed soils. Fluxes were greater from locations with higher concentrations of total combustible gas in soil and were inversely correlated with distance from well heads. Several lines of evidence show that the majority of emission fluxes (about 70%) were primarily due to subsurface sources of raw gas that migrated to the atmosphere, with the remainder likely caused primarily by re-emission of spilled liquid hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon fluxes during summer were only 39 (16, 97)% as high as during winter, likely because soil bacteria consumed the majority of hydrocarbons during summer months. We estimate that natural gas well pad soils account for 4.6 × 10-4 (1.6 × 10-4, 1.6 × 10-3)% of total emissions of hydrocarbons from the oil and gas industry in Utah's Uinta Basin. Our undisturbed soil flux measurements were not adequate to quantify rates of natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Uinta Basin.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Hidrocarbonetos , Gás Natural , Metano , Solo , Utah
7.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 122(24): 13545-13572, 2017 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245953

RESUMO

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used to simulate a 10 day high-ozone episode observed during the 2013 Uinta Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS). The baseline model had a large negative bias when compared to ozone (O3) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements across the basin. Contrary to other wintertime Uinta Basin studies, predicted nitrogen oxides (NO x ) were typically low compared to measurements. Increases to oil and gas VOC emissions resulted in O3 predictions closer to observations, and nighttime O3 improved when reducing the deposition velocity for all chemical species. Vertical structures of these pollutants were similar to observations on multiple days. However, the predicted surface layer VOC mixing ratios were generally found to be underestimated during the day and overestimated at night. While temperature profiles compared well to observations, WRF was found to have a warm temperature bias and too low nighttime mixing heights. Analyses of more realistic snow heat capacity in WRF to account for the warm bias and vertical mixing resulted in improved temperature profiles, although the improved temperature profiles seldom resulted in improved O3 profiles. While additional work is needed to investigate meteorological impacts, results suggest that the uncertainty in the oil and gas emissions contributes more to the underestimation of O3. Further, model adjustments based on a single site may not be suitable across all sites within the basin.

8.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 16(3): 374-92, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24362622

RESUMO

Atmospheric mercury (Hg) temporal and spatial patterns must be measured accurately in order to adequately understand the role of this pathway as it relates to Hg toxicity and exposure of humans and wildlife to Hg. It is also important to understand the distribution of the different chemical forms (elemental, oxidized, or particle bound) and specific compounds in air (e.g., HgCl2, HgBr2, HgO, Hg(NO3)2, and HgSO4). However, the current automated and passive sampling methods of measurement have limitations and artifacts impacting our ability to achieve this task. Both abiotic and biotic systems have been developed to measure the total gaseous Hg and oxidized Hg compounds (concentration and deposition). This study reviews and compares the performance of previously and currently applied passive sampling systems. Computable fluid dynamic modeling was conducted to gain additional understanding of a gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) passive sampler. Case studies during which passive samplers were used are also presented to demonstrate the ability of passive samplers to capture atmospheric Hg variation. A network using passive samplers would be useful for monitoring global Hg trends due to the limits of the current automated method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Atmosfera/química , Oxirredução
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(13): 7285-94, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23425102

RESUMO

The Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment (RAMIX) was carried out from 22 August to 16 September, 2011 in Reno, NV to evaluate the performance of new and existing methods to measure atmospheric mercury (Hg). Measurements were made using a common sampling manifold to which controlled concentrations of Hg species, including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and HgBr2 (a surrogate gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) compound), and potential interferents were added. We present an analysis of Hg measurements made using the University of Washington's Detector for Oxidized Hg Species (DOHGS), focusing on tests of GEM and HgBr2 spike recovery, the potential for interference from ozone (O3) and water vapor (WV), and temporal variability of ambient reactive mercury (RM). The mean GEM and HgBr2 spike recoveries measured with the DOHGS were 95% and 66%, respectively. The DOHGS responded linearly to HgBr2. We found no evidence that elevated O3 interfered in the DOHGS RM measurements. A reduction in RM collection and retention efficiencies at very high ambient WV mixing ratios is possible. Comparisons between the DOHGS and participating Hg instruments demonstrate good agreement for GEM and large discrepancies for RM. The results suggest that existing GOM measurements are biased low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brometos/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nevada , Oxirredução , Ozônio/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água/análise
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(13): 7295-306, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23305532

RESUMO

From August 22 to September 16, 2012, atmospheric mercury (Hg) was measured from a common manifold in the field during the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison eXperiment. Data were collected using Tekran systems, laser induced fluorescence, and evolving new methods. The latter included the University of Washington-Detector for Oxidized Mercury, the University of Houston Mercury instrument, and a filter-based system under development by the University of Nevada-Reno. Good transmission of total Hg was found for the manifold. However, despite application of standard protocols and rigorous quality control, systematic differences in operationally defined forms of Hg were measured by the sampling systems. Concentrations of reactive Hg (RM) measured with new methods were at times 2-to-3-fold higher than that measured by Tekran system. The low RM recovery by the latter can be attributed to lack of collection as the system is currently configured. Concentrations measured by all instruments were influenced by their sampling location in-the-manifold and the instrument analytical configuration. On the basis of collective assessment of the data, we hypothesize that reactions forming RM were occurring in the manifold. Results provide a new framework for improved understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of Hg.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Brometos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/química , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Nevada , Ozônio/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 408(2): 431-8, 2009 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19850325

RESUMO

Concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) were measured along with ancillary variables 9 km east of downtown Reno, Nevada, U.S.A. from November 2006 through March 2009. Mean two-year (February 2007 through January 2009) GEM, GOM, and PBM concentrations were 2.0+/-0.7 ng m(-3) (+/-standard deviation), 18+/-22 pg m(-3), and 7+/-7 pg m(-3), respectively. Data collected were compared with observations made at another location just north of the city at 169 m higher elevation. At both locations higher concentrations of GEM and PBM occurred in periods with little atmospheric mixing, indicating that local sources were important for enhancing GEM and PBM concentrations in Reno above that considered continental background. Concentrations of GOM were higher (maximum of 177 pg m(-3)) during periods with higher temperature and lower dew point. Higher GOM concentrations at the higher elevation site with less urban impact relative to the valley site, along with other data trends, support the hypothesis that in northern Nevada subsiding dry air from the free troposphere is a source of GOM to the surface.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Nevada , População Urbana
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 43(16): 6235-41, 2009 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19746719

RESUMO

Currently there is no standard method for measurement of atmospheric mercury dry deposition. While all operationally defined forms of atmospheric mercury (elemental, oxidized, and particulate) can be dry deposited, oxidized forms are of concern due to high deposition velocities, water solubility, and reactivity. This paper describes the development of a surrogate surface for characterizing potential dry deposition of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM). Laboratory tests showed that the surface collected HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgO with equal efficiency, and deposition was not significantly influenced by temperature, humidity, or ozone concentrations. Deposition of mercury to surfaces in field deployments was correlated with GOM concentrations (r2 = 0.84, p < 0.01, n = 326. Weekly mean GOM deposition velocities from surface deployments (1.1 +/- 0.6 cm s(-1)) were higher than modeled values (0.4 +/- 0.2 cm s(-1)) at four field sites, but were within the range reported for direct measurements. Although the surfaces do not simulate the heterogeneity of natural surfaces and need to be validated by direct measurements, they do provide a physical means for estimating temporal trends and spatial variability of dry deposition of GOM.


Assuntos
Química Inorgânica/métodos , Gases/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Modelos Químicos , Nevada , Oxirredução , Estações do Ano , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 41(6): 1970-6, 2007 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17410792

RESUMO

Atmospheric models and limited measurements indicate that dry deposition of atmospheric mercury is an important process by which mercury is input to ecosystems. To begin to fill the measurement data gap, multiple methods were used simultaneously during seasonal campaigns conducted in 2005 and 2006 to estimate dry deposition of atmospheric mercury at two Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) sites in rural Nevada and in Reno, Nevada. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hgp) concentrations were measured using Tekran 2537A/1130/ 1135 systems. These speciated measurements were combined with on-site meteorological measurements to estimate depositional fluxes of RGM and Hgp using dry deposition models. Modeled fluxes were compared with more direct measurements obtained using polysulfone cation-exchange membranes and foliar surfaces. Dynamic flux chambers were used to measure soil mercury exchange. RGM concentrations were higher during warmer months at all sites, leading to seasonal variation in the modeled importance of RGM as a component of total depositional load. The ratio of dry to wet deposition was between 10 and 90%, and varied with season and with the methods used for dry deposition approximations. This work illustrates the variability of mercury dry deposition with location and time and highlights the need for direct dry deposition measurements.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Atmosfera/análise , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Teóricos , Nevada , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano
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