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1.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 27: 100327, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing is recommended in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study was to assess changes in EGFR mutation testing patterns and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) use in US veterans with stage III-IV NSCLC between 2013 and 2017. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study using linked data from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Cancer Registry System, Corporate Data Warehouse, commercial laboratories, and clinical notes. Generalized linear mixed models accounting for clustering by VA facility were used to determine factors associated with EGFR mutation testing. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017, EGFR mutation testing increased from 29.5% to 38.4% among veterans with stage III-IV NSCLC and from 47.0% to 57.4% among veterans with stage IV non-squamous disease. Factors associated with increased odds of testing included being married, Medicare enrollment, and adenocarcinoma histology. Factors associated with decreased odds of testing included Medicaid eligibility, stage III disease, increasing age, being a current or former smoker, increasing Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, and receiving cancer care in the South. Appropriate use of a TKI rose from 2013 to 2017 (17.2% to 74.1%). CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation testing rates increased to almost 60% in the stage IV non-squamous NSCLC population in 2017, with residual opportunity for further increase. Several sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and geographic regions were associated with EGFR mutation testing suggestive of inequitable testing decisions. Appropriate use of TKI improved drastically from 2013 to 2017 demonstrating rapidly changing practice patterns through the adoption phase of new treatment options.

3.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(1): 1-12, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512289

RESUMO

Blood tests to assess the endocrine system are commonly performed in patients admitted to hospital. This may be because an endocrinopathy is thought to be aetiological in the presenting disease or suspected as an incidental occurrence by the clinician. Many patients, in addition to the pathology leading to admission, frequently have one or more comorbidities, a change in nutritional status and polypharmacy. Added to this, presentation with acute illness is a major life stress. All of these are likely to impact on one or more endocrine axes, although often only transiently. Endocrine evaluation in the vast majority of cases can be safely deferred to the outpatient setting. This article considers the most common endocrine anomalies discovered in hospital, the confounders, and provides guidance on how to investigate these further.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034461, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464320

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the relative contribution to each subtype (coronary artery disease [CAD], peripheral artery disease [PAD], and large-artery stroke) remains less well understood. Objective: To determine the association between genetic liability to smoking and risk of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide associations of smoking (UK Biobank; up to 462 690 individuals), CAD (Coronary Artery Disease Genome Wide Replication and Meta-analysis plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium; up to 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls), PAD (VA Million Veteran Program; up to 24 009 cases, 150 983 controls), and large-artery stroke (MEGASTROKE; up to 4373 cases, 406 111 controls). This study was conducted using summary statistic data from large, previously described cohorts. Review of those publications does not reveal the total recruitment dates for those cohorts. Data analyses were conducted from August 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Genetic liability to smoking (as proxied by genetic variants associated with lifetime smoking index). Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk (odds ratios [ORs]) of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Results: Genetic liability to smoking was associated with increased risk of PAD (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.78-2.56; P = 3.6 × 10-16), CAD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.25-1.75; P = 4.4 × 10-6), and stroke (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P = .04). Genetic liability to smoking was associated with greater risk of PAD than risk of large-artery stroke (ratio of ORs, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19; P = .02) or CAD (ratio of ORs, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84; P = .004). The association between genetic liability to smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remained independent from the effects of smoking on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this mendelian randomization analysis of data from large studies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, genetic liability to smoking was a strong risk factor for CAD, PAD, and stroke, although the estimated association was strongest between smoking and PAD. The association between smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

5.
J Pain ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465504

RESUMO

Perceived injustice is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for problematic recovery, with a growing body of evidence documenting its association with heightened pain, disability, medication use, anger and post-traumatic stress. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise the association between perceived injustice and depressive symptomatology across a wide range of medical and mental health populations, including acute and chronic pain samples. A search of published, English language studies in the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases from 1990 to June 2020 was performed. Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria with a total sample of 5,425 individuals (61% female), primarily with acute injury or chronic pain. Results indicated a moderate to strong positive association between perceived injustice and depressive symptomatology (meta-analysis pooled effect of r = .57, 95% confidence interval [.55, .58], P< .001). A narrative synthesis of regression models indicated standardized beta coefficients between .19 and .66, with perceived injustice consistently contributing significant unique variance to the prediction of depression in final regression equations. Selection bias and response bias were common limitations in the studies. The clinical implications of an association between injustice and depression in acute and chronic pain are discussed. PROSPERO: CRD42019143465. PERSPECTIVE: This review demonstrates that in acute injury and chronic pain samples, perceived injustice is associated with depression. These findings could help clinicians in the field of pain and rehabilitation identify who may be at greater risk for a problematic recovery trajectory.

6.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 101: 106247, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316457

RESUMO

Genomic testing has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce patient care costs by personalizing medication selection. Commercial pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing for psychotropic and other medications is widely available and promoted as a means to implement "precision medicine." Despite evidence that genetic variation affects the metabolism of psychotropic medications, the clinical utility of these test results has not been established. Moreover, implementing such testing in routine clinical care is complex, requiring informatics support and a systematic approach to patient and provider education. The PRIME Care program is designed to bridge this gap, applying both clinical trials and implementation science methods to conduct a program of research. It is centered on a large, pragmatic randomized clinical trial (RCT) in which 2000 Veterans with a major depressive disorder (MDD) and their health care providers are randomized together to receive PGx test results at the beginning of an episode of care or 6 months later. We hypothesize that providers who receive the PGx test results will prescribe an antidepressant guided by the PGx findings and Veterans whose care is guided by PGx testing will experience higher rates of remission from MDD. If the results of the trial replicate those of prior PGx studies, which provided preliminary evidence of the utility of PGx guided prescribing, it would strongly support using a precision medicine approach to treat MDD. This program of research is also evaluating dissemination influencers, other biomarkers (e.g., genetic variation associated with depression response), and the health care cost implications of PGx testing. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03170362.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 protects against coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). The impact on other diseases remains less well characterized. METHODS: We created a genetic risk score (GRS) for PCSK9 using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near the PCSK9 locus known to impact lower LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C): rs11583680, rs11591147, rs2479409, and rs11206510. We then used our GRS to calculate weighted odds ratios reflecting the impact of a genetically determined 10 mg/dL decrease in LDL-C on several pre-specified phenotypes including CAD, IS, peripheral artery disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), type 2 diabetes, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Finally, we used our weighted GRS to perform a phenome-wide association study. RESULTS: Genetic and electronic health record data that passed quality control was available in 312,097 individuals, (227,490 White participants, 58,907 Black participants, and 25,700 Hispanic participants). PCSK9 mediated reduction in LDL-C was associated with a reduced risk of CAD and AAA in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (CAD OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.80-0.87], p = 6.0 x 10-21; AAA OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.68-0.86], p = 2.9 x 10-06). Significant protective effects were noted for PAD in White individuals (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.97], p = 2.3 x 10-04) but not in other genetic ancestries. Genetically reduced PCSK9 function associated with a reduced risk of dementia in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.78-0.93], p = 5.0 x 10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically reduced PCSK9 function results in a reduction in risk of several important extra-coronary atherosclerotic phenotypes in addition to known effects on CAD and IS, including PAD and AAA. We also highlight a novel reduction in risk of dementia, supporting a well-recognized vascular component to cognitive impairment and an opportunity for therapeutic repositioning.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is reported to have effects on a number of hormone systems including the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. We aimed to determine the impact of OSA severity on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study performed between November 2014 and May 2017. IGF-I was measured on serum samples, and data were collected on demographics, BMI and parameters of OSA. RESULTS: 611 participants were recruited (202 female, 53.5 ± 12.5 years; mean BMI 36.2 ± 8.0 kg/m2 ). 26.2% had mild OSA; 27.3%, moderate OSA; and 44.5%, severe OSA. 15.2% of IGF-I values were below the age-related reference range. Increasing BMI correlated with greater AHI (r = .28, p < .001), ODI (r = .30, p < .001), severity of OSA (r = .17, p < .001), duration with oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) <90% (r = .29, p = .001) and reduced median SaO2 levels (r = .19, p < .001). IGF-I levels correlated negatively with age (r = -.13, p = .001), BMI (r = -.16, p < .001), diabetes (r = -.108, p = .009), AHI (r = -0.10, p = .043) and severity of OSA (r = -.10, p = .013). No association of IGF-I was observed with ODI, median SaO2 levels or duration of SaO2  < 90%. Regression analyses were used to examine determinants of IGF-I, all of which contained the independent variables of age, gender and BMI. All models showed IGF-I to be predicted by age and BMI (p < .05); however, none of the parameters of OSA were significant within these models. CONCLUSION: Insulin-like growth factor-I levels in OSA are dependent on age and BMI; however, no additional effect of any OSA parameter was observed, supporting the hypothesis that OSA effects on IGF-I are indirect through concomitant body composition and metabolic parameters.

9.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(19): 3327-3337, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833022

RESUMO

Clinical observations have linked tobacco smoking with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Mendelian randomization analysis has recently suggested smoking may be a causal risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, this association could be mediated by additional risk factors correlated with smoking behavior, which have not been investigated. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) could help to explain the association between smoking and diabetes risk. First, we confirmed that genetic determinants of smoking initiation increased risk for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.27, P = 1 × 10-12) and coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.16-1.26, P = 2 × 10-20). Additionally, 2-fold increased smoking risk was positively associated with increased BMI (~0.8 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98 kg/m2, P = 1.8 × 10-11). Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses showed that BMI accounted for nearly all the risk smoking exerted on type 2 diabetes (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11, P = 0.03). In contrast, the independent effect of smoking on increased CAD risk persisted (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.17, P = 3 × 10-8). Causal mediation analyses agreed with these estimates. Furthermore, analysis using individual-level data from the Million Veteran Program independently replicated the association of smoking behavior with CAD (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37, P = 2 × 10-5), but not type 2 diabetes (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.08, P = 0.69), after controlling for BMI. Our findings support a model whereby genetic determinants of smoking increase type 2 diabetes risk indirectly through their relationship with obesity. Smokers should be advised to stop smoking to limit type 2 diabetes and CAD risk. Therapeutic efforts should consider pathophysiology relating smoking and obesity.

11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313847, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given ongoing challenges in non-invasive non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis, we sought to validate an ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using measures readily available in electronic health records (EHRs) and population-based studies by leveraging the clinical and genetic data in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), a multi-ethnic mega-biobank of US Veterans. METHODS: MVP participants with alanine aminotransferases (ALT) >40 units/L for men and >30 units/L for women without other causes of liver disease were compared to controls with normal ALT. Genetic variants spanning eight NAFLD risk or ALT-associated loci (LYPLAL1, GCKR, HSD17B13, TRIB1, PPP1R3B, ERLIN1, TM6SF2, PNPLA3) were tested for NAFLD associations with sensitivity analyses adjusting for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. A manual EHR review assessed performance characteristics of the NAFLD phenotype with imaging and biopsy data as gold standards. Genetic associations with advanced fibrosis were explored using FIB4, NAFLD Fibrosis Score and platelet counts. RESULTS: Among 322,259 MVP participants, 19% met non-invasive criteria for NAFLD. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis replicated associations with previously reported genetic variants in all but LYPLAL1 and GCKR loci (P<6x10-3), without attenuation when adjusted for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. At the previously reported LYPLAL1 locus, the established genetic variant did not appear to be associated with NAFLD, however the regional association plot showed a significant association with NAFLD 279kb downstream. In the EHR validation, the ALT-based NAFLD phenotype yielded a positive predictive value 0.89 and 0.84 for liver biopsy and abdominal imaging, respectively (inter-rater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.98)). HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 loci were associated with advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We validate a simple, non-invasive ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using EHR data by leveraging previously established NAFLD risk-associated genetic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Fígado/patologia , Lisofosfolipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Veteranos
13.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008629, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282858

RESUMO

Analyzing 12,361 all-cause cirrhosis cases and 790,095 controls from eight cohorts, we identify a common missense variant in the Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component 1 gene (MARC1 p.A165T) that associates with protection from all-cause cirrhosis (OR 0.91, p = 2.3*10-11). This same variant also associates with lower levels of hepatic fat on computed tomographic imaging and lower odds of physician-diagnosed fatty liver as well as lower blood levels of alanine transaminase (-0.025 SD, 3.7*10-43), alkaline phosphatase (-0.025 SD, 1.2*10-37), total cholesterol (-0.030 SD, p = 1.9*10-36) and LDL cholesterol (-0.027 SD, p = 5.1*10-30) levels. We identified a series of additional MARC1 alleles (low-frequency missense p.M187K and rare protein-truncating p.R200Ter) that also associated with lower cholesterol levels, liver enzyme levels and reduced risk of cirrhosis (0 cirrhosis cases for 238 R200Ter carriers versus 17,046 cases of cirrhosis among 759,027 non-carriers, p = 0.04) suggesting that deficiency of the MARC1 enzyme may lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Alelos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/enzimologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/genética , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(5): 511-521, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197236

RESUMO

Objective: There remains increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with acromegaly. This study aims to evaluate whether GH/IGF-1 excess increases vascular disease by adversely affecting fibrin network characteristics. Design: Cross-sectional study in 40 patients with acromegaly (21 males, age 53 ± 13 years) and 40 age/gender-matched controls. Methods: Clot structure was analysed using a validated turbidimetric assay and fibrin networks were visualised by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Metabolic profile parameters, body composition, plasma fibrinogen and PAI-1 were also assessed. Results: Twenty-two patients had active acromegaly and 18 were in remission. There was no difference in qualitative patient characteristics between the two groups. Both groups had less favourable body composition and cardiovascular risk profile compared with controls. Despite no difference in clot formation and lysis parameters between the two patient groups, active disease patients had higher fibrinogen and clot maximum absorbance compared with controls, after adjusting for BMI (3.8 ± 0.2 vs 2.6 ± 0.2 mg/mL, P < 0.001; and 0.39 ± 0.02 vs 0.33 ± 0.01 arbitrary units, P = 0.03, respectively). Patients in remission had higher fibrinogen compared with controls following adjustment for BMI (3.3 ± 0.2 vs 2.6 ± 0.2 mg/mL, P = 0.02) but not clot maximum absorbance (0.35 ± 0.03 vs 0.33 ± 0.02 arbitrary units, P = 0.6). LSCM showed increased fibrin network density only in active disease patients, consistent with turbidimetric analysis. In addition to active disease, BMI, fat mass and skinfold thickness were associated with higher clot density and longer lysis time. Conclusions: Patients with active acromegaly have more compact clots, thus conferring increased thrombosis risk. Prothrombotic fibrin networks may represent one mechanism for enhanced vascular risk in active acromegaly.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 1-9, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have linked greater polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure to adverse neuropsychological effects in older adults, including learning, memory, and depressive symptoms. However, no studies among older adults have evaluated the association over time. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of serum PCB levels on neuropsychological function over a 14-year period in a cohort of older men and women from a PCB-contaminated area of New York State. METHODS: In 2000-2002, we assessed serum PCB levels and neuropsychological function (including the California Verbal Learning Test Trial 1 (CVLTT1) for verbal memory and learning, and the Beck Depression Index (BDI) for depressive symptoms) in 253 men and women, ages 55-74 years. A total of 116 (46%) persons repeated the PCB and neuropsychological assessment 14 years later. To assess the association over time, we used generalized estimating equations with clustering variables time, total PCB (∑PCB), and ∑PCB × time, and adjusted for baseline age, sex, smoking, and total serum-lipids. For statistically significant ∑PCB × time interactions, we evaluated the association between PCBs and either verbal memory and learning or depressive symptoms while holding ∑PCB constant at the 10th and 90th percentiles to clarify the direction of the interaction. RESULTS: Over the study period, serum ∑PCB levels (wet-weight) declined by 22%, and were associated with different patterns of change over time for memory (∑PCB × Time ß = 0.08 p = 0.009) and depressive symptoms (∑PCB × Time ß = -0.16 p = 0.013). Specifically, verbal memory and learning decreased (ß = -0.08 p = 0.008) and depressive symptoms increased (ß = 0.17 p = 0.008) among persons with low exposure (∑PCB levels at the 10th percentile), while persons with high exposure (90th percentile) showed non-significant improvements. DISCUSSION: In this cohort, declining ∑PCB levels were likely due at least in part to low rates of local fish consumption in recent decades, given the ban since 1976. The decreased verbal memory and learning and increased depressive symptoms over time among persons with low serum ∑PCB levels is consistent with studies of normative aging. However, the small improvements in those outcomes among those with high serum ∑PCB levels was unexpected. Healthy survivor selection bias or uncontrolled confounding may explain this result. It may also indicate that the neurotoxic impacts of PCBs in older adults are not permanent, but future studies are needed to confirm this possibility.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Idoso , Animais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Alimentos Marinhos
17.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001484, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adoption of prognostic molecular assays for prostate cancer requires evidence of robust performance in different racial groups. Retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the performance of the Oncotype DX® Genomic Prostate Score® test in Black and White men with surgically treated prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the assay results (scale 0-100) and the 4 gene group scores in biopsy specimens from 201 Black and 1,144 White men with clinically localized prostate cancer in 6 cohorts. Adverse pathology was defined as high grade (primary Gleason pattern 4 or any pattern 5) and/or nonorgan-confined disease (≥pT3). Binary logistic regression models were used for adverse pathology. Biochemical recurrence was defined as 2 successive prostate specific antigen levels >0.2 ng/ml or initiation of salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association of the assay result or racial group with time to biochemical recurrence. RESULTS: Each cohort had different clinical risk distributions and percentages of Blacks, although median and interquartile ranges of the assay results and gene group scores were similar between both racial groups. In a multivariable model with the assay and pathological/clinical features including race, the assay was significantly associated with adverse pathology (p ≤0.004) and biochemical recurrence (p <0.001). Race was not a significant predictor of either end point. CONCLUSIONS: The assay is similarly predictive of outcomes in Black and White patients, and improves risk stratification in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer from both racial groups.

18.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1574-1579, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676865

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of mortality1, yet its genetic determinants are incompletely defined. We performed a discovery genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program and UK Biobank, with testing of approximately 13 million DNA sequence variants for association with venous thromboembolism (26,066 cases and 624,053 controls) and meta-analyzed both studies, followed by independent replication with up to 17,672 venous thromboembolism cases and 167,295 controls. We identified 22 previously unknown loci, bringing the total number of venous thromboembolism-associated loci to 33, and subsequently fine-mapped these associations. We developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score for venous thromboembolism that identifies 5% of the population at an equivalent incident venous thromboembolism risk to carriers of the established factor V Leiden p.R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the genetic epidemiology of venous thromboembolism and suggest a greater overlap among venous and arterial cardiovascular disease than previously thought.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 763-772, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564439

RESUMO

Large-scale multi-ethnic cohorts offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the genetic factors influencing complex traits related to health and disease among minority populations. At the same time, the genetic diversity in these cohorts presents new challenges for analysis and interpretation. We consider the utility of race and/or ethnicity categories in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of multi-ethnic cohorts. We demonstrate that race/ethnicity information enhances the ability to understand population-specific genetic architecture. To address the practical issue that self-identified racial/ethnic information may be incomplete, we propose a machine learning algorithm that produces a surrogate variable, termed HARE. We use height as a model trait to demonstrate the utility of HARE and ethnicity-specific GWASs.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
20.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-10, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate health care systems for the availability of population-level data on the frequency of use and results of clinical molecular marker tests to inform precision cancer care. METHODS: We assessed cancer-related molecular marker test data availability across 12 US health care systems in the Cancer Research Network. Overall, these systems provide care to a diverse population of more than 12 million people in the United States. We performed qualitative analyses of test data availability for five blood-based protein, nine germline, and 14 tissue-based tumor marker tests in each health care system's electronic health record and tumor registry using key informants, test code lists, and manual review of data types and output. We then performed quantitative analyses to estimate the proportion of patients with cancer with test utilization data and results for specific molecular marker tests. RESULTS: Health systems were able to systematically capture population-level data on all five blood protein markers, six of 14 tissue-based tumor markers, and none of the nine germline markers. Successful, systematic data capture was achievable for tests with electronic data feeds for test results (blood protein markers) or through prior manual abstraction by tumor registrars (select tumor-based markers). For test results stored in scanned image files (particularly germline and tumor marker tests), information on which test was performed and test results was not readily accessible in an electronic format. CONCLUSION: Even in health care systems with sophisticated electronic health records, there were few codified data elements available for evaluating precision cancer medicine test use and results at the population level. Health care organizations should establish standards for electronic reporting of precision medicine tests to expedite cancer research and facilitate the implementation of precision medicine approaches.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Coleta de Dados , Assistência à Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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