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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifesting joint contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and kyphoscoliosis as main features. Due to its rarity, rather aspecific clinical presentation, and overlap with other conditions including Marfan syndrome, the diagnosis is challenging, but important for prognosis and clinical management. CCA is caused by pathogenic variants in FBN2, encoding fibrillin-2, but locus heterogeneity has been suggested. We designed a clinical scoring system and diagnostic criteria to support the diagnostic process and guide molecular genetic testing. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we assessed 167 probands referred for FBN2 analysis and classified them into a FBN2-positive (n = 44) and FBN2-negative group (n = 123) following molecular analysis. We developed a 20-point weighted clinical scoring system based on the prevalence of ten main clinical characteristics of CCA in both groups. RESULTS: The total score was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001) and was indicative for classifying patients into unlikely CCA (total score <7) and likely CCA (total score ≥7) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical score is helpful for clinical guidance for patients suspected to have CCA, and provides a quantitative tool for phenotyping in research settings.

3.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 101, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in human cells and is catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), mostly cotranslationally. The NAA10-NAA15 (NatA) protein complex is the major NAT, responsible for acetylating ~ 40% of human proteins. Recently, NAA10 germline variants were found in patients with the X-linked lethal Ogden syndrome, and in other familial or de novo cases with variable degrees of developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID) and cardiac anomalies. METHODS: Here we report a novel NAA10 (NM_003491.3) c.248G > A, p.(R83H) missense variant in NAA10 which was detected by whole exome sequencing in two unrelated boys with intellectual disability, developmental delay, ADHD like behaviour, very limited speech and cardiac abnormalities. We employ in vitro acetylation assays to functionally test the impact of this variant on NAA10 enzyme activity. RESULTS: Functional characterization of NAA10-R83H by in vitro acetylation assays revealed a reduced enzymatic activity of monomeric NAA10-R83H. This variant is modelled to have an altered charge density in the acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) binding region of NAA10. CONCLUSIONS: We show that NAA10-R83H has a reduced monomeric catalytic activity, likely due to impaired enzyme-Ac-CoA binding. Our data support a model where reduced NAA10 and/or NatA activity cause the phenotypes observed in the two patients.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/genética , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/genética , Acetilação , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/química , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/metabolismo , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/química , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Domínios Proteicos , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Clin Genet ; 96(1): 72-84, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001818

RESUMO

Variants in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) have been associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and overgrowth and CHD8 is one of the causative genes for OGID (overgrowth and ID). We investigated 25 individuals with CHD8 protein truncating variants (PTVs), including 10 previously unreported patients and found a male to female ratio of 2.7:1 (19:7) and a pattern of common features: macrocephaly (62.5%), tall stature (47%), developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (81%), ASDs (84%), sleep difficulties (50%), gastrointestinal problems (40%), and distinct facial features. Most of the individuals in this cohort had moderate-to-severe ID, some had regression of speech (37%), seizures (27%) and hypotonia (27%) and two individuals were non-ambulant. Our study shows that haploinsufficiency of CHD8 is associated with a distinctive OGID syndrome with pronounced autistic traits and supports a sex-dependent penetrance of CHD8 PTVs in humans.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1178-1185, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979968

RESUMO

Multi-gene testing is useful in genetically heterogeneous conditions, including inherited cardiac pathologies. Increasing the number of genes analysed increases diagnostic yield of variants of certain, likely, or uncertain pathogenicity. Concerns exist regarding management of variants of uncertain/likely pathogenicity in conditions of oligogenic inheritance or variable expressivity. We surveyed a sample of colleagues across different specialties and departments internationally to compare management of patients with class 3 or class 4 variants in genes associated with non-syndromic cardiomyopathy or arrhythmia. An electronic survey regarding clinical management of variants ( www.surveymonkey.com/r/cardiacvariants ) was designed and distributed to colleagues internationally via professional bodies and direct email. 150 respondents (88 centres, 27 countries) completed the survey, most of whom were Clinical Geneticists or Genetic Counsellors. Most respondents offer pre-symptomatic testing to asymptomatic relatives of an individual with class 4 or class 5 variants. A minority of respondents offer pre-symptomatic testing for class 3 variants. Considering class 4 variants, 22 (15%) are fully reassuring that the patient with a negative predictive test would not develop the familial phenotype, while 123 (82%) counselled patients about the possibility of variant reclassification. Variability existed between and within centres and specialties. Multiple "free text" comments were provided. Recurring themes including need for multidisciplinary input, technical concerns, and concern regarding duty to review variants of uncertain significance. This study demonstrates that variability in management of likely pathogenic/uncertain variants exists. Close multi-disciplinary input is essential. The development of disorder or gene-specific evidence-based guidelines might ameliorate uncertainty in management.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 547-555, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622329

RESUMO

Clinical Genetics services provide a diagnostic, counselling and genetic testing service for children and adults affected by, or at risk of, a genetic condition, most of which are rare, and/or genetically heterogeneous. Appropriate triage of referrals is crucial to ensure that the most urgent referrals are seen as quickly as possible, without negatively impacting the waiting times of less urgent cases. We aimed to examine triage practice in six Clinical Genetic centres across the United Kingdom and Ireland. Thirteen simulated referrals were drafted based on common referrals to Clinical Genetics. Copies of each referral were forwarded to each centre, where 10 nominated clinicians were asked to triage each referral. Triaged referrals were returned to the coordinating author for analysis. An electronic questionnaire was contemporaneously completed by clinical leads in each unit to gather local demographic details and local operating procedures relevant to triage. Widespread inconsistencies were noted both within and between units, with respect to the acceptance of referrals to the services, prioritisation and designated clinic type. Referral rates, staffing levels and waiting lists varied widely between units. Inconsistencies observed between units are likely influenced by a number of factors, including staffing levels, referral rates and average family size. Inconsistency within units likely reflects the complex nature of many Clinical Genetic referrals, and triage guidelines should help improve decision-making in this setting.

7.
Genome Res ; 29(2): 159-170, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587507

RESUMO

Mutations that perturb normal pre-mRNA splicing are significant contributors to human disease. We used exome sequencing data from 7833 probands with developmental disorders (DDs) and their unaffected parents, as well as more than 60,000 aggregated exomes from the Exome Aggregation Consortium, to investigate selection around the splice sites and quantify the contribution of splicing mutations to DDs. Patterns of purifying selection, a deficit of variants in highly constrained genes in healthy subjects, and excess de novo mutations in patients highlighted particular positions within and around the consensus splice site of greater functional relevance. By using mutational burden analyses in this large cohort of proband-parent trios, we could estimate in an unbiased manner the relative contributions of mutations at canonical dinucleotides (73%) and flanking noncanonical positions (27%), and calculate the positive predictive value of pathogenicity for different classes of mutations. We identified 18 patients with likely diagnostic de novo mutations in dominant DD-associated genes at noncanonical positions in splice sites. We estimate 35%-40% of pathogenic variants in noncanonical splice site positions are missing from public databases.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Exoma , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Science ; 362(6419): 1161-1164, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409806

RESUMO

We estimated the genome-wide contribution of recessive coding variation in 6040 families from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. The proportion of cases attributable to recessive coding variants was 3.6% in patients of European ancestry, compared with 50% explained by de novo coding mutations. It was higher (31%) in patients with Pakistani ancestry, owing to elevated autozygosity. Half of this recessive burden is attributable to known genes. We identified two genes not previously associated with recessive developmental disorders, KDM5B and EIF3F, and functionally validated them with mouse and cellular models. Our results suggest that recessive coding variants account for a small fraction of currently undiagnosed nonconsanguineous individuals, and that the role of noncoding variants, incomplete penetrance, and polygenic mechanisms need further exploration.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194818

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1226-1237, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897170

RESUMO

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(10): 1558, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904175
14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 228: 43-47, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908377

RESUMO

Irish Travellers are an endogamous nomadic ethnic minority population mostly resident on the island of Ireland with smaller populations living in Europe & USA. As they practice consanguinity, rare and ultra-rare autosomal recessive conditions are observed which are infrequently seen in the general population. Awareness of the rare genetic disorders within an antenatal setting that recur within this population should facilitate quicker cost-effective diagnosis. These include disorders leading to recurrent miscarriage and multiple congenital anomalies. Prompt diagnosis and tailored management can affect prognosis and a multi-disciplinary team approach with the obstetrician, neonatologist and clinical geneticist should improve outcomes.

15.
J Med Genet ; 55(4): 233-239, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358271

RESUMO

Background Irish Travellers are an endogamous, nomadic, ethnic minority population mostly resident on the island of Ireland with smaller populations in Europe and the USA. High levels of consanguinity result in many rare autosomal recessive disorders. Due to founder effects and endogamy, most recessive disorders are caused by specific homozygous mutations unique to this population. Key clinicians and scientists with experience in managing rare disorders seen in this population have developed a de facto advisory service on differential diagnoses to consider when faced with specific clinical scenarios. Objective(s) To catalogue all known inherited disorders found in the Irish Traveller population. Methods We performed detailed literature and database searches to identify relevant publications and the disease mutations of known genetic disorders found in Irish Travellers. Results We identified 104 genetic disorders: 90 inherited in an autosomal recessive manner; 13 autosomal dominant and one a recurring chromosomal duplication. Conclusion We have collated our experience of inherited disorders found in the Irish Traveller population to make it publically available through this publication to facilitate a targeted genetic approach to diagnostics in this ethnic group.

16.
Neurogenetics ; 19(1): 27-40, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29260337

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs) at the 7q33 cytoband are very rarely described in the literature, and almost all of the cases comprise large deletions affecting more than just the q33 segment. We report seven patients (two families with two siblings and their affected mother and one unrelated patient) with neurodevelopmental delay associated with CNVs in 7q33 alone. All the patients presented mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic features, and a behavioral phenotype characterized by aggressiveness and disinhibition. One family presents a small duplication in cis affecting CALD1 and AGBL3 genes, while the other four patients carry two larger deletions encompassing EXOC4, CALD1, AGBL3, and CNOT4. This work helps to refine the phenotype and narrow the minimal critical region involved in 7q33 CNVs. Comparison with similar cases and functional studies should help us clarify the relevance of the deleted genes for ID and behavioral alterations.

18.
J Neurol ; 264(7): 1444-1453, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28620721

RESUMO

We report three affected members, a mother and her two children, of a non-consanguineous Irish family who presented with a suspected autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia characterized by early motor delay, poor coordination, gait ataxia, and dysarthria. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.106C>T; p.[Arg36Cys]) in the suppressor domain of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor gene (ITPR1) as the cause of the disorder, resulting in a molecular diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 29. In the absence of grandparental DNA, microsatellite genotyping of healthy family members was used to confirm the de novo status of the ITPR1 variant in the affected mother, which supported pathogenicity. The Arg36Cys variant exhibited a significantly higher IP3-binding affinity than wild-type (WT) ITPR1 and drastically changed the property of the intracellular Ca2+ signal from a transient to a sigmoidal pattern, supporting a gain-of-function disease mechanism. To date, ITPR1 mutation has been associated with a loss-of-function effect, likely due to reduced Ca2+ release. This is the first gain-of-function mechanism to be associated with ITPR1-related SCA29, providing novel insights into how enhanced Ca2+ release can also contribute to the pathogenesis of this neurological disorder.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Degenerações Espinocerebelares/genética , Degenerações Espinocerebelares/metabolismo , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Degenerações Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 650-658, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343630

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a highly heterogeneous disorder involving at least 600 genes, yet a genetic diagnosis remains elusive in ∼35%-40% of individuals with moderate to severe ID. Recent meta-analyses statistically analyzing de novo mutations in >7,000 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders highlighted mutations in PPM1D as a possible cause of ID. PPM1D is a type 2C phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of cellular stress-response pathways by mediating a feedback loop of p38-p53 signaling, thereby contributing to growth inhibition and suppression of stress-induced apoptosis. We identified 14 individuals with mild to severe ID and/or developmental delay and de novo truncating PPM1D mutations. Additionally, deep phenotyping revealed overlapping behavioral problems (ASD, ADHD, and anxiety disorders), hypotonia, broad-based gait, facial dysmorphisms, and periods of fever and vomiting. PPM1D is expressed during fetal brain development and in the adult brain. All mutations were located in the last or penultimate exon, suggesting escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Both PPM1D expression analysis and cDNA sequencing in EBV LCLs of individuals support the presence of a stable truncated transcript, consistent with this hypothesis. Exposure of cells derived from individuals with PPM1D truncating mutations to ionizing radiation resulted in normal p53 activation, suggesting that p53 signaling is unaffected. However, a cell-growth disadvantage was observed, suggesting a possible effect on the stress-response pathway. Thus, we show that de novo truncating PPM1D mutations in the last and penultimate exons cause syndromic ID, which provides additional insight into the role of cell-cycle checkpoint genes in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Éxons , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Adolescente , Ciclo Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 34(2): e77-e79, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28297140

RESUMO

We report a case of congenital hypertrichosis and FOXN1 duplication. FOXN1 is a member of the forkhead box gene family, located on chromosome 17. Its function includes differentiation of epithelial cells and regulation of keratinocytes, especially hair keratins. Loss of function of these transcription factors leads to a disruption in hair growth. As far as we are aware, this is the first case of FOXN1 duplication associated with congenital hypertrichosis to be reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Hipertricose/congênito , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertricose/genética , Hipertricose/patologia
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