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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094495

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Furthermore, genetic predisposition and clonal haematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Additionally, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumours and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the two pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. To this aim, pre-clinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including patients from all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and cardiovascular endpoints, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: • Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. • Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline-directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006257

RESUMO

Serum biomarkers are an important tool in the baseline risk assessment and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in cancer patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer treatments. Increases in cardiac biomarkers including cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptides can be used to guide initiation of cardioprotective treatments for cancer patients during treatment and to monitor the response to cardioprotective treatments, and they also offer prognostic value. This position statement examines the role of cardiac biomarkers in the management of cancer patients. The Cardio-Oncology Study Group of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the Cardio-Oncology Council of the ESC have evaluated the current evidence for the role of cardiovascular biomarkers in cancer patients before, during and after cardiotoxic cancer therapies. The characteristics of the main two biomarkers troponin and natriuretic peptides are discussed, the link to the mechanisms of cardiovascular toxicity, and the evidence for their clinical use in surveillance during and after anthracycline chemotherapy, trastuzumab and HER2-targeted therapies, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy. Novel surveillance clinical pathways integrating cardiac biomarkers for cancer patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy or trastuzumab biomarkers are presented and future direction in cardio-oncology biomarker research is discussed.

5.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910493

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has given rise to a pandemic of unprecedented proportions in the modern era because of its highly contagious nature and impact on human health and society: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and established CV disease (CVD) are among those initially identified at the highest risk for serious complications, including death. Subsequent studies have pointed out that patients with cancer are also at high risk for a critical disease course. Therefore, the most vulnerable patients are seemingly those with both cancer and CVD, and a careful, unified approach in the evaluation and management of this patient population is especially needed in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides an overview of the unique implications of the viral outbreak for the field of cardio-oncology and outlines key modifications in the approach to this ever-increasing patient population. These modifications include a shift toward greater utilization of cardiac biomarkers and a more focused CV imaging approach in the broader context of modifications to typical practice pathways. The goal of this strategic adjustment is to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (or other future viral outbreaks) while not becoming negligent of CVD and its important impact on the overall outcomes of patients who are being treated for cancer.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944732

RESUMO

AIMS : Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is usually associated with rapid and spontaneous recovery of left ventricular (LV) function. However, a proportion of patients may have persistent symptoms. This study aimed to determine the haemodynamic and LV contractile responses to exercise in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty symptomatic TTS patients referred for exercise echocardiography, a median of 15 months following the index TTS episode, were matched with 30 controls with normal exercise echocardiography. Beta-blockers were withheld prior to the test. LV volumes, ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion score index (WMSI), were measured at rest and stress. The TTS cohort were Caucasian women with mean age of 64.6 ± 7.4 years and similar coronary risk factor profile and EF to controls. Resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), LV end-diastolic volume, wall stress, and right ventricular fractional area change were higher in TTS patients compared with controls. Stress echo data showed similar exercise time, peak heart rate, and peak SBP in TTS patients vs. controls, but TTS patients had higher LV volumes, lower exercise LVEF (70 ± 10% vs. 78 ± 7%; P = 0.001), ΔLVEF (4 ± 8% vs. 12 ± 5%; P < 0.001), and WMSI (1.4 ± 0.4 vs. 1 ± 0; P < 0.001) compared with controls. Twenty TTS patients had clear exercise-induced wall motion abnormalities, mainly involving the apex or more globally, with a mean ΔLVEF of 1% compared with 12% in controls. Among the other 10 TTS patients, the ΔLVEF was 10%. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic patients with previous TTS have a blunted contractile response to exercise. The therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings need further investigation.

7.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 17(6): 397-408, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979150

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Long-term survival has increased significantly in breast cancer patients, and cardiovascular side effects are surpassing cancer-related mortality. We summarize risk factors, prevention strategies, detection, and management of cardiotoxicity, with focus on left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure, during breast cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Baseline treatment of cardiovascular risk factors is recommended. Anthracycline and trastuzumab treatment constitute a substantial risk of developing cardiotoxicity. There is growing evidence that this can be treated with beta blockers and angiotensin antagonists. Early detection of cardiotoxicity with cardiac imaging and circulating cardiovascular biomarkers is currently evaluated in clinical trials. Chest wall irradiation accelerates atherosclerotic processes and induces fibrosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors require consideration for surveillance due to a small risk of severe myocarditis. Cyclin-dependent kinases4/6 inhibitors, cyclophosphamide, taxanes, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and endocrine therapy have a lower-risk profile for cardiotoxicity. Preventive and management strategies to counteract cancer treatment-related left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure in breast cancer patients should include a comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment and individual clinical evaluation. This should include both patient and treatment-related factors. Further clinical trials especially on early detection, cardioprevention, and management are urgently needed.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1495-1503, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1504-1524, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621569

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) imaging is an important tool in baseline risk assessment and detection of CV disease in oncology patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer therapies. This position statement examines the role of echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, nuclear cardiac imaging and computed tomography in the management of cancer patients. The Imaging and Cardio-Oncology Study Groups of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and the Cardio-Oncology Council of the ESC have evaluated the current evidence for the value of modern CV imaging in the cardio-oncology field. The most relevant echocardiographic parameters, including global longitudinal strain and three-dimensional ejection fraction, are proposed. The protocol for baseline pre-treatment evaluation and specific surveillance algorithms or pathways for anthracycline chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, BCr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors are presented. The indications for CV imaging after completion of oncology treatment are considered. The typical consequences of radiation therapy and the possibility of their identification in the long term are also summarized. Special populations are discussed including female survivors planning pregnancy, patients with carcinoid disease, patients with cardiac tumours and patients with right heart failure. Future directions and ongoing CV imaging research in cardio-oncology are discussed.

10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1820-1834, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683451

RESUMO

In western countries, cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in the ageing population. Recent epidemiological data suggest that cancer is more frequent in patients with prevalent or incident CV disease, in particular, heart failure (HF). Indeed, there is a tight link in terms of shared risk factors and mechanisms between HF and cancer. HF induced by anticancer therapies has been extensively studied, primarily focusing on the toxic effects that anti-tumour treatments exert on cardiomyocytes. In this Cardio-Oncology update, members of the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart discuss novel evidence interconnecting cardiac dysfunction and cancer via pathways in which cardiomyocytes may be involved but are not central. In particular, the multiple roles of cardiac stromal cells (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells are highlighted. Also, the gut microbiota is depicted as a new player at the crossroads between HF and cancer. Finally, the role of non-coding RNAs in Cardio-Oncology is also addressed. All these insights are expected to fuel additional research efforts in the field of Cardio-Oncology.

11.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 13(3): 431-450, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642841

RESUMO

In the field of cardio-oncology, it is well recognised that despite the benefits of chemotherapy in treating and possibly curing cancer, it can cause catastrophic damage to bystander tissues resulting in a range of potentially of life-threatening cardiovascular toxicities, and leading to a number of damaging side effects including heart failure and myocardial infarction. Cardiotoxicity is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the long-term in oncology patients, specifically due to left ventricular dysfunction. There is increasing emphasis on the early use of biomarkers in order to detect the cardiotoxicity at a stage before it becomes irreversible. The most important markers of cardiac injury are cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptides, whilst markers of inflammation such as interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, Galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15 are under investigation for their use in detecting cardiotoxicity early. In addition, microRNAs, genome-wide association studies and proteomics are being studied as novel markers of cardiovascular injury or inflammation. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the evidence base behind the use of these biomarkers for the detection of cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Cardiologia , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Oncologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiotoxicidade , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis. Changes in posture during acute reactions can trigger fatal outcomes, but the impact of allergic reactions on the cardiovascular system in nonfatal reactions remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically evaluate changes in cardiovascular function during acute allergic reactions to peanut. METHODS: Participants underwent double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to peanut as part of a clinical trial. Changes in hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, stroke volume, blood pressure, and peripheral blood flow) and electrocardiogram findings during food challenges were assessed using noninvasive continuous monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 57 adults (median age 24 years [interquartile range = 20-29]), 53% of whom were female, participated; 22 (39%) had anaphylaxis. Acute reactions were associated with significant changes in stroke volume (mean decrease of 4.2% [95% CI = 0.8-7.6; P = .03]), heart rate (mean increase 11.6% [95% CI = 8.4-14.8; P < .0001]), and peripheral blood flow (mean increase 19.7% [95% CI = 10.8-28.6; P < .0001]), irrespective of reaction severity. These changes were reproduced at a subsequent repeat peanut challenge in 26 participants, and could be reversed with administration of intravenous fluids which resulted in faster resolution of abdominal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In this first detailed human study of cardiovascular changes during food-induced allergic reactions, we found evidence for significant fluid redistribution, independent of reaction severity. This provides a sound rationale for optimizing venous return during significant allergic reactions to food. Finally, these data provide a new paradigm for understanding severity in anaphylaxis, in which poor outcomes may occur as a result of a failure in compensatory mechanisms.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 317: 167-173, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. However, the real-world CVD burden of adult cancer patients has not been well established. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and mortality of pre-existing and new-onset CVD in patients with cancers. METHODS: We analysed the prevalence and mortality of pre-existing and new-onset CVD in 41,034 adult patients with ten common solid cancers in a single payer system using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2002 to 2013. RESULTS: When all types of cancer were included, 11.3% (n = 4647) of patients had pre-existing CVD when they were diagnosed with cancer. After excluding patients with pre-existing CVD, 15.7% of cancer patients (n = 5703) were newly diagnosed with CVD during the follow-up period (median 68 months). Both pre-existing and new-onset CVD were associated with increased risk of overall mortality and 5-year mortality. Multivariate analysis to predict all-cause mortality indicated both pre-existing and new-onset CVD, male sex, old age, prior history of diabetes or chronic kidney disease, suburban residential area, and low-income status as significant factors. CONCLUSIONS: Eleven percent of cancer patients had pre-existing CVD at the time of cancer diagnosis, and about 16% of cancer patients without pre-existing CVD were newly diagnosed with CVD, mostly within 5 years after the cancer diagnosis. Proper management of pre-existing CVD is necessary and pre-emptive prevention of new-onset CVD may alter treatment options and outcomes.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463967

RESUMO

This position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Cardio-Oncology Study Group in collaboration with the International Cardio-Oncology Society presents practical, easy-to-use and evidence-based risk stratification tools for oncologists, haemato-oncologists and cardiologists to use in their clinical practice to risk stratify oncology patients prior to receiving cancer therapies known to cause heart failure or other serious cardiovascular toxicities. Baseline risk stratification proformas are presented for oncology patients prior to receiving the following cancer therapies: anthracycline chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, second and third generation multi-targeted kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukaemia targeting BCR-ABL, multiple myeloma therapies (proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs), RAF and MEK inhibitors or androgen deprivation therapies. Applying these risk stratification proformas will allow clinicians to stratify cancer patients into low, medium, high and very high risk of cardiovascular complications prior to starting treatment, with the aim of improving personalised approaches to minimise the risk of cardiovascular toxicity from cancer therapies.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(8): 1315-1341, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469155

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex multifactorial clinical syndrome with extremely high mortality, developing as a continuum, and progressing from the initial insult (underlying cause) to the subsequent occurrence of organ failure and death. There is a large spectrum of CS presentations resulting from the interaction between an acute cardiac insult and a patient's underlying cardiac and overall medical condition. Phenotyping patients with CS may have clinical impact on management because classification would support initiation of appropriate therapies. CS management should consider appropriate organization of the health care services, and therapies must be given to the appropriately selected patients, in a timely manner, whilst avoiding iatrogenic harm. Although several consensus-driven algorithms have been proposed, CS management remains challenging and substantial investments in research and development have not yielded proof of efficacy and safety for most of the therapies tested, and outcome in this condition remains poor. Future studies should consider the identification of the new pathophysiological targets, and high-quality translational research should facilitate incorporation of more targeted interventions in clinical research protocols, aimed to improve individual patient outcomes. Designing outcome clinical trials in CS remains particularly challenging in this critical and very costly scenario in cardiology, but information from these trials is imperiously needed to better inform the guidelines and clinical practice. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the definition, epidemiology, underlying causes, pathophysiology and management of CS based on important lessons from clinical trials and registries, with a focus on improving in-hospital management.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 41(18): 1733-1743, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112560

RESUMO

AIMS: Myocarditis is a potentially fatal complication of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Sparse data exist on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in ICI-associated myocarditis. In this study, the CMR characteristics and the association between CMR features and cardiovascular events among patients with ICI-associated myocarditis are presented. METHODS AND RESULTS: From an international registry of patients with ICI-associated myocarditis, clinical, CMR, and histopathological findings were collected. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were a composite of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and complete heart block. In 103 patients diagnosed with ICI-associated myocarditis who had a CMR, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50%, and 61% of patients had an LVEF ≥50%. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 48% overall, 55% of the reduced EF, and 43% of the preserved EF cohort. Elevated T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (STIR) was present in 28% overall, 30% of the reduced EF, and 26% of the preserved EF cohort. The presence of LGE increased from 21.6%, when CMR was performed within 4 days of admission to 72.0% when CMR was performed on Day 4 of admission or later. Fifty-six patients had cardiac pathology. Late gadolinium enhancement was present in 35% of patients with pathological fibrosis and elevated T2-weighted STIR signal was present in 26% with a lymphocytic infiltration. Forty-one patients (40%) had MACE over a follow-up time of 5 months. The presence of LGE, LGE pattern, or elevated T2-weighted STIR were not associated with MACE. CONCLUSION: These data suggest caution in reliance on LGE or a qualitative T2-STIR-only approach for the exclusion of ICI-associated myocarditis.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(5): 467-478, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved methods for detection and risk stratification of myocarditis associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a sensitive marker of cardiac toxicity among patients receiving standard chemotherapy. There are no data on the use of GLS in ICI myocarditis. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the role of GLS and assess its association with cardiac events among patients with ICI myocarditis. METHODS: This study retrospectively compared echocardiographic GLS by speckle tracking at presentation with ICI myocarditis (cases, n = 101) to that from patients receiving an ICI who did not develop myocarditis (control subjects, n = 92). Where available, GLS was also measured pre-ICI in both groups. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as a composite of cardiogenic shock, arrest, complete heart block, and cardiac death. RESULTS: Cases and control subjects were similar in age, sex, and cancer type. At presentation with myocarditis, 61 cases (60%) had a normal ejection fraction (EF). Pre-ICI, GLS was similar between cases and control subjects (20.3 ± 2.6% vs. 20.6 ± 2.0%; p = 0.60). There was no change in GLS among control subjects on an ICI without myocarditis (pre-ICI vs. on ICI, 20.6 ± 2.0% vs. 20.5 ± 1.9%; p = 0.41); in contrast, among cases, GLS decreased to 14.1 ± 2.8% (p < 0.001). The GLS at presentation with myocarditis was lower among cases presenting with either a reduced (12.3 ± 2.7%) or preserved EF (15.3 ± 2.0%; p < 0.001). Over a median follow-up of 162 days, 51 (51%) experienced MACE. The risk of MACE was higher with a lower GLS among patients with either a reduced or preserved EF. After adjustment for EF, each percent reduction in GLS was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in MACE among patients with a reduced EF (hazard ratio: 1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 1.8) and a 4.4-fold increase with a preserved EF (hazard ratio: 4.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.4 to 7.8). CONCLUSIONS: GLS decreases with ICI myocarditis and, compared with control subjects, was lower among cases presenting with either a preserved or reduced EF. Lower GLS was strongly associated with MACE in ICI myocarditis presenting with either a preserved or reduced EF.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Miocardite/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(18): 1720-1729, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016393

RESUMO

AIM: Cardiotoxicity (CTox) is a major side effect of cancer therapies, but uniform diagnostic criteria to guide clinical and research practices are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 865 patients, aged 54.7 ± 13.9; 16.3% men, scheduled for anticancer therapy related with moderate/high CTox risk. Four groups of progressive myocardial damage/dysfunction were considered according to current guidelines: normal, normal biomarkers (high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal natriuretic pro-peptide), and left ventricular (LV) function; mild, abnormal biomarkers, and/or LV dysfunction (LVD) maintaining an LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%; moderate, LVD with LVEF 40-49%; and severe, LVD with LVEF ≤40% or symptomatic heart failure. Cardiotoxicity was defined as new or worsening of myocardial damage/ventricular function from baseline during follow-up. Patients were followed for a median of 24 months. Cardiotoxicity was identified in 37.5% patients during follow-up [95% confidence interval (CI) 34.22-40.8%], 31.6% with mild, 2.8% moderate, and 3.1% with severe myocardial damage/dysfunction. The mortality rate in the severe CTox group was 22.9 deaths per 100 patients-year vs. 2.3 deaths per 100 patients-year in the rest of groups, hazard ratio of 10.2 (95% CI 5.5-19.2) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients present objective data of myocardial injury/dysfunction during or after cancer therapy. Nevertheless, severe CTox, with a strong prognostic relationship, was comparatively rare. This should be reflected in protocols for clinical and research practices.

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