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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
2.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497358

RESUMO

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is the most frequent developmental anomaly of the enteric nervous system with an incidence of 1/5000 live births. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is less frequent and classified as neurogenic or myogenic. Isolated HSCR has an oligogenic inheritance with RET as the major disease-causing gene, while CIPO is genetically heterogeneous, caused by mutations in smooth muscle-specific genes. Here, we describe a series of patients with developmental disorders including gastrointestinal dysmotility, and investigate the underlying molecular bases. Trio-exome sequencing led to the identification of biallelic variants in ERBB3 and ERBB2 in eight individuals variably associating HSCR, CIPO, peripheral neuropathy and arthrogryposis. Thorough gut histology revealed aganglionosis, hypoganglionosis and intestinal smooth muscle abnormalities. The cell-type-specific ErbB3 and ErbB2 function was further analysed in mouse single-cell RNA sequencing data and in a conditional ErbB3-deficient mouse model, revealing a primary role for ERBB3 in enteric progenitors. The consequences of the identified variants were evaluated using RT-qPCR on patient-derived fibroblasts or immunoblot assays on Neuro-2a cells overexpressing either wild-type or mutant proteins, revealing either decreased expression or altered phosphorylation of the mutant receptors. Our results demonstrate that dysregulation of ERBB3 or ERBB2 leads to a broad spectrum of developmental anomalies including intestinal dysmotility.

3.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(11): 104033, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781272

RESUMO

We describe two sporadic and two familial cases with loss-of-function variants in PRPS1, which is located on the X chromosome and encodes phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRS-1). We illustrate the clinical variability associated with decreased PRS-1 activity, ranging from mild isolated hearing loss to severe encephalopathy. One of the variants we identified has already been reported with a phenotype similar to our patient's, whereas the other three were unknown. The clinical and biochemical information we provide will hopefully contribute to gain insight into the correlation between genotype and phenotype of this rare condition, both in females and in males. Moreover, our observation of a new family in which hemizygous males display hearing loss without any neurological or ophthalmological symptoms prompts us to suggest analysing PRPS1 in cases of isolated hearing loss. Eventually, PRPS1 variants should be considered as a differential diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 136, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioral problems are an important issue for people with CHARGE syndrome. The similarity of their behavioral traits with those of people with autism raises questions. In a large national cross-sectional study, we used specific standardized tools for diagnosing autism (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, DSM-5) and evaluating behavioral disorders (Developmental Behavior Checklist-Parents, DBC-P) to investigate a series of individuals with CHARGE syndrome, defined by Verloes's criteria. We evaluated their adaptive functioning level and sensory particularities and extracted several data items from medical files to assess as potential risk factors for autism and/or behavioral disorders. RESULTS: We investigated 64 individuals with CHARGE syndrome (35 females; mean age 10.7 years, SD 7.1 years). Among 46 participants with complete results for the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), 13 (28%) had a diagnosis of autism according to the ADI-R, and 25 (54%) had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to the DSM-5 criteria. The frequency of autistic traits in the entire group was a continuum. We did not identify any risk factor for ASD but found a negative correlation between the ADI-R score and adaptive functioning level. Among 48 participants with data for the DBC-P, 26 (55%) had behavioral disorders, which were more frequent in patients with radiological brain anomalies, impaired adaptive functioning, later independent walking, and more sensory particularities. CONCLUSIONS: ASD should be considered to be an independent risk requiring early screening and management in children born with CHARGE syndrome.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(6): 807-819, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572726

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by the occurrence of three copies of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). HSA21 contains a cluster of four interferon receptor (IFN-R) genes: IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR2, and IL10RB. DS patients often develop mucocutaneous infections and autoimmune diseases, mimicking patients with heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, which enhance cellular responses to three types of interferon (IFN). A gene dosage effect at these four loci may contribute to the infectious and autoimmune manifestations observed in individuals with DS. We report high levels of IFN-αR1, IFN-αR2, and IFN-γR2 expression on the surface of monocytes and EBV-transformed-B (EBV-B) cells from studying 45 DS patients. Total and phosphorylated STAT1 (STAT1 and pSTAT1) levels were constitutively high in unstimulated and IFN-α- and IFN-γ-stimulated monocytes from DS patients but lower than those in patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Following stimulation with IFN-α or -γ, but not with IL-6 or IL-21, pSTAT1 and IFN-γ activation factor (GAF) DNA-binding activities were significantly higher in the EBV-B cells of DS patients than in controls. These responses resemble the dysregulated responses observed in patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. Concentrations of plasma type I IFNs were high in 12% of the DS patients tested (1.8% in the healthy controls). Levels of type I IFNs, IFN-Rs, and STAT1 were similar in DS patients with and without recurrent skin infections. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis based on principal component analysis and interferon modules on circulating monocytes. We found that DS monocytes had levels of both IFN-α- and IFN-γ-inducible ISGs intermediate to those of monocytes from healthy controls and from patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Unlike patients with GOF STAT1 mutations, patients with DS had normal circulating Th17 counts and a high proportion of terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells with low levels of STAT1 expression. We conclude a mild interferonopathy in Down syndrome leads to an incomplete penetrance at both cellular and clinical level, which is not correlate with recurrent skin bacterial or fungal infections. The constitutive upregulation of type I and type II IFN-R, at least in monocytes of DS patients, may contribute to the autoimmune diseases observed in these individuals.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 779-792, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413283

RESUMO

The evolutionarily conserved hedgehog (Hh) pathway is essential for organogenesis and plays critical roles in postnatal tissue maintenance and renewal. A unique feature of the vertebrate Hh pathway is that signal transduction requires the primary cilium (PC) where major pathway components are dynamically enriched. These factors include smoothened (SMO) and patched, which constitute the core reception system for sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as GLI transcription factors, the key mediators of the pathway. Here, we report bi-allelic loss-of-function variations in SMO in seven individuals from five independent families; these variations cause a wide phenotypic spectrum of developmental anomalies affecting the brain (hypothalamic hamartoma and microcephaly), heart (atrioventricular septal defect), skeleton (postaxial polydactyly, narrow chest, and shortening of long bones), and enteric nervous system (aganglionosis). Cells derived from affected individuals showed normal ciliogenesis but severely altered Hh-signal transduction as a result of either altered PC trafficking or abnormal activation of the pathway downstream of SMO. In addition, Hh-independent GLI2 accumulation at the PC tip in cells from the affected individuals suggests a potential function of SMO in regulating basal ciliary trafficking of GLI2 when the pathway is off. Thus, loss of SMO function results in abnormal PC dynamics of key components of the Hh signaling pathway and leads to a large continuum of malformations in humans.


Assuntos
Alelos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor Smoothened/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cílios/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Proteínas Nucleares , Linhagem , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco
7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 94, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299466

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rare diseases affect approximately 350 million people worldwide. Delayed diagnosis is frequent due to lack of knowledge of most clinicians and a small number of expert centers. Consequently, computerized diagnosis support systems have been developed to address these issues, with many relying on rare disease expertise and taking advantage of the increasing volume of generated and accessible health-related data. Our objective is to perform a review of all initiatives aiming to support the diagnosis of rare diseases. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted based on methods proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. A charting form for relevant study analysis was developed and used to categorize data. RESULTS: Sixty-eight studies were retained at the end of the charting process. Diagnosis targets varied from 1 rare disease to all rare diseases. Material used for diagnosis support consisted mostly of phenotype concepts, images or fluids. Fifty-seven percent of the studies used expert knowledge. Two-thirds of the studies relied on machine learning algorithms, and one-third used simple similarities. Manual algorithms were encountered as well. Most of the studies presented satisfying performance of evaluation by comparison with references or with external validation. Fourteen studies provided online tools, most of which aimed to support the diagnosis of all rare diseases by considering queries based on phenotype concepts. CONCLUSION: Numerous solutions relying on different materials and use of various methodologies are emerging with satisfying preliminary results. However, the variability of approaches and evaluation processes complicates the comparison of results. Efforts should be made to adequately validate these tools and guarantee reproducibility and explicability.

8.
J Med Genet ; 57(7): 466-474, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Marfanoid habitus (MH) combined with intellectual disability (ID) (MHID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous presentation. The combination of array CGH and targeted sequencing of genes responsible for Marfan or Lujan-Fryns syndrome explain no more than 20% of subjects. METHODS: To further decipher the genetic basis of MHID, we performed exome sequencing on a combination of trio-based (33 subjects) or single probands (31 subjects), of which 61 were sporadic. RESULTS: We identified eight genes with de novo variants (DNVs) in at least two unrelated individuals (ARID1B, ATP1A1, DLG4, EHMT1, NFIX, NSD1, NUP205 and ZEB2). Using simulation models, we showed that five genes (DLG4, NFIX, EHMT1, ZEB2 and ATP1A1) met conservative Bonferroni genomewide significance for an excess of the observed de novo point variants. Overall, at least one pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant was identified in 54.7% of subjects (35/64). These variants fell within 27 genes previously associated with Mendelian disorders, including NSD1 and NFIX, which are known to be mutated in overgrowth syndromes. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that DNVs were enriched in chromatin remodelling (p=2×10-4) and genes regulated by the fragile X mental retardation protein (p=3×10-8), highlighting overlapping genetic mechanisms between MHID and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(3): e1114, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) include copy number variants (CNVs) and apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements (ABCRs). Genome sequencing (GS) enables SV detection at base-pair resolution, but the use of short-read sequencing is limited by repetitive sequences, and long-read approaches are not yet validated for diagnosis. Recently, 10X Genomics proposed Chromium, a technology providing linked-reads to reconstruct long DNA fragments and which could represent a good alternative. No study has compared short-read to linked-read technologies to detect SVs in a constitutional diagnostic setting yet. The aim of this work was to determine whether the 10X Genomics technology enables better detection and comprehension of SVs than short-read WGS. METHODS: We included 13 patients carrying various SVs. Whole genome analyses were performed using paired-end HiSeq X sequencing with (linked-read strategy) or without (short-read strategy) Chromium library preparation. Two different bioinformatic pipelines were used: Variants are called using BreakDancer for short-read strategy and LongRanger for long-read strategy. Variant interpretations were first blinded. RESULTS: The short-read strategy allowed diagnosis of known SV in 10/13 patients. After unblinding, the linked-read strategy identified 10/13 SVs, including one (patient 7) missed by the short-read strategy. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, regarding the results of this study, 10X Genomics solution did not improve the detection and characterization of SV.

11.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 181-188, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Face/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Doenças Vestibulares/complicações , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Doenças Vestibulares/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Med Genet ; 57(2): 138-144, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) with developmental delay and seizures are a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases caused by at least 700 different genes. Still, a number of cases remain genetically undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and characterise pathogenic variants in two individuals from unrelated families, both of whom presented a similar clinical phenotype that included an ASD, intellectual disability (ID) and seizures. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify pathogenic variants in the two individuals. Functional studies performed in the Drosophila melanogaster model was used to assess the protein function in vivo. RESULTS: Probands shared a heterozygous de novo secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP5) variant (NM_001178111.1:c.538G>T) resulting in a p.Gly180Trp missense variant. SCAMP5 belongs to a family of tetraspanin membrane proteins found in secretory and endocytic compartments of neuronal synapses. In the fly SCAMP orthologue, the p.Gly302Trp genotype corresponds to human p.Gly180Trp. Western blot analysis of proteins overexpressed in the Drosophila fat body showed strongly reduced levels of the SCAMP p.Gly302Trp protein compared with the wild-type protein, indicating that the mutant either reduced expression or increased turnover of the protein. The expression of the fly homologue of the human SCAMP5 p.Gly180Trp mutation caused similar eye and neuronal phenotypes as the expression of SCAMP RNAi, suggesting a dominant-negative effect. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies SCAMP5 deficiency as a cause for ASD and ID and underscores the importance of synaptic vesicular trafficking in neurodevelopmental disorders.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(1): 29-37, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654484

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the association of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), terminal transverse limb defect (TTLD), congenital cardiac malformation (CCM), and minor features, such as cutaneous, neurological, and hepatic abnormalities (HAs). The aim of the study is to emphasize phenotype-genotype correlations in AOS. METHODS: We studied 29 AOS patients. We recorded retrospectively detailed phenotype data, including clinical examination, biological analyses, and imaging. The molecular analysis was performed through whole exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (100%) presented with ACC, the principal inclusion criteria in the study. Seventeen of twenty-one (81%) had cutis marmorata telangiectasia congenita, 16/26 (62%) had TTLD, 14/23 (61%) had CCM, 7/20 (35%) had HAs, and 9/27 (33%) had neurological findings. WES was performed in 25 patients. Fourteen of twenty-five (56%) had alterations in the genes already described in AOS. CCM and HAs are particularly associated with the NOTCH1 genotype. TTLD is present in patients with DOCK6 and EOGT alterations. Neurological findings of variable degree were associated sometimes with DOCK6 and NOTCH1 rarely with EOGT. CONCLUSION: AOS is characterized by a clinical and molecular variability. It appears that degrees of genotype-phenotype correlations exist for patients with identified pathogenic mutations, underlining the need to undertake a systematic but adjusted multidisciplinary assessment.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(3): 446-453, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876365

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS, KS1: OMIM 147920 and KS2: OMIM 300867) is caused by pathogenic variations in KMT2D or KDM6A. KS is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Growth restriction is frequently reported. Here we aimed to create specific growth charts for individuals with KS1, identify parameters used for size prognosis and investigate the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height. Growth parameters and parental size were obtained for 95 KS1 individuals (41 females). Growth charts for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and occipitofrontal circumference were generated in standard deviation values for the first time in KS1. Statural growth of KS1 individuals was compared to parental target size. According to the charts, height, weight, BMI, and occipitofrontal circumference were lower for KS1 individuals than the normative French population. For males and females, the mean growth of KS1 individuals was -2 and -1.8 SD of their parental target size, respectively. Growth hormone therapy did not increase size beyond the predicted size. This study, from the largest cohort available, proposes growth charts for widespread use in the management of KS1, especially for size prognosis and screening of other diseases responsible for growth impairment beyond a calculated specific target size.

16.
J Biomed Inform ; 100: 103308, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622800

RESUMO

Rare diseases are often hard and long to be diagnosed precisely, and most of them lack approved treatment. For some complex rare diseases, precision medicine approach is further required to stratify patients into homogeneous subgroups based on the clinical, biological or molecular features. In such situation, deep phenotyping of these patients and comparing their profiles based on subjacent similarities are thus essential to help fast and precise diagnoses and better understanding of pathophysiological processes in order to develop therapeutic solutions. In this article, we developed a new pipeline of using deep phenotyping to define patient similarity and applied it to ciliopathies, a group of rare and severe diseases caused by ciliary dysfunction. As a French national reference center for rare and undiagnosed diseases, the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital (Necker Children's Hospital) hosts the Imagine Institute, a research institute focusing on genetic diseases. The clinical data warehouse contains on one hand EHR data, and on the other hand, clinical research data. The similarity metrics were computed on both data sources, and were evaluated with two tasks: diagnoses with EHRs and subtyping with ciliopathy specific research data. We obtained a precision of 0.767 in the top 30 most similar patients with diagnosed ciliopathies. Subtyping ciliopathy patients with phenotypic similarity showed concordances with expert knowledge. Similarity metrics applied to rare disease offer new perspectives in a translational context that may help to recruit patients for research, reduce the length of the diagnostic journey, and better understand the mechanisms of the disease.


Assuntos
Ciliopatias/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Ciliopatias/classificação , Data Warehousing , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Raras/classificação
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(22): 3805-3814, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600779

RESUMO

We report for the first time an autosomal recessive inborn error of de novo purine synthesis (DNPS)-PAICS deficiency. We investigated two siblings from the Faroe Islands born with multiple malformations resulting in early neonatal death. Genetic analysis of affected individuals revealed a homozygous missense mutation in PAICS (c.158A>G; p.Lys53Arg) that affects the structure of the catalytic site of the bifunctional enzyme phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase (AIRC, EC 4.1.1.21)/phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase (SAICARS, EC 6.3.2.6) (PAICS). The mutation reduced the catalytic activity of PAICS in heterozygous carrier and patient skin fibroblasts to approximately 50 and 10% of control levels, respectively. The catalytic activity of the corresponding recombinant enzyme protein carrying the mutation p.Lys53Arg expressed and purified from E. coli was reduced to approximately 25% of the wild-type enzyme. Similar to other two known DNPS defects-adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency and AICA-ribosiduria-the PAICS mutation prevented purinosome formation in the patient's skin fibroblasts, and this phenotype was corrected by transfection with the wild-type but not the mutated PAICS. Although aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) and aminoimidazole riboside (AIr), the enzyme substrates that are predicted to accumulate in PAICS deficiency, were not detected in patient's fibroblasts, the cytotoxic effect of AIr on various cell lines was demonstrated. PAICS deficiency is a newly described disease that enhances our understanding of the DNPS pathway and should be considered in the diagnosis of families with recurrent spontaneous abortion or early neonatal death.


Assuntos
Carboxiliases/genética , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Purinas/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adenilossuccinato Liase/deficiência , Transtorno Autístico , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Dinamarca , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Morte Perinatal , Fenótipo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina , Purinas/biossíntese
18.
Front Genet ; 10: 611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417602

RESUMO

The clinical utility of computational phenotyping for both genetic and rare diseases is increasingly appreciated; however, its true potential is yet to be fully realized. Alongside the growing clinical and research availability of sequencing technologies, precise deep and scalable phenotyping is required to serve unmet need in genetic and rare diseases. To improve the lives of individuals affected with rare diseases through deep phenotyping, global big data interrogation is necessary to aid our understanding of disease biology, assist diagnosis, and develop targeted treatment strategies. This includes the application of cutting-edge machine learning methods to image data. As with most digital tools employed in health care, there are ethical and data governance challenges associated with using identifiable personal image data. There are also risks with failing to deliver on the patient benefits of these new technologies, the biggest of which is posed by data siloing. The Minerva Initiative has been designed to enable the public good of deep phenotyping while mitigating these ethical risks. Its open structure, enabling collaboration and data sharing between individuals, clinicians, researchers and private enterprise, is key for delivering precision public health.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): 2033-2043, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231873

RESUMO

Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is a rare condition mainly caused by mutations in GH1. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of GHRHR mutations to IGHD in an unusually large group of patients. All GHRHR coding exons and flanking intronic regions were sequenced in 312 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic IGHD. Functional consequences of all newly identified missense variants were assessed in vitro (i.e., study of the expression of recombinant GHRHRs and their ability to activate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway). Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses were performed according to the nature of the identified mutation. We identified 20 different disease-causing GHRHR mutations (truncating and missense loss-of-function mutations), among which 15 are novel, in 24 unrelated patients. Of note, about half (13/24) of those patients represent sporadic cases. The clinical phenotype of patients with at least one missense GHRHR mutation was found to be indistinguishable from that of patients with bi-allelic truncating mutations. This study, which unveils disease-causing GHRHR mutations in 8% (24/312) of IGHD cases, identifies GHRHR as the second IGHD gene most frequently involved after GH1. The finding that 8% of IGHD cases without GH1 mutations are explained by GHRHR molecular defects (including missense mutations), together with the high proportion of sporadic cases among those patients, has important implications for genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Nanismo Hipofisário/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Hormônios Reguladores de Hormônio Hipofisário/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , AMP Cíclico , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Nanismo Hipofisário/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genótipo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/química , Receptores de Hormônios Reguladores de Hormônio Hipofisário/química
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