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2.
J Biomed Inform ; 100: 103308, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622800

RESUMO

Rare diseases are often hard and long to be diagnosed precisely, and most of them lack approved treatment. For some complex rare diseases, precision medicine approach is further required to stratify patients into homogeneous subgroups based on the clinical, biological or molecular features. In such situation, deep phenotyping of these patients and comparing their profiles based on subjacent similarities are thus essential to help fast and precise diagnoses and better understanding of pathophysiological processes in order to develop therapeutic solutions. In this article, we developed a new pipeline of using deep phenotyping to define patient similarity and applied it to ciliopathies, a group of rare and severe diseases caused by ciliary dysfunction. As a French national reference center for rare and undiagnosed diseases, the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital (Necker Children's Hospital) hosts the Imagine Institute, a research institute focusing on genetic diseases. The clinical data warehouse contains on one hand EHR data, and on the other hand, clinical research data. The similarity metrics were computed on both data sources, and were evaluated with two tasks: diagnoses with EHRs and subtyping with ciliopathy specific research data. We obtained a precision of 0.767 in the top 30 most similar patients with diagnosed ciliopathies. Subtyping ciliopathy patients with phenotypic similarity showed concordances with expert knowledge. Similarity metrics applied to rare disease offer new perspectives in a translational context that may help to recruit patients for research, reduce the length of the diagnostic journey, and better understand the mechanisms of the disease.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654484

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the association of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), terminal transverse limb defect (TTLD), congenital cardiac malformation (CCM), and minor features, such as cutaneous, neurological, and hepatic abnormalities (HAs). The aim of the study is to emphasize phenotype-genotype correlations in AOS. METHODS: We studied 29 AOS patients. We recorded retrospectively detailed phenotype data, including clinical examination, biological analyses, and imaging. The molecular analysis was performed through whole exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (100%) presented with ACC, the principal inclusion criteria in the study. Seventeen of twenty-one (81%) had cutis marmorata telangiectasia congenita, 16/26 (62%) had TTLD, 14/23 (61%) had CCM, 7/20 (35%) had HAs, and 9/27 (33%) had neurological findings. WES was performed in 25 patients. Fourteen of twenty-five (56%) had alterations in the genes already described in AOS. CCM and HAs are particularly associated with the NOTCH1 genotype. TTLD is present in patients with DOCK6 and EOGT alterations. Neurological findings of variable degree were associated sometimes with DOCK6 and NOTCH1 rarely with EOGT. CONCLUSION: AOS is characterized by a clinical and molecular variability. It appears that degrees of genotype-phenotype correlations exist for patients with identified pathogenic mutations, underlining the need to undertake a systematic but adjusted multidisciplinary assessment.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600779

RESUMO

We report for the first time an autosomal recessive inborn error of de novo purine synthesis (DNPS)-PAICS deficiency. We investigated two siblings from the Faroe Islands born with multiple malformations resulting in early neonatal death. Genetic analysis of affected individuals revealed a homozygous missense mutation in PAICS (c.158A>G; p.Lys53Arg) that affects the structure of the catalytic site of the bifunctional enzyme phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase (AIRC, EC 4.1.1.21)/phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase (SAICARS, EC 6.3.2.6) (PAICS). The mutation reduced the catalytic activity of PAICS in heterozygous carrier's and patient's skin fibroblasts to approximately 50% and 10% of control levels, respectively. The catalytic activity of the corresponding recombinant enzyme protein carrying the mutation p.Lys53Arg expressed and purified from E.coli was reduced to approximately 25% of the wild type enzyme. Similar to other two known DNPS defects-adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency and AICA-ribosiduria, the PAICS mutation prevented purinosome formation in the patient's skin fibroblasts, and this phenotype was corrected by transfection with the wild-type but not the mutated PAICS. Although aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) and aminoimidazole riboside (AIr), the enzyme substrates that are predicted to accumulate in PAICS deficiency, were not detected in patient's fibroblasts, the cytotoxic effect of AIr on various cell lines was demonstrated. PAICS deficiency is a newly described disease that enhances our understanding of the DNPS pathway and should be considered in the diagnosis of families with recurrent spontaneous abortion or early neonatal death.

5.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) with developmental delay and seizures are a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases caused by at least 700 different genes. Still, a number of cases remain genetically undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and characterise pathogenic variants in two individuals from unrelated families, both of whom presented a similar clinical phenotype that included an ASD, intellectual disability (ID) and seizures. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify pathogenic variants in the two individuals. Functional studies performed in the Drosophila melanogaster model was used to assess the protein function in vivo. RESULTS: Probands shared a heterozygous de novo secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP5) variant (NM_001178111.1:c.538G>T) resulting in a p.Gly180Trp missense variant. SCAMP5 belongs to a family of tetraspanin membrane proteins found in secretory and endocytic compartments of neuronal synapses. In the fly SCAMP orthologue, the p.Gly302Trp genotype corresponds to human p.Gly180Trp. Western blot analysis of proteins overexpressed in the Drosophila fat body showed strongly reduced levels of the SCAMP p.Gly302Trp protein compared with the wild-type protein, indicating that the mutant either reduced expression or increased turnover of the protein. The expression of the fly homologue of the human SCAMP5 p.Gly180Trp mutation caused similar eye and neuronal phenotypes as the expression of SCAMP RNAi, suggesting a dominant-negative effect. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies SCAMP5 deficiency as a cause for ASD and ID and underscores the importance of synaptic vesicular trafficking in neurodevelopmental disorders.

6.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): 2033-2043, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231873

RESUMO

Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is a rare condition mainly caused by mutations in GH1. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of GHRHR mutations to IGHD in an unusually large group of patients. All GHRHR coding exons and flanking intronic regions were sequenced in 312 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic IGHD. Functional consequences of all newly identified missense variants were assessed in vitro (i.e., study of the expression of recombinant GHRHRs and their ability to activate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway). Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses were performed according to the nature of the identified mutation. We identified 20 different disease-causing GHRHR mutations (truncating and missense loss-of-function mutations), among which 15 are novel, in 24 unrelated patients. Of note, about half (13/24) of those patients represent sporadic cases. The clinical phenotype of patients with at least one missense GHRHR mutation was found to be indistinguishable from that of patients with bi-allelic truncating mutations. This study, which unveils disease-causing GHRHR mutations in 8% (24/312) of IGHD cases, identifies GHRHR as the second IGHD gene most frequently involved after GH1. The finding that 8% of IGHD cases without GH1 mutations are explained by GHRHR molecular defects (including missense mutations), together with the high proportion of sporadic cases among those patients, has important implications for genetic counseling.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1180, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862798

RESUMO

A failure in optic fissure fusion during development can lead to blinding malformations of the eye. Here, we report a syndrome characterized by facial dysmorphism, colobomatous microphthalmia, ptosis and syndactyly with or without nephropathy, associated with homozygous frameshift mutations in FAT1. We show that Fat1 knockout mice and zebrafish embryos homozygous for truncating fat1a mutations exhibit completely penetrant coloboma, recapitulating the most consistent developmental defect observed in affected individuals. In human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary site for the fusion of optic fissure margins, FAT1 is localized at earliest cell-cell junctions, consistent with a role in facilitating optic fissure fusion during vertebrate eye development. Our findings establish FAT1 as a gene with pleiotropic effects in human, in that frameshift mutations cause a severe multi-system disorder whereas recessive missense mutations had been previously associated with isolated glomerulotubular nephropathy.


Assuntos
Blefaroptose/genética , Caderinas/genética , Coloboma/genética , Nefropatias/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Organogênese/genética , Sindactilia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Embrião de Mamíferos , Olho/embriologia , Ossos Faciais/anormalidades , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Junções Intercelulares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Cultura Primária de Células , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
10.
Neuroimage Clin ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497982

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare congenital disorder (1/32000 births) characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, short stature, and dermatoglyphic and skeletal abnormalities. In the last decade, mutations in KMT2D and KDM6A were identified as a major cause of kabuki syndrome. Although genetic abnormalities have been highlighted in KS, brain abnormalities have been little explored. Here, we have investigated brain abnormalities in 6 patients with KS (4 males; Mage = 10.96 years, SD = 2.97 years) with KMT2D mutation in comparison with 26 healthy controls (17 males; Mage = 10.31 years, SD = 2.96 years). We have used MRI to explore anatomical and functional brain abnormalities in patients with KS. Anatomical abnormalities in grey matter volume were assessed by cortical and subcortical analyses. Functional abnormalities were assessed by comparing rest cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling-MRI. When compared to healthy controls, KS patients had anatomical alterations characterized by grey matter decrease localized in the bilateral precentral gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, KS patients also presented functional alterations characterized by cerebral blood flow decrease in the left precentral gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, subcortical analyses revealed significantly decreased grey matter volume in the bilateral hippocampus and dentate gyrus in patients with KS. Our results strongly indicate anatomical and functional brain abnormalities in KS. They suggest a possible neural basis of the cognitive symptoms observed in KS, such as fine motor impairment, and indicate the need to further explore the consequences of such brain abnormalities in this disorder. Finally, our results encourage further imaging-genetics studies investigating the link between genetics, anatomical and functional brain alterations in KS.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1611-1622, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006632

RESUMO

Acrodysostosis (MIM 101800) is a dominantly inherited condition associating (1) skeletal features (short stature, facial dysostosis, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses), (2) resistance to hormones and (3) possible intellectual disability. Acroscyphodysplasia (MIM 250215) is characterized by growth retardation, brachydactyly, and knee epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped metaphyses. We and others have identified PDE4D or PRKAR1A variants in acrodysostosis; PDE4D variants have been reported in three cases of acroscyphodysplasia. Our study aimed at reviewing the clinical and molecular findings in a cohort of 27 acrodysostosis and 5 acroscyphodysplasia cases. Among the acrodysostosis cases, we identified 9 heterozygous de novo PRKAR1A variants and 11 heterozygous PDE4D variants. The 7 patients without variants presented with symptoms of acrodysostosis (brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses), but none had the characteristic facial dysostosis. In the acroscyphodysplasia cases, we identified 2 PDE4D variants. For 2 of the 3 negative cases, medical records revealed early severe infection, which has been described in some reports of acroscyphodysplasia. Subdividing our series of acrodysostosis based on the disease-causing gene, we confirmed genotype-phenotype correlations. Hormone resistance was consistently observed in patients carrying PRKAR1A variants, whereas no hormone resistance was observed in 9 patients with PDE4D variants. All patients with PDE4D variants shared characteristic facial features (midface hypoplasia with nasal hypoplasia) and some degree of intellectual disability. Our findings of PDE4D variants in two cases of acroscyphodysplasia support that PDE4D may be responsible for this severe skeletal dysplasia. We eventually emphasize the importance of some specific assessments in the long-term follow up, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.

13.
Nature ; 558(7711): 540-546, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899452

RESUMO

CLOVES syndrome (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal naevi, scoliosis/skeletal and spinal syndrome) is a genetic disorder that results from somatic, mosaic gain-of-function mutations of the PIK3CA gene, and belongs to the spectrum of PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndromes (PROS). This rare condition has no specific treatment and a poor survival rate. Here, we describe a postnatal mouse model of PROS/CLOVES that partially recapitulates the human disease, and demonstrate the efficacy of BYL719, an inhibitor of PIK3CA, in preventing and improving organ dysfunction. On the basis of these results, we used BYL719 to treat nineteen patients with PROS. The drug improved the disease symptoms in all patients. Previously intractable vascular tumours became smaller, congestive heart failure was improved, hemihypertrophy was reduced, and scoliosis was attenuated. The treatment was not associated with any substantial side effects. In conclusion, this study provides the first direct evidence supporting PIK3CA inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy in patients with PROS.

14.
Brain ; 141(7): 1998-2013, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878067

RESUMO

Cerebellar atrophy is a key neuroradiological finding usually associated with cerebellar ataxia and cognitive development defect in children. Unlike the adult forms, early onset cerebellar atrophies are classically described as mostly autosomal recessive conditions and the exact contribution of de novo mutations to this phenotype has not been assessed. In contrast, recent studies pinpoint the high prevalence of pathogenic de novo mutations in other developmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. Here, we investigated a cohort of 47 patients with early onset cerebellar atrophy and/or hypoplasia using a custom gene panel as well as whole exome sequencing. De novo mutations were identified in 35% of patients while 27% had mutations inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Understanding if these de novo events act through a loss or a gain of function effect is critical for treatment considerations. To gain a better insight into the disease mechanisms causing these cerebellar defects, we focused on CACNA1G, a gene not yet associated with the early-onset form. This gene encodes the Cav3.1 subunit of T-type calcium channels highly expressed in Purkinje neurons and deep cerebellar nuclei. We identified four patients with de novo CACNA1G mutations. They all display severe motor and cognitive impairment, cerebellar atrophy as well as variable features such as facial dysmorphisms, digital anomalies, microcephaly and epilepsy. Three subjects share a recurrent c.2881G>A/p.Ala961Thr variant while the fourth patient has the c.4591A>G/p.Met1531Val variant. Both mutations drastically impaired channel inactivation properties with significantly slower kinetics (∼5 times) and negatively shifted potential for half-inactivation (>10 mV). In addition, these two mutations increase neuronal firing in a cerebellar nuclear neuron model and promote a larger window current fully inhibited by TTA-P2, a selective T-type channel blocker. This study highlights the prevalence of de novo mutations in early-onset cerebellar atrophy and demonstrates that A961T and M1531V are gain of function mutations. Moreover, it reveals that aberrant activity of Cav3.1 channels can markedly alter brain development and suggests that this condition could be amenable to treatment.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1091-1098, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681083

RESUMO

Corpus callosum (CC) is the major brain commissure connecting homologous areas of cerebral hemispheres. CC anomalies (CCAs) are the most frequent brain anomalies leading to variable neurodevelopmental outcomes making genetic counseling difficult in the absence of a known etiology that might inform the prognosis. Here, we used whole exome sequencing, and a targeted capture panel of syndromic CCA known causal and candidate genes to screen a cohort of 64 fetuses with CCA observed upon autopsy, and 34 children with CCA and intellectual disability. In one fetus and two patients, we identified three novel de novo mutations in ZBTB20, which was previously shown to be causal in Primrose syndrome. In addition to CCA, all cases presented with additional features of Primrose syndrome including facial dysmorphism and macrocephaly or megalencephaly. All three variations occurred within two out of the five zinc finger domains of the transcriptional repressor ZBTB20. Through homology modeling, these variants are predicted to result in local destabilization of each zinc finger domain suggesting subsequent abnormal repression of ZBTB20 target genes. Neurohistopathological analysis of the fetal case showed abnormal regionalization of the hippocampal formation as well as a reduced density of cortical upper layers where originate most callosal projections. Here, we report novel de novo ZBTB20 mutations in three independent cases with characteristic features of Primrose syndrome including constant CCA. Neurohistopathological findings in fetal case corroborate the observed key role of ZBTB20 during hippocampal and neocortical development. Finally, this study highlights the crucial role of ZBTB20 in CC development in human.

16.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1236-1245, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We delineate the clinical spectrum and describe the histology in arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS), a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by tortuosity of the large and medium-sized arteries, caused by mutations in SLC2A10. METHODS: We retrospectively characterized 40 novel ATS families (50 patients) and reviewed the 52 previously reported patients. We performed histology and electron microscopy (EM) on skin and vascular biopsies and evaluated TGF-ß signaling with immunohistochemistry for pSMAD2 and CTGF. RESULTS: Stenoses, tortuosity, and aneurysm formation are widespread occurrences. Severe but rare vascular complications include early and aggressive aortic root aneurysms, neonatal intracranial bleeding, ischemic stroke, and gastric perforation. Thus far, no reports unequivocally document vascular dissections or ruptures. Of note, diaphragmatic hernia and infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) are frequently observed. Skin and vascular biopsies show fragmented elastic fibers (EF) and increased collagen deposition. EM of skin EF shows a fragmented elastin core and a peripheral mantle of microfibrils of random directionality. Skin and end-stage diseased vascular tissue do not indicate increased TGF-ß signaling. CONCLUSION: Our findings warrant attention for IRDS and diaphragmatic hernia, close monitoring of the aortic root early in life, and extensive vascular imaging afterwards. EM on skin biopsies shows disease-specific abnormalities.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 287-292, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255276

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder mainly due to de novo and private truncating mutations of CHD7 gene. Here we report an intriguing hot spot of intronic mutations (c.5405-7G > A, c.5405-13G > A, c.5405-17G > A and c.5405-18C > A) located in CHD7 IVS25. Combining computational in silico analysis, experimental branch-point determination and in vitro minigene assays, our study explains this mutation hot spot by a particular genomic context, including the weakness of the IVS25 natural acceptor-site and an unconventional lariat sequence localized outside the common 40 bp upstream the acceptor splice site. For each of the mutations reported here, bioinformatic tools indicated a newly created 3' splice site, of which the existence was confirmed using pSpliceExpress, an easy-to-use and reliable splicing reporter tool. Our study emphasizes the idea that combining these two complementary approaches could increase the efficiency of routine molecular diagnosis.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(1): 181-186, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159987

RESUMO

We report two unrelated patients with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and a strikingly similar combination of associated features. Whole exome sequencing was performed for both patients. No single gene containing likely pathogenic point mutations in both patients could be identified, but the finding of an essential splice site mutation in mediator complex subunit 13 like (MED13L) in one patient prompted the investigation of copy number variants in MED13L in the other, leading to the identification of an intragenic deletion. Disruption of MED13L, encoding a component of the Mediator complex, is increasingly recognized as the cause of an intellectual disability syndrome with associated facial dysmorphism. Our findings suggest that MED13L-related disorders are a possible differential diagnosis for syndromic PRS.


Assuntos
Mutação com Perda de Função , Complexo Mediador/genética , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 1006-1012, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198720

RESUMO

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a neurodegenerative disease of photoreceptor cells that causes blindness within the first year of life. It occasionally occurs in syndromic metabolic diseases and plurisystemic ciliopathies. Using exome sequencing in a multiplex family and three simplex case subjects with an atypical association of LCA with early-onset hearing loss, we identified two heterozygous mutations affecting Arg391 in ß-tubulin 4B isotype-encoding (TUBB4B). Inspection of the atomic structure of the microtubule (MT) protofilament reveals that the ß-tubulin Arg391 residue contributes to a binding pocket that interacts with α-tubulin contained in the longitudinally adjacent αß-heterodimer, consistent with a role in maintaining MT stability. Functional analysis in cultured cells overexpressing FLAG-tagged wild-type or mutant TUBB4B as well as in primary skin-derived fibroblasts showed that the mutant TUBB4B is able to fold, form αß-heterodimers, and co-assemble into the endogenous MT lattice. However, the dynamics of growing MTs were consistently altered, showing that the mutations have a significant dampening impact on normal MT growth. Our findings provide a link between sensorineural disease and anomalies in MT behavior and describe a syndromic LCA unrelated to ciliary dysfunction.


Assuntos
Amaurose Congênita de Leber/genética , Microtúbulos/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 175(4): 417-430, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178447

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome (CS) is a genetic disorder whose first description included Coloboma, Heart disease, Atresia of choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies and deafness, most often caused by a genetic mutation in the CHD7 gene. Two features were then added: semicircular canal anomalies and arhinencephaly/olfactory bulb agenesis, with classification of typical, partial, or atypical forms on the basis of major and minor clinical criteria. The detection rate of a pathogenic variant in the CHD7 gene varies from 67% to 90%. To try to have an overview of this heterogenous clinical condition and specify a genotype-phenotype relation, we conducted a national study of phenotype and genotype in 119 patients with CS. Selected clinical diagnostic criteria were from Verloes (2005), updated by Blake & Prasad (). Besides obtaining a detailed clinical description, when possible, patients underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, audiometry, temporal bone CT scan, gonadotropin analysis, and olfactory-bulb MRI. All patients underwent CHD7 sequencing and MLPA analysis. We found a pathogenic CHD7 variant in 83% of typical CS cases and 58% of atypical cases. Pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene were classified by the expected impact on the protein. In all, 90% of patients had a typical form of CS and 10% an atypical form. The most frequent features were deafness/semicircular canal hypoplasia (94%), pituitary defect/hypogonadism (89%), external ear anomalies (87%), square-shaped face (81%), and arhinencephaly/anosmia (80%). Coloboma (73%), heart defects (65%), and choanal atresia (43%) were less frequent.


Assuntos
Síndrome CHARGE/diagnóstico , Síndrome CHARGE/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Nervos Cranianos/anormalidades , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , França , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Adulto Jovem
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