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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 122(2): 118-137, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257242

RESUMO

This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of peer network interventions to improve the social connections of 47 high school students with severe disabilities. School staff invited, trained, and supported 192 peers without disabilities to participate in individualized social groups that met throughout one semester. Compared to adolescents in the "business-as-usual" control group (n = 48), students receiving peer networks gained significantly more new social contacts and friendships. Although many peer relationships maintained one and two semesters later, their spill over beyond the school day was limited. Students and staff affirmed the social validity of the interventions. We offer recommendations for research and practice aimed at improving the implementation and impact of peer network interventions in secondary schools.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Educação Especial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 121(4): 327-45, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351700

RESUMO

Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Educação Especial , Docentes , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Pais , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bullying , Comunicação , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Autoimagem , Autocontrole/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios da Fala/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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