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3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 771279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804062

RESUMO

It remains poorly defined whether any human miRNAs play protective roles during HIV infection. Here, focusing on a unique cohort of HIV-infected former blood donors, we identified miR-31 (hsa-miR-31) by comparative miRNA profiling as the only miRNA inversely correlating with disease progression. We further validated this association in two prospective cohort studies. Despite conservation during evolution, hsa-miR-31, unlike its mouse counterpart (mmu-miR-31), was downregulated in human T cell upon activation. Our ex vivo studies showed that inhibiting miR-31 in naïve CD4+ T cells promoted a transcriptional profile with activation signature. Consistent with this skewing effect, miR-31 inhibition led to remarkably increased susceptibility to HIV infection. The suppressive nature of miR-31 in CD4+ T cell activation was pinpointed to its ability to decrease T-bet, the key molecule governing IFN-γ production and activation of CD4+ T cells, by directly targeting the upstream STAT1 transcriptional factor for downregulation, thus blunting Th1 response. Our results implicated miR-31 as a useful biomarker for tracking HIV disease progression and, by demonstrating its importance in tuning the activation of CD4+ T cells, suggested that miR-31 may play critical roles in other physiological contexts where the CD4+ T cell homeostasis needs to be deliberately controlled.

4.
Diabetes ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810178

RESUMO

GRP75, defined as a major component of both mitochondrial quality control system and mitochondria-associated membrane, plays a key role in mitochondrial homeostasis. In this study, we assessed the roles of GRP75, other than as a component, in insulin action in both in vitro and in vivo models with insulin resistance. We found that GRP75 was downregulated in HFD-fed mice, and induction of Grp75 in mice could prevent HFD induced obesity and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, GRP75 influenced insulin sensitivity by regulating mitochondrial function through its modulation of mitochondrial-supercomplex turnover rather than MAM communication: GRP75 was negatively associated with respiratory-chain complex activity and was essential for mitochondrial-supercomplex assembly and stabilization. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction in Grp75-knockdown cells might further increase mitochondrial fragmentation, thus trigger cytosolic mitochondrial DNA release and activate the cGAS/STING-dependent pro-inflammatory response. Therefore, GRP75 can serve as a potential therapeutic target of insulin resistant-related diabetes or other metabolic diseases.

5.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 618492, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552920

RESUMO

Objective: We proposed that the deficit of ACC1 is the cause of patient symptoms including global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features. We evaluated the possible disease-causing role of the ACACA gene in developmental delay and investigated the pathogenesis of ACC1 deficiency. Methods: A patient who presented with global developmental delay with unknown cause was recruited. Detailed medical records were collected and reviewed. Whole exome sequencing found two variants of ACACA with unknown significance. ACC1 mRNA expression level, protein expression level, and enzyme activity level were detected in patient-derived cells. Lipidomic analysis, and in vitro functional studies including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the migratory ability of patient-derived cells were evaluated to investigate the possible pathogenic mechanism of ACC1 deficiency. RNAi-induced ACC1 deficiency fibroblasts were established to assess the causative role of ACC1 deficit in cell migratory disability in patient-derived cells. Palmitate supplementation assays were performed to assess the effect of palmitic acid on ACC1 deficiency-induced cell motility deficit. Results: The patient presented with global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features. A decreased level of ACC1 and ACC1 enzyme activity were detected in patient-derived lymphocytes. Lipidomic profiles revealed a disruption in the lipid homeostasis of the patient-derived cell lines. In vitro functional studies revealed a deficit of cell motility in patient-derived cells and the phenotype was further recapitulated in ACC1-knockdown (KD) fibroblasts. The cell motility deficit in both patient-derived cells and ACC1-KD were attenuated by palmitate. Conclusion: We report an individual with biallelic mutations in ACACA, presenting global development delay. In vitro studies revealed a disruption of lipid homeostasis in patient-derived lymphocytes, further inducing the deficit of cell motility capacity and that the deficiency could be partly attenuated by palmitate.

6.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 8031-8037, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486010

RESUMO

Nanocarriers have shown great advantages in increasing the efficiency of drug delivery and reducing drug side effects. However, their lack of targeting and on-demand drug release abilities will seriously limit their clinical application. Herein, we report tumor cell membrane coated nanogels (NGs) with redox/pH dual-responsive behavior for enhanced tumor chemotherapy. The cell membrane coating improves the tumor targeting efficiency, and stimuli-responsive drug release enhances the therapeutic effects. These NGs are well dispersed in PBS with an average size of 109.1 ± 5.2 nm and a narrow polydispersity index of 0.12. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that these NGs can responsively release the therapeutic drug DOX under acidic conditions or high GSH concentrations and effectively inhibit tumor growth. Based on the results, this nanogel shows promise as a platform for tumor-targeted chemotherapy for future clinical translation.

7.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 463, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LYRM4 is necessary to maintain the stability and activity of the human cysteine desulfurase complex NFS1-LYRM4-ACP. The existing experimental results indicate that cancer cells rely on the high expression of NFS1. However, the role of LYRM4 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we combined bioinformatics analysis and clinical specimens to evaluate the mRNA, protein expression, and gene regulatory network of LYRM4 in LIHC. Furthermore, we detected the activity of several classical iron-sulphur proteins in LIHC cell lines through UV-vis spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein levels of LYRM4 were upregulated in LIHC. Subsequent analysis revealed that the LYRM4 mRNA expression was related to various clinical stratifications, prognosis, and survival of LIHC patients. In addition, the mRNA expression of LYRM4 was significantly associated with ALT, tumour thrombus, and encapsulation of HBV-related LIHC patients. IHC results confirmed that LYRM4 was highly expressed in LIHC tissues and showed that the expression of LYRM4 protein in LIHC was significantly correlated with age and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) content. In particular, the mRNA expression of key iron- sulphur proteins POLD1 and PRIM2 was significantly overexpressed and correlated with poor prognosis in LIHC patients. Compared with hepatocytes, the activities of mitochondrial complex I and aconitate hydratase (ACO2) in LIHC cell lines were significantly increased. These results indicated that the iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) biosynthesis was significantly elevated in LIHC, leading to ISC-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Changes in the activity of ISC-dependent proteins may also occur in paracancerous tissues. Further analysis of the biological interaction and gene regulation networks of LYRM4 suggested that these genes were mainly involved in the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Finally, LYRM4 expression in LIHC was significantly positively correlated with the infiltrating levels of six immune cell types, and both factors were strongly associated with prognosis. CONCLUSION: LYRM4 could be a novel prognostic biomarker and molecular target for LIHC therapy. In particular, the potential regulatory networks of LYRM4 overexpression in LIHC provide a scientific basis for future research on the role of the ISC assembly mechanism and LYRM4-mediated sulphur transfer routes in carcinogenesis.

8.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(8): 727-736, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334354

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases are caused by variants in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. A nuclear gene HPDL (4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-like), which encodes an intermembrane mitochondrial protein, has been recently implicated in causing a neurodegenerative disease characterized by pediatric-onset spastic movement phenotypes. Here, we report six Chinese patients with bi-allelic HPDL pathogenic variants from four unrelated families showing neuropathic symptoms of variable severity, including developmental delay/intellectual disability, spasm, and hypertonia. Seven different pathogenic variants are identified, of which five are novel. Both fibroblasts and immortalized lymphocytes derived from patients show impaired mitochondrial respiratory function, which is also observed in HPDL-knockdown (KD) HeLa cells. In these HeLa cells, overexpression of a wild-type HPDL gene can rescue the respiratory phenotype of oxygen consumption rate. In addition, a decreased activity of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex II is observed in patient-derived lymphocytes and HPDL-KD HeLa cells, further supporting an essential role of HPDL in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Collectively, our data expand the clinical and mutational spectra of this mitochondrial neuropathy and further delineate the possible disease mechanism involving the impairment of the OXPHOS complex II activity due to the bi-allelic inactivations of HPDL.

9.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 614443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386518

RESUMO

The emergence of novel coronavirus mutants is a main factor behind the deterioration of the epidemic situation. Further studies into the pathogenicity of these mutants are thus urgently needed. Binding of the spinous protein receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor was shown to initiate coronavirus entry into host cells and lead to their infection. The receptor-binding motif (RBM, 438-506) is a region that directly interacts with ACE2 receptor in the RBD and plays a crucial role in determining affinity. To unravel how mutations in the non-RBM regions impact the interaction between RBD and ACE2, we selected three non-RBM mutant systems (N354D, D364Y, and V367F) from the documented clinical cases, and the Q498A mutant system located in the RBM region served as the control. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted on the mutant systems and the wild-type (WT) system, and verified experiments also performed. Non-RBM mutations have been shown not only to change conformation of the RBM region but also to significantly influence its hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In particular, the D364Y and V367F systems showed a higher affinity for ACE2 owing to their electrostatic interactions and polar solvation energy changes. In addition, although the binding free energy at this point increased after the mutation of N354D, the conformation of the random coil (Pro384-Asp389) was looser than that of other systems, and the combined effect weakened the binding free energy between RBD and ACE2. Interestingly, we also found a random coil (Ala475-Gly485). This random coil is very sensitive to mutations, and both types of mutations increase the binding free energy of residues in this region. We found that the binding loop (Tyr495-Tyr505) in the RBD domain strongly binds to Lys353, an important residue of the ACE2 domain previously identified. The binding free energy of the non-RBM mutant group at the binding loop had positive and negative changes, and these changes were more obvious than that of the Q498A system. The results of this study elucidate the effect of non-RBM mutation on ACE2-RBD binding, and provide new insights for SARS-CoV-2 mutation research.

10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113404, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182204

RESUMO

The detection of biomarkers in body fluids plays a great role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of diseases. Here, we present novel aptamer-decorated porous microneedles (MNs) arrays to realize the extraction and detection of biomarkers in skin interstitial fluid (ISF) in situ. The porous MNs arrays are fabricated by replicating the negative molds comprising glass microspheres with a UV-curable ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA). As the MNs arrays combine the superiorities of porous structure and aptamers, their specific surface area increased significantly to 6.694 m2/g, thus vast of stable aptamer probes with a concentration of 0.9459 µM could be immobilized. In addition, the MNs arrays could extract skin ISF into their porous structure on the basis of the capillarity principle, and subsequently capture and detect skin ISF biomarkers without sample post-process. Taking advantage of these features, we further demonstrated a highly sensitive and rapid detection of ISF endotoxin in the concentration ranges of 0.0342 EU/mL to 8.2082 EU/mL from rats model injected with endotoxin via tail vein by using such aptamer-decorated porous MNs arrays, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0064 EU/mL. These results indicated that the aptamer-decorated porous MNs arrays possess great potential for non-invasive extraction and detection of biomarkers in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Líquido Extracelular , Animais , Biomarcadores , Agulhas , Porosidade , Ratos , Pele
11.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 615, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major public health problem and its pathogenesis remains unresolved. A recent proteomics study discovered a lipid enzyme Sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT1) involvement in the progression of HCC. We aimed to explore the association between SOAT1 genetic variation and HCC. METHODS: We genotyped three exonic SOAT1 variants (rs10753191, V323V; rs3753526, L475L; rs13306731, Q526R) tagging most variations in the gene, in 221 HCC patients and 229 healthy individuals, to assess the impact of SOAT1 gene variation on risk of HCC occurrence. We further conducted immunohistochemistry to compare SOAT1 protein expression levels in 42 paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. RESULTS: We found that rs10753191 (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.58, P = 0.04) and a haplotype TGA (OR = 0.40, P = 0.01) were associated with reduced HCC risk after adjusting for lipid levels. In the immunohistochemistry experiment, we found that the protein expression of SOAT1 was significantly increased in the tumor compared with adjacent tissue (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study revealed for the first time SOAT1 genetic variation that associates with host susceptibility to HCC occurrence. Our results suggest a role of SOAT1 in the HCC development, which warrants further elucidation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Esterol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Voluntários Saudáveis , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq , Esterol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4415-4425, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037843

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of gut microbiota in humans can be indicated due to the wide application of techniques, such as 16S rRNA sequencing. Presently, several studies have found a significant difference in fecal flora between normal individuals and patients with gastric cancer. Although clinical research on the feedback mechanism of gastric flora and gut microbiota is lacking, clarifying the relationship between gut microbiota and the characteristics of cancer is significant for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. This study was conducted to review the results of several studies in the past 5 years and analyze the intestinal bacteria in patients with gastric cancer and compare them with those in patients with esophageal and small intestine cancers. It was found that the gut microbiota in patients with gastric cancer was similar to that in patients with esophageal cancer. However, making an analysis and comparing the gut microbiota in patients with small intestine and gastric cancers was impossible due to the low incidence of small intestinal cancer. Our review summarized the research progress on using the gut microbiota for early screening for gastric cancer, and the results of this study will provide a further direction in this field. KEY POINTS: • We reviewed several relative mechanisms of the gut microbiota related to gastric cancer. • The gut microbiota in gastric, esophageal, and small intestine cancers are significantly different in types and quantity, and we have provided some tips for further research. • A prospective review of sequencing methods and study results on the gut microbiota in gastric, esophageal, and small intestine cancers was described.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
Cell Rep ; 35(2): 108963, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852835

RESUMO

The assembly pathways of mitochondrial respirasome (supercomplex I+III2+IV) are not fully understood. Here, we show that an early sub-complex I assembly, rather than holo-complex I, is sufficient to initiate mitochondrial respirasome assembly. We find that a distal part of the membrane arm of complex I (PD-a module) is a scaffold for the incorporation of complexes III and IV to form a respirasome subcomplex. Depletion of PD-a, rather than other complex I modules, decreases the steady-state levels of complexes III and IV. Both HEK293T cells lacking TIMMDC1 and patient-derived cells with disease-causing mutations in TIMMDC1 showed accumulation of this respirasome subcomplex. This suggests that TIMMDC1, previously known as a complex-I assembly factor, may function as a respirasome assembly factor. Collectively, we provide a detailed, cooperative assembly model in which most complex-I subunits are added to the respirasome subcomplex in the lateral stages of respirasome assembly.

14.
Med Oncol ; 38(4): 34, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660148

RESUMO

Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a 415-aa multidomain scaffold protein encoded by the PICK1 gene. Accumulating evidence suggests that PICK1 is involved in the progression of cancer. However, the role of PICK1 in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. Using integrated analysis of publicly available GC transcriptome data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and immunohistochemistry analysis of samples obtained from clinical GC patients, we found that PICK1 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric tumor tissues in comparison with adjacent normal tissues. Our analyses also revealed that decreased expression of PICK1 conferred a disadvantage on overall survival time in GC patients. Additionally, PICK1 expression showed a strong association with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway, and PICK1 might represent a functional bridge for EMT. Moreover, PICK1 expression was significantly decreased in the EMT subtype of GC and was negatively correlated with the expression of fibronectin 1 (FN1) and myosin light chain 9 (MYL9) mRNAs. Thus, our study provides evidence that PICK1 is a promising biomarker for the molecular etiology of GC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Fibronectinas/genética , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(10)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712431

RESUMO

Escherichia coli [2Fe-2S]-ferredoxin and other ISC proteins encoded by the iscRSUA-hscBA-fdx-iscX (isc) operon are responsible for the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters. It is proposed that ferredoxin (Fdx) donates electrons from its reduced [2Fe-2S] center to iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis reactions. However, the underlying mechanisms of the [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly in Fdx remain elusive. Here, we report that Fdx preferentially binds iron, but not the [2Fe-2S] cluster, under cold stress conditions (≤16°C). The iron binding in Fdx is characterized by a unique absorption peak at 320 nm based on UV-visible spectroscopy. In addition, the iron-binding form of Fdx could be converted to the [2Fe-2S] cluster-bound form after transferring cold-stressed cells to normal cultivation temperatures above 25°C. In vitro experiments also revealed that Fdx could utilize bound iron to assemble the [2Fe-2S] cluster by itself. Furthermore, inactivation of the genes encoding IscS, IscU, and IscA did not limit [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly in Fdx, which was also observed by inactivating the isc or suf operon, indicating that iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in Fdx arose from a unique pathway in E. coli Our results suggest that the intracellular assembly of [2Fe-2S] clusters in Fdx is susceptible to environmental temperatures. The iron binding form of Fdx (Fe-Fdx) is a precursor during its maturation to a cluster binding form ([2Fe-2S]-Fdx), and reassembly of the [2Fe-2S] clusters during temperature increases is not strictly reliant on other specific iron donors and scaffold proteins within the Isc or Suf system.IMPORTANCE Fdx is an electron carrier that is required for the maturation of many other iron-sulfur proteins. Its function strictly depends on its [2Fe-2S] center that bonds with the cysteinyl S atoms of four cysteine residues within Fdx. However, the assembly mechanism of the [2Fe-2S] clusters in Fdx remains controversial. This study reports that Fdx fails to form its [2Fe-2S] cluster under cold stress conditions but instead binds a single Fe atom at the cluster binding site. Moreover, when temperatures increase, Fdx can assemble clusters by itself from its iron-only binding form in E. coli cells. The possibility remains that Fdx can effectively accept clusters from multiple sources. Nevertheless, our results suggest that Fdx has a strong iron binding activity that contributes to the assembly of its own [2Fe-2S] cluster and that Fdx acts as a temperature sensor to regulate Isc system-mediated iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Escherichia coli/genética , Ferredoxinas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Enxofre/metabolismo
16.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779591

RESUMO

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a pivotal role in antigen peptide presentation and T cell immune responses against infectious disease and tumor development. The hybrid MHC I complexed with heterologous ß2-microglobulin (ß2m) substitution from different species can be stabilized in vitro. This is a feasible means to study MHC I of mammals, when the homologous ß2m is not available. Meanwhile, it is indicated that mammalian ß2m substitution does not significantly affect peptide presentation. However, there is limited summarization regarding the methodology and the technology for the hybrid MHC I complexed with heterologous ß2-microglobulin (ß2m). Herein, methods to evaluate the feasibility of heterologous ß2m substitution in MHC I study are presented. These methods include preparation of expression constructs; purification of inclusion bodies and refolding of the MHC complex; determination of protein thermostability; crystal screening and structure determination. This study provides a recommendation for understanding function and structure of MHC I, and is also significant for T cell response evaluation during infectious disease and tumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Microglobulina beta-2/metabolismo , Animais , Quirópteros
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(2): 803-814, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404833

RESUMO

Gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of cancer. Colorectal and gastric cancers, the major gastrointestinal tract cancers, are closely connected with the gut microbiome. Nevertheless, the characteristics of gut microbiota composition that correlate with gastric cancer are unclear. In this study, we investigated gut microbiota alterations during the progression of gastric cancer to identify the most relevant taxa associated with gastric cancer and evaluated the potential of the microbiome as an indicator for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Compared with the healthy group, gut microbiota composition and diversity shifted in patients with gastric cancer. Different bacteria were used to design a random forest model, which provided an area under the curve value of 0.91. Verification samples achieved a true positive rate of 0.83 in gastric cancer. Principal component analysis showed that gastritis shares some microbiome characteristics of gastric cancer. Chemotherapy reduced the elevated bacteria levels in gastric cancer by more than half. More importantly, we found that the genera Lactobacillus and Megasphaera were associated with gastric cancer.Key Points• Gut microbiota has high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing patients with gastric cancer from healthy individuals, indicating that gut microbiota is a potential noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.• Gastritis shares some microbiota features with gastric cancer, and chemotherapy reduces the microbial abundance and diversity in gastric cancer patients.• Two bacterial taxa, namely, Lactobacillus and Megasphaera, are predictive markers for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Gastrite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Neoplasias Gástricas , Fezes , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(5): 767-779, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782394

RESUMO

L-Carnosine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring dipeptide, which has shown broad-spectrum anticancer activity. But the anticancer mechanisms and regulators remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of carnosine on human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines under normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (1% O2). We showed that carnosine (25-75 mM) dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of the glioma cells; carnosine (50 mM) inhibited their colony formation, migration, and invasion capacity. But there was no significant difference in the inhibitory effects of carnosine under normoxia and hypoxia. Treatment with carnosine (50 mM) significantly decreased the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) at the translation level rather than the transcription level in U87 and U251 cells, both under normoxia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the silencing of GS gene with shRNA and glutamine (Gln) deprivation significantly suppressed the growth, migratory, and invasive potential of the glioma cells. The inhibitory effect of carnosine on U87 and U251 cells was partly achieved by inhibiting the Gln metabolism pathway. Carnosine reduced the expression of GS in U87 and U251 cells by promoting the degradation of GS through the proteasome pathway, shortening the protein half-life, and reducing its stability. Given that targeting tumor metabolism is a proven efficient therapeutic tactic, our results may present new treatment strategies and drugs for improving the prognosis of gliomas.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carnosina/farmacologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 22(1): 5-11, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for about 15-20% of all breast cancer. High mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is overexpressed in some tumors and closely associated with patients' prognosis. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of HMGA2 in TNBC still remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, HMGA2 level in TNBC cell lines was analyzed by western blot. After knockdown of HMGA2 expression by RNA interference in TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM149, wound healing and transwell assays were conducted to examine the effects of HMGA2 on migration and invasion. Tumor metastasis was assessed in amouse xenograft model invivo. Furthermore, expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers and involvement of the Hippo-YAP pathway were detected by western blot. RESULTS: Compared to normal breast epithelial cells, the expression levels of HMGA2 were significantly increased in TNBC cell lines (all P< .05). Downregulation of HMGA2 dramatically inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and SUM149 cells (all P< .01) invitro, and suppressed the tumor metastasis of nude mice xenograft model invivo. Western blot analysis revealed alterations in EMT biomarkers: the expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail were decreased, while the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin was increased. Downregulated expression of HMGA2 attenuated Hippo-YAP related protein expression and the stability of YAP. CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 is highly expressed in TNBC cells. Downregulation of HMGA2 inhibits the migration and invasion of TNBC and invivo tumor metastasis mediated through inhibition of EMT and Hippo-YAP pathway.

20.
Oncogene ; 39(49): 7196-7208, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037408

RESUMO

Metastasis is responsible for the death of most breast cancer patients. Robo1 has been implicated as a tumor suppressor for various cancers including breast cancer. However, it is not well understood how Robo1 expression is regulated during tumorigenesis. In this study, we uncovered that the transmembrane proline rich γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4 (PRRG4) promotes breast cancer metastasis by downregulating Robo1. Analysis of mRNA expression data in The Cancer Genome Atlas and immunohistochemistry assay on breast tumor samples showed that PRRG4 expression was higher in breast tumors than in normal breast tissues. Experiments with PRRG4 knockdown and overexpression revealed that PRRG4 promoted migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, and enhanced metastasis in an experimental metastasis model. Mechanistically, we found that PRRG4 via its LPSY and PPPY motifs recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4, which induced ubiquitination and degradation of Robo1, thus contributing to migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In addition, PRRG4 interacted with and enhanced protein tyrosine kinase Src and FAK activation. Overall, our data support a model that PRRG4 via NEDD4 downregulates the Robo1, resulting in the activation of Src and FAK and promoting breast cancer metastasis. PRRG4 may be a novel target for treating metastatic breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Ativação Enzimática , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , RNA Mensageiro/genética
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