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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(15): 4176-4191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803491

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC), the most lethal type of liver cancer, remains very difficult to treat due to an incomplete understanding of the cancer initiation and progression mechanisms and no effective therapeutic drugs. Thus, identification of genomic drivers and delineation of the underlying mechanisms are urgently needed. Here, we conducted a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening in liver-specific Smad4/Pten knockout mice (Smad4co/co;Ptenco/co;Alb-Cre, abbreviated as SPC), and identified 15 putative tumor suppressor genes, including Cullin3 (Cul3), whose deficiency increases protein levels of Nrf2 and Cyclin D1 that accelerate cholangiocytes expansion leading to the initiation of CC. Meanwhile, Cul3 deficiency also increases the secretion of Cxcl9 in stromal cells to attract T cells infiltration, and increases the production of Amphiregulin (Areg) mediated by Nrf2, which paracrinely induces inflammation in the liver, and promotes accumulation of exhausted PD1high CD8 T cells at the expenses of their cytotoxic activity, allowing CC progression. We demonstrate that the anti-PD1/PD-L1 blockade inhibits CC growth, and the effect is enhanced by combining with sorafenib selected from organoid mediated drug sensitive test. This model makes it possible to further identify more liver cancer suppressors, study molecular mechanisms, and develop effective therapeutic strategies.

2.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9415-9430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646378

RESUMO

The feasibility of personalized medicine for cancer treatment is largely hampered by costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming models for drug discovery. Herein, establishing new pre-clinical models to tackle these issues for personalized medicine is urgently demanded. Methods: We established a three-dimensional tumor slice culture (3D-TSC) platform incorporating label-free techniques for time-course experiments to predict anti-cancer drug efficacy and validated the 3D-TSC model by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, RNA sequence analysis, histochemical and histological analysis. Results: Using time-lapse imaging of the apoptotic reporter sensor C3 (C3), we performed cell-based high-throughput drug screening and shortlisted high-efficacy drugs to screen murine and human 3D-TSCs, which validate effective candidates within 7 days of surgery. Histological and RNA sequence analyses demonstrated that 3D-TSCs accurately preserved immune components of the original tumor, which enables the successful achievement of immune checkpoint blockade assays with antibodies against PD-1 and/or PD-L1. Label-free multiphoton fluorescence imaging revealed that 3D-TSCs exhibit lipofuscin autofluorescence features in the time-course monitoring of drug response and efficacy. Conclusion: This technology accelerates precision anti-cancer therapy by providing a cheap, fast, and easy platform for anti-cancer drug discovery.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(22): e2101176, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605222

RESUMO

Most breast cancers at an advanced stage exhibit an aggressive nature, and there is a lack of effective anticancer options. Herein, the development of patient-derived organoids (PDOs) is described as a real-time platform to explore the feasibility of tailored treatment for refractory breast cancers. PDOs are successfully generated from breast cancer tissues, including heavily treated specimens. The microtubule-targeting drug-sensitive response signatures of PDOs predict improved distant relapse-free survival for invasive breast cancers treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. It is further demonstrated that PDO pharmaco-phenotyping reflects the previous treatment responses of the corresponding patients. Finally, as clinical case studies, all patients who receive at least one drug predicate to be sensitive by PDOs achieve good responses. Altogether, the PDO model is developed as an effective platform for evaluating patient-specific drug sensitivity in vitro, which can guide personal treatment decisions for breast cancer patients at terminal stage.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 90(5): 751-762, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tau neurofibrillary tangles (T) are the primary driver of downstream neurodegeneration (N) and subsequent cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is substantial variability in the T-N relationship - manifested in higher or lower atrophy than expected for level of tau in a given brain region. The goal of this study was to determine if region-based quantitation of this variability allows for identification of underlying modulatory factors, including polypathology. METHODS: Cortical thickness (N) and 18 F-Flortaucipir SUVR (T) were computed in 104 gray matter regions from a cohort of cognitively-impaired, amyloid-positive (A+) individuals. Region-specific residuals from a robust linear fit between SUVR and cortical thickness were computed as a surrogate for T-N mismatch. A summary T-N mismatch metric defined using residuals were correlated with demographic and imaging-based modulatory factors, and to partition the cohort into data-driven subgroups. RESULTS: The summary T-N mismatch metric correlated with underlying factors such as age and burden of white matter hyperintensity lesions. Data-driven subgroups based on clustering of residuals appear to represent different biologically relevant phenotypes, with groups showing distinct spatial patterns of higher or lower atrophy than expected. INTERPRETATION: These data support the notion that a measure of deviation from a normative relationship between tau burden and neurodegeneration across brain regions in individuals on the AD continuum captures variability due to multiple underlying factors, and can reveal phenotypes, which if validated, may help identify possible contributors to neurodegeneration in addition to tau, which may ultimately be useful for cohort selection in clinical trials. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:751-762.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3046, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031426

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant head and neck cancer type with high morbidity in Southeast Asia, however the pathogenic mechanism of this disease is poorly understood. Using integrative pharmacogenomics, we find that NPC subtypes maintain distinct molecular features, drug responsiveness, and graded radiation sensitivity. The epithelial carcinoma (EC) subtype is characterized by activations of microtubule polymerization and defective mitotic spindle checkpoint related genes, whereas sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) and mixed sarcomatoid-epithelial carcinoma (MSEC) subtypes exhibit enriched epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion promoting genes, which are well correlated with their morphological features. Furthermore, patient-derived organoid (PDO)-based drug test identifies potential subtype-specific treatment regimens, in that SC and MSEC subtypes are sensitive to microtubule inhibitors, whereas EC subtype is more responsive to EGFR inhibitors, which is synergistically enhanced by combining with radiotherapy. Through combinational chemoradiotherapy (CRT) screening, effective CRT regimens are also suggested for patients showing less sensitivity to radiation. Altogether, our study provides an example of applying integrative pharmacogenomics to establish a personalized precision oncology for NPC subtype-guided therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Farmacogenética/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Medicina de Precisão , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626078

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is expressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) including oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and is a potential therapeutic target. However, information on its correlation with other relevant cancer related proteins stratified by p16 status and its prognostic significance in OPSCC is limited. We examined FGFR3 expression and its correlation with clinical characteristics, p16 status, and mutant p53 (mp53) among 220 retrospectively collected OPSCC cases and 40 prospectively collected SCCHN cases, including a majority of OPSCC. Correlations of FGFR3 Weighted Index (WI) with p16 status and mp53 WI as well as its association with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. FGFR3 expression was detected in 61% and 70% of cases in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. FGFR3 level was significantly higher in p16-negative tumors in both cohorts (p<0.001 and 0.006). FGFR3 expression was highly correlated with mp53 expression in both p16 + and p16- OPSCC (p<0.0001 and p = 0.0006, respectively). In cohort 1, univariate analysis showed that FGFR3 was associated with DFS but not OS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that higher FGFR3 and mp53 level correlated with worse DFS (p = 0.025) and OS (p = 0.009). As expected, p16 positive status was associated with improved OS and DFS (p<0.001 for both). Our results suggest that high FGFR3 expression is associated with p16 negative status and mp53 expression in OPSCC and correlates with a worse clinical outcome. The biological relationship between FGFR3 and mp53 in OPSCC deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(23): 2001914, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304752

RESUMO

Resistance to therapeutic drugs occurs in virtually all types of cancers, and the tolerance to one drug frequently becomes broad therapy resistance; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Combining a whole whole-genome-wide RNA interference screening and an evolutionary drug pressure model with MDA-MB-231 cells, it is found that enhanced protein damage clearance and reduced mitochondrial respiratory activity are responsible for cisplatin resistance. Screening drug-resistant cancer cells and human patient-derived organoids for breast and colon cancers with many anticancer drugs indicates that activation of mitochondrion protein import surveillance system enhances proteasome activity and minimizes caspase activation, leading to broad drug resistance that can be overcome by co-treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. It is further demonstrated that cisplatin and bortezomib encapsulated into nanoparticle further enhance their therapeutic efficacy and alleviate side effects induced by drug combination treatment. These data demonstrate a feasibility for eliminating broad drug resistance by targeting its common mechanism to achieve effective therapy for multiple cancers.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4875, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978388

RESUMO

Single-cell whole-exome sequencing (scWES) is a powerful approach for deciphering intratumor heterogeneity and identifying cancer drivers. So far, however, simultaneous analysis of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) of a single cell has been challenging. By analyzing SNVs and CNVs simultaneously in bulk and single cells of premalignant tissues and tumors from mouse and human BRCA1-associated breast cancers, we discover an evolution process through which the tumors initiate from cells with SNVs affecting driver genes in the premalignant stage and malignantly progress later via CNVs acquired in chromosome regions with cancer driver genes. These events occur randomly and hit many putative cancer drivers besides p53 to generate unique genetic and pathological features for each tumor. Upon this, we finally identify a tumor metastasis suppressor Plekha5, whose deficiency promotes cancer metastasis to the liver and/or lung.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Transcriptoma
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3256, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591500

RESUMO

BRCA1 mutation carriers have a higher risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is a refractory disease due to its non-responsiveness to current clinical targeted therapies. Using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system in Brca1-deficient mice, we identified 169 putative cancer drivers, among which Notch1 is a top candidate for accelerating TNBC by promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and regulating the cell cycle. Activation of NOTCH1 suppresses mitotic catastrophe caused by BRCA1 deficiency by restoring S/G2 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints, which may through activation of ATR-CHK1 signalling pathway. Consistently, analysis of human breast cancer tissue demonstrates NOTCH1 is highly expressed in TNBCs, and the activated form of NOTCH1 correlates positively with increased phosphorylation of ATR. Additionally, we demonstrate that inhibition of the NOTCH1-ATR-CHK1 cascade together with cisplatin synergistically kills TNBC by targeting the cell cycle checkpoint, DNA damage and EMT, providing a potent clinical option for this fatal disease.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Carcinogênese/patologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitose , Mutação/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
10.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102605, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic modulation is capable of maintaining cell potency, regulating niche homeostasis, or determining cell fate. However, little is known regarding the metabolic landscape during early adipogenesis or whether metabolic modulation could be a potential approach for obesity treatment. METHODS: The metabolic footprint during adipocyte commitment was evaluated by metabolomics analysis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The role of apoptosis induced by ceramide and how ceramide is regulated were evaluated by omics analysis in vitro, human database and the adipocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout mouse. FINDINGS: The metabolic footprint showed that a complicated diversity of metabolism was enriched as early as 3 h and tended to fluctuate throughout differentiation. Subsequently, the scale of these perturbed metabolic patterns was reduced to reach a balanced state. Of high relevance is the presence of apoptosis induced by ceramide accumulation, which is associated with metabolic dynamics. Interestingly, apoptotic cells were not merely a byproduct of adipogenesis but rather promoted the release of lipid components to facilitate adipogenesis. Mechanistically, ceramide accumulation stemming from hydrolysis and the de novo pathway during early adipogenesis is regulated by Sirt1 upon epigenetic alterations of constitutive Histone H3K4 methylation and H3K9 acetylation. INTERPRETATION: The metabolic footprint during adipocyte commitment highlights that apoptosis induced by ceramide is essential for adipogenesis, which is reversed by suppression of Sirt1. Therefore, Sirt1 may constitute a target to treat obesity or other ceramide-associated metabolic syndromes. FUNDING: This project was supported by grants from the University of Macau (SRG2015-00008-FHS, MYRG2016-00054-FHS and MYRG2017-00096-FHS to RHW; CPG2019-00019-FHS to CXD) and from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81672603 and 81401978) to QC.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
11.
Sci Adv ; 4(11): eaas9357, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627665

RESUMO

Artemisia annua produces the valuable medicinal component, artemisinin, which is a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment. AaORA, a homolog of CrORCA3, which is involved in activating terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus, is a jasmonate (JA)-responsive and trichome-specific APETALA2/ETHYLENE-RESPONSE FACTOR that plays a pivotal role in artemisinin biosynthesis. However, the JA signaling mechanism underlying AaORA-mediated artemisinin biosynthesis remains enigmatic. Here, we report that AaORA forms a transcriptional activator complex with AaTCP14 (TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR 14), which is also predominantly expressed in trichomes. AaORA and AaTCP14 synergistically bind to and activate the promoters of two genes, double bond reductase 2 (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), both of which encode enzymes vital for artemisinin biosynthesis. AaJAZ8, a repressor of the JA signaling pathway, interacts with both AaTCP14 and AaORA and represses the ability of the AaTCP14-AaORA complex to activate the DBR2 promoter. JA treatment induces AaJAZ8 degradation, allowing the AaTCP14-AaORA complex to subsequently activate the expression of DBR2, which is essential for artemisinin biosynthesis. These data suggest that JA activation of the AaTCP14-AaORA complex regulates artemisinin biosynthesis. Together, our findings reveal a novel artemisinin biosynthetic pathway regulatory network and provide new insight into how specialized metabolism is modulated by the JA signaling pathway in plants.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Artemisininas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisia annua/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisia annua/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
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