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1.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320185

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), affect the ageing population worldwide and while severely impairing the quality of life of millions, they also cause a massive economic burden to countries with progressively ageing populations. Parallel with the search for biomarkers for early detection and prediction, the pursuit for therapeutic approaches has become growingly intensive in recent years. Various prospective therapeutic approaches have been explored with an emphasis on early prevention and protection, including, but not limited to, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy. Many pharmacological interventions have proved to be promising novel avenues, but successful applications are often hampered by the poor delivery of the therapeutics across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). To overcome this challenge, nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery has been considered as a promising option, as NP-based drug delivery systems can be functionalized to target specific cell surface receptors and to achieve controlled and long-term release of therapeutics to the target tissue. The usefulness of NPs for loading and delivering of drugs has been extensively studied in the context of NDDs, and their biological efficacy has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical animal models. Efforts have also been made towards the development of NPs which can be used for targeting the BBB and various cell types in the brain. The main focus of this review is to briefly discuss the advantages of functionalized NPs as promising theranostic agents for the diagnosis and therapy of NDDs. We also summarize the results of diverse studies that specifically investigated the usage of different NPs for the treatment of NDDs, with a specific emphasis on AD and PD, and the associated pathophysiological changes. Finally, we offer perspectives on the existing challenges of using NPs as theranostic agents and possible futuristic approaches to improve them.

2.
Eur J Cell Biol ; 99(7): 151110, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070042

RESUMO

Pancreatic beta cells are important in blood glucose level regulation. As type 1 and 2 diabetes are getting prevalent worldwide, we need to explore new methods for early detection of beta cell-related afflictions. Using bioimaging techniques to measure beta cell mass is crucial because a decrease in beta cell density is seen in diseases such as diabetes and thus can be a new way of diagnosis for such diseases. We also need to appraise beta cell purity in transplanted islets for type 1 diabetes patients. Sufficient amount of functional beta cells must also be determined before being transplanted to the patients. In this review, indirect imaging of beta cells will be discussed. This includes membrane protein on pancreatic beta cells whereby specific probes are designed for different imaging modalities mainly magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and fluorescence imaging. Direct imaging of insulin is also explored though probes synthesized for such function are relatively fewer. The path for successful pancreatic beta cell imaging is fraught with challenges like non-specific binding, lack of beta cell-restricted targets, the requirement of probes to cross multiple lipid layers to bind to intracellular insulin. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop new imaging techniques and innovative probing constructs in the entire imaging chain of bioengineering to provide early detection of beta cell-related pathology.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867390

RESUMO

There is an increasing number of studies showing that thrombocytosis-accompanying a variety of solid tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC)-is associated with shorter survival and earlier development of metastases. The mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombocytosis are not completely understood yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of IL-6 in tumor development and thrombocytosis in mice with inflammation-induced CRC, using a CRISPR/cas9 IL-6 knockout (KO) strain. Adult male FB/Ant mice (n = 39) were divided into four groups: (1) IL-6 KO controls (n = 5); (2) IL-6 KO CRC model group (n = 18); (3) Wild-type (WT) controls (n = 6); and (4) WT CRC model group (n = 10). CRC model animals in (2) and (4) received azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment to induce inflammation-related CRC. Plasma and liver tissues were obtained to determine platelet counts, IL-6 and thrombopoietin-1 (TPO) levels. In 1 WT and 2 IL-6 KO mice in vivo confocal endomicroscopy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MRI examinations were performed to evaluate the inflammatory burden and neoplastic transformation. At the end of the study, tumorous foci could be observed macroscopically in both CRC model groups. Platelet counts were significantly elevated in the WT CRC group compared to the IL-6 KO CRC group. TPO levels moved parallelly with platelet counts. In vivo fluorescent microscopy showed signs of disordered and multi-nuclear crypt morphology with increased mucus production in a WT animal, while regular mucosal structure was prominent in the IL-6 KO animals. The WT animal presented more intense and larger colonic FDG uptake than IL-6 KO animals. Our study confirmed thrombocytosis accompanying inflammation-related CRC and the crucial role of IL-6 in this process. Significantly higher platelet counts were found in the WT CRC group compared to both the control group and the IL-6 KO group. Concomitantly, the tumor burden of WT mice was also greater than that of IL-6 KO mice. Our findings are in line with earlier paraneoplastic IL-6 effect suggestions.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878344

RESUMO

(1) Background. The main goal of this work was to develop a fluorescent dye-labelling technique for our previously described nanosized platform, citrate-coated Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles (PBNPs). In addition, characteristics and stability of the PB nanoparticles labelled with fluorescent dyes were determined. (2) Methods. We adsorbed the fluorescent dyes Eosin Y and Rhodamine B and methylene blue (MB) to PB-nanoparticle systems. The physicochemical properties of these fluorescent dye-labeled PBNPs (iron(II);iron(III);octadecacyanide) were determined using atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy. A methylene-blue (MB) labelled, polyethylene-glycol stabilized PBNP platform was selected for further assessment of in vivo distribution and fluorescent imaging after intravenous administration in mice. (3) Results. The MB-labelled particles emitted a strong fluorescent signal at 662 nm. We found that the fluorescent light emission and steric stabilization made this PBNP-MB particle platform applicable for in vivo optical imaging. (4) Conclusion. We successfully produced a fluorescent and stable, Prussian blue-based nanosystem. The particles can be used as a platform for imaging contrast enhancement. In vivo stability and biodistribution studies revealed new aspects of the use of PBNPs.

5.
Biomed Opt Express ; 11(8): 4150-4175, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923034

RESUMO

Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) were developed with the aim of substituting transfusions in emergency events. However, they exhibit adverse events, such as nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, vasoactivity, enhanced platelet aggregation, presently hampering their clinical application. The impact of two prototypical PEGylated HBOCs, Euro-PEG-Hb and PEG-HbO2, endowed by different oxygen affinities and hydrodynamic volumes, was assessed on the cerebrocortical parenchymal microhemodynamics, and extravasation through the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) by laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) method and near-infrared (NIR) imaging, respectively. By evaluating voxel-wise cerebrocortical red blood cell velocity, non-invasively for its mean kernel-wise value ( v ¯ RBC ), and model-derived kernel-wise predictions for microregional tissue hematocrit, THt, and fractional change in hematocrit-corrected vascular resistance, R', as measures of potential adverse effects (enhanced platelet aggregation and vasoactivity, respectively) we found i) no significant difference between tested HBOCs in the systemic and microregional parameters, and in the relative spatial dispersion of THt, and R' as additional measures of HBOC-related adverse effects, and ii) no extravasation through BBB by Euro-PEG-Hb. We conclude that Euro-PEG-Hb does not exhibit adverse effects in the brain microcirculation that could be directly attributed to NO scavenging.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4686, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943633

RESUMO

Electrophysiology provides a direct readout of neuronal activity at a temporal precision only limited by the sampling rate. However, interrogating deep brain structures, implanting multiple targets or aiming at unusual angles still poses significant challenges for operators, and errors are only discovered by post-hoc histological reconstruction. Here, we propose a method combining the high-resolution information about bone landmarks provided by micro-CT scanning with the soft tissue contrast of the MRI, which allowed us to precisely localize electrodes and optic fibers in mice in vivo. This enables arbitrating the success of implantation directly after surgery with a precision comparable to gold standard histology. Adjustment of the recording depth with micro-drives or early termination of unsuccessful experiments saves many working hours, and fast 3-dimensional feedback helps surgeons avoid systematic errors. Increased aiming precision enables more precise targeting of small or deep brain nuclei and multiple targeting of specific cortical or hippocampal layers.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrodos Implantados , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fibras Ópticas , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Técnicas Histológicas/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Silício , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
7.
In Vivo ; 34(5): 2337-2343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Development of malignant tumors is preceded by molecular biological events. Our aim was to establish an assay panel by using miRNAs and other genes for the rapid screening of potential carcinogens or chemopreventive agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male and 6 female CBA/Ca mice received 20 mg/bwkg 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) intraperitoneally, and 24 h later RNA was isolated from parenchymal organs. Expression of miR-330, miR-29a, miR-9-1, miR-9-3 and mTORC1 was analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction and compared to non-treated controls. RESULTS: DMBA caused significant alterations in the expression of the studied genes. The most profound changes were the strongly elevated miR-9-3 and mTORC1 expressions in female mice in all organs studied. CONCLUSION: miR-9-3 and mTORC1 expression in female mice were found to be the most suitable biomarkers for rapid identification of possible carcinogenic effects.

8.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1743036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426176

RESUMO

Induction or selection of radioresistant cancer (stem) cells following standard radiotherapy is presumably one of the major causes for recurrence of metastatic disease. One possibility to prevent tumor relapse is the application of targeted immunotherapies including, e.g., chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. In light of long-term remissions, it is highly relevant to clarify whether radioresistant cancer cells are susceptible to CAR T cell-mediated killing. To answer this question, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of the switchable universal chimeric antigen receptor (UniCAR) system against highly radioresistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Following specific UniCAR T cell engagement via EGFR or CD98 target modules, T cell effector mechanisms were induced including secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of granzyme B and perforin, as well as T cell proliferation. CD98- or EGFR-redirected UniCAR T cells further possess the capability to efficiently lyse radioresistant tumor cells. Observed anti-tumor effects were comparable to those against the radiosensitive parental cell lines. Finally, redirected UniCAR T cells significantly inhibited the growth of radioresistant cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. Taken together, our obtained data underline that the UniCAR system is able to overcome radioresistance. Thus, it represents an attractive technology for the development of combined radioimmunotherapeutic approaches that might improve the outcome of patients with metastatic radioresistant tumor diseases.

9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 77, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adapter chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) approaches have emerged has promising strategies to increase clinical safety of CAR T-cell therapy. In the UniCAR system, the safety switch is controlled via a target module (TM) which is characterized by a small-size and short half-life. The rapid clearance of these TMs from the blood allows a quick steering and self-limiting safety switch of UniCAR T-cells by TM dosing. This is mainly important during onset of therapy when tumor burden and the risk for severe side effects are high. For long-term UniCAR therapy, the continuous infusion of TMs may not be an optimal setting for the patients. Thus, in later stages of treatment, single infusions of TMs with an increased half-life might play an important role in long-term surveillance and eradication of residual tumor cells. Given this, we aimed to develop and characterize a novel TM with extended half-life targeting the tumor-associated carbohydrate sialyl-Tn (STn). METHODS: The extended half-life TM is composed of the STn-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and the UniCAR epitope, fused to the hinge region and Fc domain of a human immunoglobulin 4 (IgG4) antibody. Specific binding and functionality of the αSTn-IgG4 TM as well as pharmacokinetic features were assessed using in vitro and in vivo assays and compared to the already established small-sized αSTn TM. RESULTS: The novel αSTn-IgG4 TM efficiently activates and redirects UniCAR T-cells to STn-expressing tumors in a target-specific and TM-dependent manner, thereby promoting the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and tumor cell lysis in vitro and in experimental mice. Moreover, PET-imaging results demonstrate the specific enrichment of the αSTn-IgG4 TM at the tumor site, while presenting a prolonged serum half-life compared to the short-lived αSTn TM. CONCLUSION: In a clinical setting, the combination of TMs with different formats and pharmacokinetics may represent a promising strategy for retargeting of UniCAR T-cells in a flexible, individualized and safe manner at particular stages of therapy. Furthermore, as these molecules can be used for in vivo imaging, they pose as attractive candidates for theranostic approaches.

10.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(5)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443790

RESUMO

Liposomes containing copper and the copper ionophore neocuproine were prepared and characterized for in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. Thermosensitive PEGylated liposomes were prepared with different molar ratios of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) in the presence of copper(II) ions. Optimal, temperature dependent drug release was obtained at 70:30 DPPC to HSPC weight ratio. Neocuproine (applied at 0.2 mol to 1 mol phospholipid) was encapsulated through a pH gradient while using unbuffered solution at pH 4.5 inside the liposomes, and 100 mM HEPES buffer pH 7.8 outside the liposomes. Copper ions were present in excess, yielding 0.5 mM copper-(neocuproine)2 complex and 0.5 mM free copper. Pre-heating to 45 °C increased the toxicity of the heat-sensitive liposomes in short-term in vitro experiments, whereas at 72 h all investigated liposomes exhibited similar in vitro toxicity to the copper(II)-neocuproine complex (1:1 ratio). Thermosensitive liposomes were found to be more effective in reducing tumor growth in BALB/c mice engrafted with C26 cancer cells, regardless of the mild hyperthermic treatment. Copper uptake of the tumor was verified by PET/CT imaging following treatment with [64Cu]Cu-neocuproine liposomes. Taken together, our results demonstrate the feasibility of targeting a copper nanotoxin that was encapsulated in thermosensitive liposomes containing an excess of copper.

11.
Theranostics ; 10(12): 5341-5356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373216

RESUMO

Acute ischemic stroke treatment faces an unresolved obstacle as capillary reperfusion remains insufficient after thrombolysis and thrombectomy causing neuronal damage and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-induced capillary constriction is mediated by actomyosin contraction in precapillary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) therefore smooth muscle myosin-2 could be an ideal target with potentially high impact on reperfusion of capillaries. Methods: The myosin-2 inhibitor para-aminoblebbistatin (AmBleb) was tested on isolated human and rat arterioles to assess the effect of AmBleb on vasodilatation. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed on 38 male Wistar rats followed by local administration of AmBleb into the ischemic brain area. Development of brain edema and changes in cerebrovascular blood flow were assessed using MRI and SPECT. We also tested the neurological deficit scores and locomotor asymmetry of the animals for 3 weeks after the MCAO operation. Results: Our results demonstrate that AmBleb could achieve full relaxation of isolated cerebral arterioles. In living animals AmBleb recovered cerebral blood flow in 32 out of the 65 affected functional brain areas in MCAO operated rats, whereas only 8 out of the 67 affected areas were recovered in the control animals. Animals treated with AmBleb also showed significantly improved general and focal deficit scores in neurological functional tests and showed significantly ameliorated locomotor asymmetry. Conclusion: Direct inhibition of smooth muscle myosin by AmBleb in pre-capillary SMCs significantly contribute to the improvement of cerebral blood reperfusion and brain functions suggesting that smooth muscle myosin inhibition may have promising potential in stroke therapies as a follow-up treatment of physical or chemical removal of the occluding thrombus.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2141, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034289

RESUMO

Antigen-specific redirection of immune effector cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) demonstrated high therapeutic potential for targeting cancers of different origins. Beside CAR-T cells, natural killer (NK) cells represent promising alternative effectors that can be combined with CAR technology. Unlike T cells, primary NK cells and the NK cell line NK-92 can be applied as allogeneic off-the-shelf products with a reduced risk of toxicities. We previously established a modular universal CAR (UniCAR) platform which consists of UniCAR-expressing immune cells that cannot recognize target antigens directly but are redirected by a tumour-specific target module (TM). The TM contains an antigen-binding moiety fused to a peptide epitope which is recognized by the UniCAR molecule, thereby allowing an on/off switch of CAR activity, and facilitating flexible targeting of various tumour antigens depending on the presence and specificity of the TM. Here, we provide proof of concept that it is feasible to generate a universal off-the-shelf cellular therapeutic based on UniCAR NK-92 cells targeted to tumours expressing the disialoganglioside GD2 by GD2-specific TMs that are either based on an antibody-derived single-chain fragment variable (scFv) or an IgG4 backbone. Redirected UniCAR NK-92 cells induced specific killing of GD2-expressing cells in vitro and in vivo, associated with enhanced production of interferon-γ. Analysis of radiolabelled proteins demonstrated that the IgG4-based format increased the in vivo half-life of the TM markedly in comparison to the scFv-based molecule. In summary, UniCAR NK-92 cells represent a universal off-the-shelf platform that is highly effective and flexible, allowing the use of different TM formats for specific tumour targeting.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeos/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia
13.
Chemistry ; 26(9): 1989-2001, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755596

RESUMO

Bifunctional chelators as parts of modular metal-based radiopharmaceuticals are responsible for stable complexation of the radiometal ion and for covalent linkage between the complex and the targeting vector. To avoid loss of complex stability, the bioconjugation strategy should not interfere with the radiometal chelation by occupying coordinating groups. The C9 position of the very stable CuII chelator 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (bispidine) is virtually predestined to introduce functional groups for facile bioconjugation as this functionalisation does not disturb the metal binding centre. We describe the preparation and characterisation of a set of novel bispidine derivatives equipped with suitable functional groups for diverse bioconjugation reactions, including common amine coupling strategies (bispidine-isothiocyanate) and the Cu-free strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition. We demonstrate their functionality and versatility in an exemplary way by conjugation to an antibody-based biomolecule and validate the obtained conjugate in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Quelantes/química , Cobre/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Reação de Cicloadição , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Transplante Heterólogo
15.
EJNMMI Res ; 9(1): 67, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to present a new data analysis technique for the early detection of tumorous lesions using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Beyond standardized uptake value (SUV) and standardized uptake concentration (SUC), the skewness and kurtosis parameters of whole liver activity distribution histograms were examined in SPECT images to reveal the presence of tumorous cells. METHODS: Four groups of mice were used in our experiment: a healthy control group, a group of obese mice with high body mass index, and two tumorous groups (primary liver cancer group with chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); metastatic liver tumor group-xenograft of human melanoma (HM)). For the SPECT measurements, 99mTc-labeled aggregated albumin nanoparticles were administered intravenously 2 h before the liver SPECT scans (NanoSPECT/CT, Silver Upgrade, Mediso Ltd., Hungary) to image liver macrophages. Finally, SUV, SUC, skewness, and kurtosis of activity distributions were calculated from segmented whole liver volumes. RESULTS: HCC animals showed moderate 99mTc-albumin particle uptake with some visually identified cold spots indicating the presence of tumors. The visual detection of cold spots however was not a reliable marker of tumorous tissue in the metastatic group. The calculated SUV, SUC, and kurtosis parameters were not able to differentiate between the healthy and the tumorous groups. However, healthy and tumorous groups could be distinguished by comparing the skewness of the activity distribution. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, 99mTc-albumin nanoparticle injection followed by liver SPECT activity distribution skewness calculation is a suitable image analysis tool. This makes possible to effectively and quantitatively investigate liver macrophage inhomogeneity and identify invisible but present liver cold spot lesions. Skewness as a direct image-derived parameter is able to show altered tissue function even before the visual manifestation of liver tumor foci. The skewness of activity distribution might be related to an inhomogeneous distribution of macrophage cells as a consequence of microscopic tumor burden in the liver.

16.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 134: 106-118, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594736

RESUMO

Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) are modified extracellular proteins, designed to replace or augment the oxygen-carrying capacity of erythrocytes. However, clinical results have generally been disappointing due to adverse side effects, in part linked to the intrinsic oxidative toxicity of Hb. Previously a redox-active tyrosine residue was engineered into the Hb ß subunit (ßF41Y) to facilitate electron transfer between endogenous antioxidants such as ascorbate and the oxidative ferryl heme species, converting the highly oxidizing ferryl species into the less reactive ferric (met) form. We inserted different single tyrosine mutations into the α and ß subunits of Hb to determine if this effect of ßF41Y was unique. Every mutation that was inserted within electron transfer range of the protein surface and the heme increased the rate of ferryl reduction. However, surprisingly, three of the mutations (ßT84Y, αL91Y and ßF85Y) also increased the rate of ascorbate reduction of ferric(met) Hb to ferrous(oxy) Hb. The rate enhancement was most evident at ascorbate concentrations equivalent to that found in plasma (< 100 µM), suggesting that it might be of benefit in decreasing oxidative stress in vivo. The most promising mutant (ßT84Y) was stable with no increase in autoxidation or heme loss. A decrease in membrane damage following Hb addition to HEK cells correlated with the ability of ßT84Y to maintain the protein in its oxygenated form. When PEGylated and injected into mice, ßT84Y was shown to have an increased vascular half time compared to wild type PEGylated Hb. ßT84Y represents a new class of mutations with the ability to enhance reduction of both ferryl and ferric Hb, and thus has potential to decrease adverse side effects as one component of a final HBOC product.


Assuntos
Substitutos Sanguíneos/química , Heme/química , Hemoglobinas/química , Ferro/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tirosina/química , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Substitutos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Células HEK293 , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Metemoglobina/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Oxirredução , Oxiemoglobinas/química , Tirosina/genética
17.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2018: 5906471, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515069

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is one of the most frequently applied treatments in oncology. Tissue-absorbed ionizing radiation damages not only targeted cells but the surrounding cells too. The consequent long-term induced oxidative stress, irreversible tissue damage, or second malignancies draw attention to the urgent need of a follow-up medical method by which personalized treatment could be attained and the actually dose-limiting organ could be monitored in the clinical practice. We worked out a special hemisphere irradiation technique for mice which mimics the radiation exposure during radiotherapy. We followed up the changes of possible brain imaging biomarkers of side effects, such as cerebral blood flow, vascular endothelial function, and cellular metabolic processes for 60 days. BALB/c mice were divided into two groups (n=6 per group) based on the irradiation doses (5 and 20 Gy). After the irradiation procedure arterial spin labeling (ASL), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in magnetic resonance modality and [18F]fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans of the brain were obtained at several time points (3, 7, 30, and 60 days after the irradiation). Significant physiological changes were registered in the brain of animals following the irradiation by both applied doses. Elevated standard uptake values were detected all over the brain by FDG-PET studies 2 months after the irradiation. The apparent diffusion coefficients from DWI scans significantly decreased one month after the irradiation procedure, while ASL studies did not show any significant perfusion changes in the brain. Altogether, our sensitive multimodal imaging protocol seems to be an appropriate method for follow-up of the health status after radiation therapy. The presented approach makes possible parallel screening of healthy tissues and the effectiveness of tumor therapy without any additional radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/radioterapia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Med Chem ; 61(19): 8774-8796, 2018 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180567

RESUMO

Bifunctional derivatives of bis(phosphinate)-bearing cyclam (BPC) chelators bearing a carboxylate, amine, isothiocyanate, azide, or cyclooctyne in the BP side chain were synthesized. Conjugations required no protection of phosphinate or ring secondary amine groups. The ring amines were not reactive (proton protected) at pH < ∼8. For isothiocyanate coupling, oligopeptide N-terminal α-amines were more suitable than alkyl amines, e.g., Lys ω-amine (p Ka ∼7.5-8.5 and ∼10-11, respectively) due to lower basicity. The Cu-64 labeling was efficient at room temperature (specific activity ∼100 GBq/µmol; 25 °C, pH 6.2, ∼100 ligand equiv, 10 min). A representative Cu-64-BPC was tested in vivo showing fast clearance and no nonspecific radioactivity deposition. The monoclonal anti-PSCA antibody 7F5 conjugates with thiocyanate BPC derivative or NODAGA were radiolabeled and studied in PC3-PSCA tumor bearing mice by PET. The radiolabeled BPC conjugate was accumulated in the prostate tumor with a low off-target uptake, unlike Cu-64-labeled NODAGA-antibody conjugate. The BPC chelators have a great potential for theranostic applications of the Cu-64/Cu-67 matched pair.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Quelantes/química , Radioisótopos de Cobre/química , Imunoconjugados/química , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/química , Ácidos Fosfínicos/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Quelantes/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Cobre/farmacocinética , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Imunoconjugados/farmacocinética , Marcação por Isótopo , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacocinética , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Ratos Nus , Ratos Wistar , Distribuição Tecidual , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204423, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252902

RESUMO

Although an extensive research is being undertaken, the ideal bone graft and evaluation method of the bone formation draw still a warranted attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel multimodal radiomics evaluation method, utilizing X-ray computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc-99m-Methyl diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP) tracer. These modalities are intended to provide quantitative data concerning the mineral bone density (after evaluation it is referred to as opacity) and the osteoblast activity, at the same time. The properties of bone formation process within poly (methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement graft (PMMA) was compared to that of albumin coated, sterilized, antigen-extracted freeze-dried human bone grafts (HLBC), in caudal vertebrae (C5) of rats. The animals were scanned at 3 and 8 weeks after surgery. In both groups, the mean opacity increased, while the mean Tc-99m-MDP activity decreased. The later parameter was significant (n = 4, p = 0.002) only in HLBC group. The linear regression analysis of PMMA-treated group variables (mean opacity increase; mean Tc-99m-MDP activity decrease), revealed a negative correlation with the medium strength (r = 0.395, p = 0.605). Whereas, it showed strong positive correlation when HLBC group variables were analyzed (r = 0.772, p = 0.012). These results indicate that using HLBC grafts is advantageous in terms of the osteoblast activity and bone vascularization over PMMA cement. Using this regression analysis method, we were able to distinguish characteristics that otherwise could not be distinguished by a regular data analysis. Hence, we propose utilizing this novel method in preclinical tests, and in clinical monitoring of bone healing, in order to improve diagnosis of bone-related diseases.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Osteogênese , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Br J Pharmacol ; 175(18): 3713-3726, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidence and severity of obesity are increasing worldwide, however, efficient and safe pharmacological treatments are not yet available. Certain MAO inhibitors reduce body weight, although their effects on metabolic parameters have not been investigated. Here, we have assessed effects of a widely used, selective MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline, on metabolic parameters in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Long-Evans rats were given control (CON) or a high-fat (20%), high-sucrose (15%) diet (HFS) for 25 weeks. From week 16, animals were injected s.c. with 0.25 mg·kg-1 selegiline (CON + S and HFS + S) or vehicle (CON, HFS) once daily. Whole body, subcutaneous and visceral fat was measured by CT, and glucose and insulin tolerance were tested. Expression of glucose transporters and chemokines was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS: Selegiline decreased whole body fat, subcutaneous- and visceral adiposity, measured by CT and epididymal fat weight in the HFS group, compared with HFS placebo animals, without influencing body weight. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests showed impaired glucose homeostasis in HFS and HFS + S groups, although insulin levels in plasma and pancreas were unchanged. HFS induced expression of Srebp-1c, Glut1 and Ccl3 in adipose tissue, which were alleviated by selegiline. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Selegiline reduced adiposity, changes in adipose tissue energy metabolism and adipose inflammation induced by HFS diet without affecting the increased body weight, impairment of glucose homeostasis, or behaviour. These results suggest that selegiline could mitigate harmful effects of visceral adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Selegilina/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL3/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Sístole
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