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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170024

RESUMO

Background - Individual risk prediction based on genome-wide polygenic risk scores (PRS) utilizing millions of genetic variants has attracted much attention. It is under debate whether PRS models can be applied - without loss of precision - to populations of similar ethnic but different geographical background than the one the scores were trained on. Here, we examine how PRS trained in population-specific but European data sets perform in other European subpopulations in distinguishing between coronary artery disease patients and healthy individuals. Methods - We use data from UK and Estonian biobanks (UKB, EB) as well as case-control data from the German population (DE) to develop and evaluate PRS in the same and different populations. Results - PRS have the highest performance in their corresponding population testing data sets, whereas their performance significantly drops if applied to testing data sets from different European populations. Models trained on DE data revealed AUCs in independent testing sets in DE: 0.6752, EB: 0.6156, and UKB: 0.5989; trained on EB and tested on EB: 0.6565, DE: 0.5407, and UKB: 0.6043; trained on UKB and tested on UKB: 0.6133, DE: 0.5143 and EB: 0.6049. Conclusions - This result has direct impact on the clinical usability of PRS for risk prediction models utilizing PRS: a population effect must be kept in mind when applying risk estimation models which are based on additional genetic information even for individuals from different European populations of the same ethnicity.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243845

RESUMO

There is currently limited understanding of the genetic aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We aimed at identifying genetic loci associated with OSA risk and to test if OSA and its comorbidities share a common genetic background.We conducted the first large-scale genome-wide association study of OSA using FinnGen Study (217 955 individuals) with 16 761 OSA patients identified using nationwide health registries.We estimated 8.3% [0.06-0.11] heritability and identified five loci associated with OSA (p<5.0×10-8): rs4837016 near GTPase activating protein and VPS9 domains 1 (GAPVD1), rs10928560 near C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), rs185932673 near Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID (CAMK1D) and rs9937053 near Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) - a variant previously associated with body mass index (BMI). In a BMI-adjusted analysis, an association was observed for rs10507084 near Rhabdomyosarcoma 2 associated transcript (RMST)/NEDD1 gamma-tubulin ring complex targeting factor (NEDD1). We found high genetic correlations between OSA and BMI (rg=0.72 [0.62-0.83]) and with comorbidities including hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, depression, hypothyroidism, asthma and inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) (rg>0.30). Polygenic risk score (PRS) for BMI showed 1.98-fold increased OSA risk between the highest and the lowest quintile and Mendelian randomisation supported a causal relationship between BMI and OSA.Our findings support the causal link between obesity and OSA and joint genetic basis between OSA and comorbidities.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 612-621, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888428

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity reactions to drugs are often unpredictable and can be life threatening, underscoring a need for understanding their underlying mechanisms and risk factors. The extent to which germline genetic variation influences the risk of commonly reported drug allergies such as penicillin allergy remains largely unknown. We extracted data from the electronic health records of more than 600,000 participants from the UK, Estonian, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center's BioVU biobanks to study the role of genetic variation in the occurrence of self-reported penicillin hypersensitivity reactions. We used imputed SNP to HLA typing data from these cohorts to further fine map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association and replicated our results in 23andMe's research cohort involving a total of 1.12 million individuals. Genome-wide meta-analysis of penicillin allergy revealed two loci, including one located in the HLA region on chromosome 6. This signal was further fine-mapped to the HLA-B∗55:01 allele (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.33-1.49, p value 2.04 × 10-31) and confirmed by independent replication in 23andMe's research cohort (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.25-1.34, p value 1.00 × 10-47). The lead SNP was also associated with lower lymphocyte counts and in silico follow-up suggests a potential effect on T-lymphocytes at HLA-B∗55:01. We also observed a significant hit in PTPN22 and the GWAS results correlated with the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. We present robust evidence for the role of an allele of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I gene HLA-B in the occurrence of penicillin allergy.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(11): 1580-1591, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712624

RESUMO

Several recent studies detected fine-scale genetic structure in human populations. Hence, groups conventionally treated as single populations harbour significant variation in terms of allele frequencies and patterns of haplotype sharing. It has been shown that these findings should be considered when performing studies of genetic associations and natural selection, especially when dealing with polygenic phenotypes. However, there is little understanding of the practical effects of such genetic structure on demography reconstructions and selection scans when focusing on recent population history. Here we tested the impact of population structure on such inferences using high-coverage (~30×) genome sequences of 2305 Estonians. We show that different regions of Estonia differ in both effective population size dynamics and signatures of natural selection. By analyzing identity-by-descent segments we also reveal that some Estonian regions exhibit evidence of a bottleneck 10-15 generations ago reflecting sequential episodes of wars, plague and famine, although this signal is virtually undetected when treating Estonia as a single population. Besides that, we provide a framework for relating effective population size estimated from genetic data to actual census size and validate it on the Estonian population. This approach may be widely used both to cross-check estimates based on historical sources as well as to get insight into times and/or regions with no other information available. Our results suggest that the history of human populations within the last few millennia can be highly region specific and cannot be properly studied without taking local genetic structure into account.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(549)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581134

RESUMO

Inhibition of sclerostin is a therapeutic approach to lowering fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. However, data from phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of romosozumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin, suggest an imbalance of serious cardiovascular events, and regulatory agencies have issued marketing authorizations with warnings of cardiovascular disease. Here, we meta-analyze published and unpublished cardiovascular outcome trial data of romosozumab and investigate whether genetic variants that mimic therapeutic inhibition of sclerostin are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Meta-analysis of up to three RCTs indicated a probable higher risk of cardiovascular events with romosozumab. Scaled to the equivalent dose of romosozumab (210 milligrams per month; 0.09 grams per square centimeter of higher bone mineral density), the SOST genetic variants were associated with lower risk of fracture and osteoporosis (commensurate with the therapeutic effect of romosozumab) and with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization and major adverse cardiovascular events. The same variants were also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and higher systolic blood pressure and central adiposity. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of sclerostin may elevate cardiovascular risk, warranting a rigorous evaluation of the cardiovascular safety of romosozumab and other sclerostin inhibitors.

6.
Cell ; 181(6): 1246-1262.e22, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442405

RESUMO

There is considerable inter-individual variability in susceptibility to weight gain despite an equally obesogenic environment in large parts of the world. Whereas many studies have focused on identifying the genetic susceptibility to obesity, we performed a GWAS on metabolically healthy thin individuals (lowest 6th percentile of the population-wide BMI spectrum) in a uniquely phenotyped Estonian cohort. We discovered anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) as a candidate thinness gene. In Drosophila, RNAi mediated knockdown of Alk led to decreased triglyceride levels. In mice, genetic deletion of Alk resulted in thin animals with marked resistance to diet- and leptin-mutation-induced obesity. Mechanistically, we found that ALK expression in hypothalamic neurons controls energy expenditure via sympathetic control of adipose tissue lipolysis. Our genetic and mechanistic experiments identify ALK as a thinness gene, which is involved in the resistance to weight gain.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1628, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242022

RESUMO

Polygenic Scores (PSs) describe the genetic component of an individual's quantitative phenotype or their susceptibility to diseases with a genetic basis. Currently, PSs rely on population-dependent contributions of many associated alleles, with limited applicability to understudied populations and recently admixed individuals. Here we introduce a combination of local ancestry deconvolution and partial PS computation to account for the population-specific nature of the association signals in individuals with admixed ancestry. We demonstrate partial PS to be a proxy for the total PS and that a portion of the genome is enough to improve susceptibility predictions for the traits we test. By combining partial PSs from different populations, we are able to improve trait predictability in admixed individuals with some European ancestry. These results may extend the applicability of PSs to subjects with a complex history of admixture, where current methods cannot be applied.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 389-404, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109421

RESUMO

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable biomarker of genomic aging. In this study, we perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of LTL by pooling densely genotyped and imputed association results across large-scale European-descent studies including up to 78,592 individuals. We identify 49 genomic regions at a false dicovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 threshold and prioritize genes at 31, with five highlighting nucleotide metabolism as an important regulator of LTL. We report six genome-wide significant loci in or near SENP7, MOB1B, CARMIL1, PRRC2A, TERF2, and RFWD3, and our results support recently identified PARP1, POT1, ATM, and MPHOSPH6 loci. Phenome-wide analyses in >350,000 UK Biobank participants suggest that genetically shorter telomere length increases the risk of hypothyroidism and decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, lymphoma, and a range of proliferative conditions. Our results replicate previously reported associations with increased risk of coronary artery disease and lower risk for multiple cancer types. Our findings substantially expand current knowledge on genes that regulate LTL and their impact on human health and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Telômero , Humanos
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 759, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery disease contributes to noncommunicable disease deaths worldwide. In order to make preventive methods more accurate, we need to know more about the development and progress of this pathology, including the genetic aspects. Humanin is a small peptide known for its cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic properties. Our study looked for genomic associations between humanin-like nuclear isoform genes and coronary artery disease using CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium data. RESULTS: Lookup from meta-analysis datasets gave single nucleotide polymorphisms in all 13 humanin-like nuclear isoform genes with the lowest P value for rs6151662 from the MTRNR2L2 gene including the 50 kb flanking region in both directions (P-value = 0.0037). Within the gene region alone the top variant was rs78083998 from the MTRNR2L13 region (meta-analysis P-value = 0.042). None of the found associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Lookup for expression trait loci in these gene regions gave no statistically significant variants.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Proteínas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5086, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704910

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of an individual's phenotype from their DNA sequence is one of the great promises of genomics and precision medicine. We extend a powerful individual-level data Bayesian multiple regression model (BayesR) to one that utilises summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), SBayesR. In simulation and cross-validation using 12 real traits and 1.1 million variants on 350,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, SBayesR improves prediction accuracy relative to commonly used state-of-the-art summary statistics methods at a fraction of the computational resources. Furthermore, using summary statistics for variants from the largest GWAS meta-analysis (n ≈ 700, 000) on height and BMI, we show that on average across traits and two independent data sets that SBayesR improves prediction R2 by 5.2% relative to LDpred and by 26.5% relative to clumping and p value thresholding.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Análise de Regressão , Tecido Adiposo , Alopecia/genética , Metabolismo Basal/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Composição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estatística como Assunto , Capacidade Vital/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril
13.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1699-1705, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686035

RESUMO

Although chromosomal instability (CIN) is a common phenomenon in cleavage-stage embryogenesis following in vitro fertilization (IVF)1-3, its rate in naturally conceived human embryos is unknown. CIN leads to mosaic embryos that contain a combination of genetically normal and abnormal cells, and is significantly higher in in vitro-produced preimplantation embryos as compared to in vivo-conceived preimplantation embryos4. Even though embryos with CIN-derived complex aneuploidies may arrest between the cleavage and blastocyst stages of embryogenesis5,6, a high number of embryos containing abnormal cells can pass this strong selection barrier7,8. However, neither the prevalence nor extent of CIN during prenatal development and at birth, following IVF treatment, is well understood. Here we profiled the genomic landscape of fetal and placental tissues postpartum from both IVF and naturally conceived children, to investigate the prevalence and persistence of large genetic aberrations that probably arose from IVF-related CIN. We demonstrate that CIN is not preserved at later stages of prenatal development, and that de novo numerical aberrations or large structural DNA imbalances occur at similar rates in IVF and naturally conceived live-born neonates. Our findings affirm that human IVF treatment has no detrimental effect on the chromosomal constitution of fetal and placental lineages.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Feto , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez
14.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008405, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647808

RESUMO

Obesity traits are causally implicated with risk of cardiometabolic diseases. It remains unclear whether there are similar causal effects of obesity traits on other non-communicable diseases. Also, it is largely unexplored whether there are any sex-specific differences in the causal effects of obesity traits on cardiometabolic diseases and other leading causes of death. We constructed sex-specific genetic risk scores (GRS) for three obesity traits; body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and WHR adjusted for BMI, including 565, 324, and 337 genetic variants, respectively. These GRSs were then used as instrumental variables to assess associations between the obesity traits and leading causes of mortality in the UK Biobank using Mendelian randomization. We also investigated associations with potential mediators, including smoking, glycemic and blood pressure traits. Sex-differences were subsequently assessed by Cochran's Q-test (Phet). A Mendelian randomization analysis of 228,466 women and 195,041 men showed that obesity causes coronary artery disease, stroke (particularly ischemic), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, type 2 and 1 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver disease, and acute and chronic renal failure. Higher BMI led to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women than in men (Phet = 1.4×10-5). Waist-hip-ratio led to a higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Phet = 3.7×10-6) and higher risk of chronic renal failure (Phet = 1.0×10-4) in men than women. Obesity traits have an etiological role in the majority of the leading global causes of death. Sex differences exist in the effects of obesity traits on risk of type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and renal failure, which may have downstream implications for public health.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Obesidade/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Relação Cintura-Quadril
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4626, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604923

RESUMO

Infertility in men and women is a complex genetic trait with shared biological bases between the sexes. Here, we perform a series of rare variant analyses across 73,185 women and men to identify genes that contribute to primary gonadal dysfunction. We report CSMD1, a complement regulatory protein on chromosome 8p23, as a strong candidate locus in both sexes. We show that CSMD1 is enriched at the germ-cell/somatic-cell interface in both male and female gonads. Csmd1-knockout males show increased rates of infertility with significantly increased complement C3 protein deposition in the testes, accompanied by severe histological degeneration. Knockout females show significant reduction in ovarian quality and breeding success, as well as mammary branching impairment. Double knockout of Csmd1 and C3 causes non-additive reduction in breeding success, suggesting that CSMD1 and the complement pathway play an important role in the normal postnatal development of the gonads in both sexes.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Menopausa/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Ovário/patologia , Maturidade Sexual , Testículo/metabolismo
16.
Diabetes ; 68(12): 2235-2246, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506345

RESUMO

Extreme obesity (EO) (BMI >50 kg/m2) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric disease (NPD). As both EO and NPD are heritable central nervous system disorders, we assessed the prevalence of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) and copy number variants (CNVs) in genes/regions previously implicated in NPD in adults with EO (n = 149) referred for weight loss/bariatric surgery. We also assessed the prevalence of CNVs in patients referred to University College London Hospital (UCLH) with EO (n = 218) and obesity (O) (BMI 35-50 kg/m2; n = 374) and a Swedish cohort of participants from the community with predominantly O (n = 161). The prevalence of variants was compared with control subjects in the Exome Aggregation Consortium/Genome Aggregation Database. In the discovery cohort (high NPD prevalence: 77%), the cumulative PTV/CNV allele frequency (AF) was 7.7% vs. 2.6% in control subjects (odds ratio [OR] 3.1 [95% CI 2-4.1]; P < 0.0001). In the UCLH EO cohort (intermediate NPD prevalence: 47%), CNV AF (1.8% vs. 0.9% in control subjects; OR 1.95 [95% CI 0.96-3.93]; P = 0.06) was lower than the discovery cohort. CNV AF was not increased in the UCLH O cohort (0.8%). No CNVs were identified in the Swedish cohort with no NPD. These findings suggest that PTV/CNVs, in genes/regions previously associated with NPD, may contribute to NPD in patients with EO.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suécia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 815-830, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332826

RESUMO

Genotype-stratified variance of a quantitative trait could differ in the presence of gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Genetic markers associated with phenotypic variance are thus considered promising candidates for follow-up interaction or joint location-scale analyses. However, as in studies of main effects, the X-chromosome is routinely excluded from "whole-genome" scans due to analytical challenges. Specifically, as males carry only one copy of the X-chromosome, the inherent sex-genotype dependency could bias the trait-genotype association, through sexual dimorphism in quantitative traits with sex-specific means or variances. Here we investigate phenotypic variance heterogeneity associated with X-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and propose valid and powerful strategies. Among those, a generalized Levene's test has adequate power and remains robust to sexual dimorphism. An alternative approach is a sex-stratified analysis but at the cost of slightly reduced power and modeling flexibility. We applied both methods to an Estonian study of gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL; n = 841), and two complex trait studies of height, hip, and waist circumferences, and body mass index from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; n = 2,073) and UK Biobank (UKB; n = 327,393). Consistent with previous eQTL findings on mean, we found some but no conclusive evidence for cis regulators being enriched for variance association. SNP rs2681646 is associated with variance of waist circumference (p = 9.5E-07) at X-chromosome-wide significance in UKB, with a suggestive female-specific effect in MESA (p = 0.048). Collectively, an enrichment analysis using permutated UKB (p < 0.1) and MESA (p < 0.01) datasets, suggests a possible polygenic structure for the variance of human height.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 557, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Published genetic risk scores for breast cancer (BC) so far have been based on a relatively small number of markers and are not necessarily using the full potential of large-scale Genome-Wide Association Studies. This study aimed to identify an efficient polygenic predictor for BC based on best available evidence and to assess its potential for personalized risk prediction and screening strategies. METHODS: Four different genetic risk scores (two already published and two newly developed) and their combinations (metaGRS) were compared in the subsets of two population-based biobank cohorts: the UK Biobank (UKBB, 3157 BC cases, 43,827 controls) and Estonian Biobank (EstBB, 317 prevalent and 308 incident BC cases in 32,557 women). In addition, correlations between different genetic risk scores and their associations with BC risk factors were studied in both cohorts. RESULTS: The metaGRS that combines two genetic risk scores (metaGRS2 - based on 75 and 898 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, respectively) had the strongest association with prevalent BC status in both cohorts. One standard deviation difference in the metaGRS2 corresponded to an Odds Ratio = 1.6 (95% CI 1.54 to 1.66, p = 9.7*10- 135) in the UK Biobank and accounting for family history marginally attenuated the effect (Odds Ratio = 1.58, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.64, p = 7.8*10- 129). In the EstBB cohort, the hazard ratio of incident BC for the women in the top 5% of the metaGRS2 compared to women in the lowest 50% was 4.2 (95% CI 2.8 to 6.2, p = 8.1*10- 13). The different GRSs were only moderately correlated with each other and were associated with different known predictors of BC. The classification of genetic risk for the same individual varied considerably depending on the chosen GRS. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that metaGRS2, that combined on the effects of more than 900 SNPs, provided best predictive ability for breast cancer in two different population-based cohorts. The strength of the effect of metaGRS2 indicates that the GRS could potentially be used to develop more efficient strategies for breast cancer screening for genotyped women.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genótipo , Herança Multifatorial , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Grupos Populacionais , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Risco
20.
Curr Biol ; 29(10): 1701-1711.e16, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080083

RESUMO

In this study, we compare the genetic ancestry of individuals from two as yet genetically unstudied cultural traditions in Estonia in the context of available modern and ancient datasets: 15 from the Late Bronze Age stone-cist graves (1200-400 BC) (EstBA) and 6 from the Pre-Roman Iron Age tarand cemeteries (800/500 BC-50 AD) (EstIA). We also included 5 Pre-Roman to Roman Iron Age Ingrian (500 BC-450 AD) (IngIA) and 7 Middle Age Estonian (1200-1600 AD) (EstMA) individuals to build a dataset for studying the demographic history of the northern parts of the Eastern Baltic from the earliest layer of Mesolithic to modern times. Our findings are consistent with EstBA receiving gene flow from regions with strong Western hunter-gatherer (WHG) affinities and EstIA from populations related to modern Siberians. The latter inference is in accordance with Y chromosome (chrY) distributions in present day populations of the Eastern Baltic, as well as patterns of autosomal variation in the majority of the westernmost Uralic speakers [1-5]. This ancestry reached the coasts of the Baltic Sea no later than the mid-first millennium BC; i.e., in the same time window as the diversification of west Uralic (Finnic) languages [6]. Furthermore, phenotypic traits often associated with modern Northern Europeans, like light eyes, hair, and skin, as well as lactose tolerance, can be traced back to the Bronze Age in the Eastern Baltic. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

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