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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 501-509, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive scientific debate is ongoing about whether moderate solarium use increases melanoma risk. The authors of some recent publications demand the debate be closed and propose "actions against solarium use for skin cancer prevention" because new studies have convincingly demonstrated causality. This minireview aims to investigate whether those demands are sufficiently supported by present scientific knowledge and comply with the principles of evidence-based medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search (through June 2019; PubMed, ISI Web of Science) to identify publications investigating how solarium use affects melanoma risk. RESULTS: We found no studies that demonstrate a causal relationship between moderate solarium use and melanoma risk. Results of cohort and case-control studies published to date, including recent investigations, do not prove causality, and randomized controlled trials providing unequivocal proof are still lacking. Moreover, the overall quality of observational studies is low as a result of severe limitations (including unobserved or unrecorded confounding), possibly leading to bias. We also disagree with recent claims that Hill's criteria for the epidemiological evidence of a causal relationship between a potential causal factor and an observed effect are fulfilled in regard to the conclusion that moderate solarium use per se would increase melanoma risk Conclusion: Current scientific knowledge does not demonstrate a causal relationship between moderate solarium use and melanoma risk. Therefore, the debate is not closed.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-glucans are effective in binding bile acids (BA) thereby lowering cholesterol concentration. This might contribute to the beneficial effects of the consumption of ß-glucan-rich foods like oatmeal on glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: We measured BA serum concentrations in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to investigate the effect of two days of oatmeal treatment on BA concentration as compared to a conventional T2DM-adapted diet. METHODS: The OatMeal And Insulin Resistance study was performed as a randomized, open label crossover dietary intervention study with consecutive inclusion of 15 patients in an inpatient clinical setting. Bile acids were measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry. For statistical analysis, the differences in the concentration of serum BA and laboratory parameters between the fifth day and the third day of each inpatient stay were calculated and the effect compared between both phases by using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Whereas there was a mean decrease in total BA following oatmeal treatment (-0.82±1.14 µmol/l), there was no decrease following the control treatment. Glycocholic acid was lower after oatmeal treatment but higher following control treatment (-0.09±0.17 vs. 0.05±0.11 µmol/l). The reduction in total BA was directly correlated with a decrease in proinsulin during the oatmeal phase. Decreases in blood lipids or apolipoproteins were mostly greater after oatmeal treatment, but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Two days of oatmeal diet led to significant reductions in total BA as compared to a diabetes-adapted control diet. The magnitude of BA reduction was directly correlated with a decrease in proinsulin.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 292: 52-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis and smoking is a well-known risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to analyse the effect of smoking on circulating markers of endothelial function and to investigate whether such effects have an influence on the potential use of these markers to estimate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Stratified for smoking, levels of sE-/sP-/sL-selectin, von Willebrand (vWF), sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, their association with mortality using Cox regression, and their accuracy of risk prediction using area-under-the-ROC-curve and net-reclassification-index were analysed in 1926 participants from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) - a prospective case-control study in patients who underwent coronary angiography with a median mortality follow-up of 10.6 years. RESULTS: In smokers, higher concentrations of sICAM-1, sE-selectin sP-selectin, but lower concentrations of sL-selectin and sVCAM-1, were detected compared to never-smokers. A direct association with mortality was found for levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF regardless of smoking. Low sL-selectin levels were inversely associated with mortality in heavy and light smokers, with hazard ratios of 0.72 and 0.67 per 1-SD increase, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Adding sL-selectin to a model based on traditional risk factors significantly improved AUC from 0.725 to 0.752 (p = 0.034) with an NRI of 43% (16.9%-62.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking alters the concentration of circulating markers of endothelial function. sL-selectin is decreased in smokers, inversely associated with risk, and could be a useful marker to improve risk prediction.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(1): 103-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low individual socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for morbidity and mortality. A related measure is the area-based SES (abSES), which describes the average SES of a region. The association of measures of abSES with morbidity and mortality is less well studied. METHODS: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study consists of 3316 patients hospitalized for coronary angiography between 1997 and 2000 at a tertiary care centre in Germany. Patients were followed up for a median of 10 years. Two measures of abSES were used: the regional purchasing index (PPI, data obtained from IQVIA GmbH) and the German Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (GISD, developed by the Robert-Koch Institute). The association of abSES with disease and with mortality was analysed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. RESULTS: Study participants living in regions with higher abSES had lower HbA1c and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. A higher abSES was associated with lower prevalence of active smoking, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus. We further found significantly increased mortality for participants in the lowest PPI quartile (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.38-0.90) as compared to the first quartile), and in the highest GISD tertile (HR of 1.32 (1.13-1.54) as compared to the first tertile). CONCLUSION: Living in an area with a low abSES was associated with a higher burden of diabetes mellitus, a higher percentage of severe vitamin D deficiency, higher systemic inflammation and a significant increase in mortality.

6.
Nat Immunol ; 21(1): 30-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819254

RESUMO

NLRP3-inflammasome-driven inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Identification of endogenous inflammasome activators is essential for the development of new anti-inflammatory treatment strategies. Here, we identified that apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC3) activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes by inducing an alternative NLRP3 inflammasome via caspase-8 and dimerization of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Alternative inflammasome activation in human monocytes is mediated by the Toll-like receptor adapter protein SCIMP. This triggers Lyn/Syk-dependent calcium entry and the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to activation of caspase-8. In humanized mouse models, ApoC3 activated human monocytes in vivo to impede endothelial regeneration and promote kidney injury in an NLRP3- and caspase-8-dependent manner. These data provide new insights into the regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the pathophysiological role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins containing ApoC3. Targeting ApoC3 might prevent organ damage and provide an anti-inflammatory treatment for vascular and kidney diseases.

7.
8.
Atheroscler Suppl ; 40: 94-99, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite improved treatment, premature cardiovascular (CV) events remain a major health problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of risk factors in patients with premature CV events. METHODS: CV risk factors (CVRF) were evaluated in 130 patients with a history of CV events (myocardial infarction, stroke, limb ischemia, stent and bypass intervention in any vessel bed) under 50 years of age attending our lipid clinic. Patients were also stratified according to their Lp(a) concentrations: group 1: 0-45 nmol/l (<18 mg/dl); group 2: >45-120 nmol/l (>18-50 mg/dl); group 3: >120 nmol/l (>50 mg/dl). RESULTS: The most common risk factors in our patients were male sex (75%), current (61%) and previous smoking (9%), arterial hypertension (70%), and a positive family history of early CV events (54%) and hyperlipidemia (69%). Only 27% had a BMI >30 kg/m2 and 14% had diabetes mellitus. 69% of patients with premature CV disease (CVD) showed Lp(a) levels > 120 nmol/l (>50 mg/dl). Patients with the highest Lp(a) showed a tendency of more frequent positive family histories of hyperlipidemia. They had experienced their first CV event on average 3 years earlier than those with low Lp(a). CV events predominantly involved coronary arteries. 85% of patients experienced at least one coronary event. CONCLUSION: In patients with premature CV disease male sex, smoking, hypertension, a positive family history and elevated Lp(a) are the most important CV risk factors. Lp(a) should be considered in the management of young patients with CV disease.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640241

RESUMO

25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is commonly measured to assess vitamin D status. Other vitamin D metabolites such as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) provide additional insights into vitamin D status or metabolism. Earlier studies suggested that the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR), calculated as 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, could predict the 25(OH)D increase after vitamin D supplementation. However, the evidence for this additional value is inconclusive. Therefore, our aim was to assess whether the increase in 25(OH)D after supplementation was predicted by the VMR better than baseline 25(OH)D. Plasma samples of 106 individuals (25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L) with hypertension who completed the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (NC.T.02136771) were analyzed. Participants received vitamin D (2800 IU daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. The treatment effect (ANCOVA) for 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and the VMR was 32 nmol/L, 3.3 nmol/L and 0.015 (all p < 0.001), respectively. Baseline 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 predicted the change in 25(OH)D3 with comparable strength and magnitude. Correlation and regression analysis showed that the VMR did not predict the change in 25(OH)D3. Therefore, our data do not support routine measurement of 24,25(OH)2D3 in order to individually optimize the dosage of vitamin D supplementation. Our data also suggest that activity of 24-hydroxylase increases after vitamin D supplementation.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 127-131, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The CD40-CD40 Ligand (CD40L) system has an important role in vascular inflammation. For this reason, we assessed the association of soluble CD40L with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD40L were determined in 2759 persons using an enzyme immunoassay. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the association between plasma concentration of sCD40 ligand and short-term (12 months) and long-term (10 years) mortality. Subpopulation analyses were conducted in seven different risk groups. Cox regression models were adjusted for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: The present study did not reveal significant association between sCD40L plasma levels and all-cause mortality, as well as cardiovascular mortality at one-year follow-up. In selected subgroups only, significant association between elevated sCD40L plasma levels and short-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality could be observed. With regard to long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality analyses, no significant correlation with increased plasma levels of sCD40L could be detected, neither overall nor in any subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble sCD40L is not associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in this large cohort. Only in selected patient subgroups elevated levels of sCD40L correlate with short-term mortality but this correlation disappears in long-term analysis.

11.
J Endocr Soc ; 3(9): 1748-1758, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528833

RESUMO

Context: The aldosterone-to-active renin ratio (AARR) is the recommended screening test for primary aldosteronism (PA), but prospective study data on its sensitivity and specificity are sparse. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the AARR for detecting PA. Design: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Setting: This study was conducted from February 2009 to August 2015 at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Participants: Four hundred patients with arterial hypertension who were referred to a tertiary care center for screening for endocrine hypertension. Intervention: Participants had a determination of the AARR (index test) and a second AARR determination followed by a saline infusion test (SIT) after 2 to 6 weeks. PA was diagnosed in individuals with any AARR ≥3.7 ng/dL/µU/mL [including a plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of ≥9 ng/dL] who had a PAC ≥10 ng/dL after the SIT. We did not substantially alter antihypertensive drug intake. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the AARR in diagnosing PA. Results: A total of 382 participants were eligible for analyses; PA was diagnosed in 18 (4.7%) patients. The area under the ROC curve of the AARR in detecting PA was 0.973 (95% CI, 0.956 to 0.990). Sensitivity and specificity for a positive AARR in diagnosing PA were 100% (95% CI, 81.5% to 100.0%) and 89.6% (95% CI, 86.0% to 92.5%), respectively. Conclusions: The AARR has good diagnostic accuracy for detecting PA.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(17): 7083-7097, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency and excess are associated with increased risk of age-related-diseases and mortality. It has been suggested that high- and low-B12 concentrations link to increased mortality through accelerated genomic aging and inflammation. Evidence to support this is limited. RESULTS: B12 was associated with all-cause-mortality, RTL and hsCRP in a non-linear fashion. The association between B12 and mortality was not independent, as it lost significance after adjustment for potential confounders. In the lowest-(LB12) and highest-(HB12) quartiles of B12 mortality was higher than in the mid-range (HR:LB12:1.23;CI95%:1.06-1.43; HR:HB12:1.24;CI95%:1.06-1.44). We divided subjects with LB12 in quartiles of their RTL. Those with the longest-telomeres had a lower mortality-rate (HR:0.57;95%CI:0.39-0.83) and lower homocysteine than those with the shortest-telomeres. Amongst subjects with HB12, those with long-telomeres also had a lower mortality than those with short-telomeres (HR:0.40;95%CI:0.27-0.59). IL-6 and hsCRP concentrations were low in HB12LT but were high in HB12ST. METHODS: B12, homocysteine, telomere length (RTL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitive-C-reactive-protein (hsCRP) were measured in 2970 participants of the LURIC study. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality, stratified according to B12 and RTL, seems to be driven by different mechanisms. In LB12 and HB12 subjects, mortality and accelerated telomere shortening might be driven by homocysteine and inflammation, respectively.

13.
Atherosclerosis ; 289: 206-213, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an established causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and other risk factors. The recognition of Lp(a) as an atherogenic molecule has raised the demand for reliable quantification methods in the clinical laboratory. The aim of this work is to compare commercial immunochemical assays. METHODS: We measured Lp(a) serum concentrations using six different assays, providing Lp(a) in mg/dl (Denka Seiken, Abbott Quantia, Beckman, Diasys 21FS, and Siemens N Latex) or in nmol/l (Roche TinaQuant, Diasys 21 FS) in 144 serum samples covering the clinically relevant range of Lp(a) concentrations. All assays relied on five-point calibrations using calibrators provided by the manufacturers. Apolipoprotein(a) phenotyping was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-agarose) followed by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Most bivariate correlation coefficients were greater than 0.90. Compared to an established IFCC-proposed reference material, the results of the different assays diverged from the target values (43.3 mg/dl or 96.6 nmol/l) by -8% (Siemens N Latex) and +22% (Abbott Quantia). Stratification of the samples into five groups with increasing Lp(a) concentrations and difference plots showed that the differences among assays were concentration-dependent. Some assays overestimated Lp(a) at high concentrations compared to the Denka Seiken assay. CONCLUSIONS: Current commercial immunological assays for measuring Lp(a) concentrations are differently calibrated. Their biases differ significantly across the clinically relevant concentration range in a non-linear manner. This is not conclusively explained by apolipoprotein (a) phenotypes. Further international efforts to harmonize assays for Lp(a) are needed.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415634

RESUMO

AIMS: The international-normalized-ratio (INR) is typically used to monitor patients on warfarin or related oral anticoagulant therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the INR with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients not on oral anticoagulant therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1997 to 2000 the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study enrolled 3316 patients of German ancestry that had been referred for coronary angiography. We excluded patients on coumarin therapy (n = 222) and patients with an INR more than 5 standard deviations (SD) away from the mean (n = 30). During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 884 patients died, 547 patients from cardiovascular causes. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors the INR was associated with all-cause mortality in all patients and the CAD positive group with HRs (95% CI) of 1.14(1.07-1.21) and 1.16(1.09-1.23) per 1-SD increase, respectively. Adjustment for NT-proBNP rendered the association insignificant. CONCLUSION: In LURIC, the INR was positively associated with mortality in patients with prevalent CAD not on oral anticoagulant therapy as well as in patients without CAD. Adjustment for NT-proBNP abolished the association suggesting clinical or subclinical heart failure strongly contributing to increased INR and higher mortality.

16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate biomarkers representing low-grade systemic inflammation and their association with cardiovascular mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. METHODS: The included 3134 consecutive patients underwent coronary angiography between June 1997 and May 2001 with a median follow-up of 9.9 years. Plasma levels of IL-6, and acute-phase reactants serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. SAA and IL-6 polymorphisms were genotyped. RESULTS: During a median observation time of 9.9 years, 949 deaths (30.3%) occurred, of these 597 (19.2%) died from cardiovascular causes. High plasma levels of IL-6, CRP and SAA were associated with unstable CAD, as well as established risk factors including type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking, low glomerular filtration rate, low TGs and low HDL-C. After adjusting for established cardiovascular risk markers and the other two inflammatory markers, SAA was found to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality after a short-term follow-up (6 months-1 year) with a HR per SD of 1.41. IL-6 was identified as an independent risk factor for long-term follow-up (3, 5, and 9.9 years) with HRs per SD of 1.21, 1.22 and 1.18. CRP lost significance after adjustment. Although 6 out of 27 SAA SNPs were significantly associated with SAA plasma concentrations, the genetic risk score was not associated with cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings from the large, prospective LURIC cohort underline the importance of inflammation in CAD and the prognostic relevance of inflammatory biomarkers that independently predict cardiovascular mortality.

17.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 120: 106566, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207358

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) reduce cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease (CAD). Their costs exceed that of established oral lipid-lowering agents. Previous cost-effectiveness assessments have been inconsistent. Markov cohort state transitions models for stable CAD patients were calculated using information from 1530 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC) with known causes of deaths. Non-fatal to fatal event rates, drug prices, direct treatment costs, and utility weights were from public sources. At an assumed relative risk reduction of 32.5% and an annual drug price of 8500 Euros, QALYs gained were 1.23 and 1.20, savings were 2390 and 2410 Euros, and ICERs were 112,530 and 108,660 Euros in women and men, respectively. When the annual cost of this medication was set at 1600 Euros, corresponding ICERs were 21,180 and 20,450 Euros. PCSK9i treatment is cost-effective in stable CAD at a threshold of 150,000 Euro and annual costs of 8500 Euros. As the broad use of PCSK9i therapy in CAD would have a disruptive impact on the healthcare budget, treatment should be focused on very high risk patients (≥3 comorbidities, annual risk of 10%); alternatively, and for lower risk, significant cost reductions would be needed.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Short telomeres and B vitamin deficiencies have been proposed as risk factors for age-related diseases and mortality that interact through oxidative stress and inflammation. However, available data to support this concept are insufficient. We aimed to investigate the predictive role of B vitamins and homocysteine (HCY) for mortality in cardiovascular patients. We explored potential relationships between HCY, B vitamins, relative telomere length (RTL), and indices of inflammation. METHODS: Vitamin B6, HCY, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and RTL were measured in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. Death events were recorded over a median follow-up of 9.9 years. RESULTS: All-cause mortality increased with higher concentrations of HCY and lower vitamin B6. Patients in the 4th quartile of HCY and vitamin B6 had hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality of 2.77 (95% CI 2.28-3.37) and 0.41(95% CI 0.33-0.49), respectively, and for cardiovascular mortality of 2.78 (95% CI 2.29-3.39) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.33-0.49), respectively, compared to those in the 1st quartile. Multiple adjustments for confounders did not change these results. HCY and vitamin B6 correlated with age-corrected RTL (r = - 0.086, p < 0.001; r = 0.04, p = 0.031, respectively), IL-6 (r = 0.148, p < 0.001; r = - 0.249, p < 0.001, respectively), and hs-CRP (r = 0.101, p < 0.001; r = - 0.320, p < 0.001, respectively). Subjects with the longest telomeres had a significantly higher concentration of vitamin B6, but lower concentrations of HCY, IL-6, and hs-CRP. Multiple regression analyses identified HCY as an independent negative predictor of age-corrected RTL. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin B6 deficiency are risk factors for death from any cause. Hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin B6 deficiency correlate with increased mortality. This correlation might, at least partially, be explained by accelerated telomere shortening induced by oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these circumstances.

19.
Endocr Connect ; 8(5): 518-527, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959477

RESUMO

Objective: PTH can be oxidised in vivo, rendering it biologically inactive. Non-oxidised PTH (n-oxPTH) may therefore give a better image of the hormonal status of the patient. While vitamin D supplementation decreases total PTH (tPTH) concentration, the effect on n-oxPTH concentration is unexplored. We investigated the effect of vitamin D on n-oxPTH concentration in comparison to tPTH and compared the correlations between parameters of calcium, bone and lipid metabolism with n-oxPTH and tPTH. Methods: N-oxPTH was measured in 108 vitamin D-insufficient (25(OH)D <75 nmol/L) hypertensive patients, treated with vitamin D (2800 IE daily) or placebo for 8 weeks in the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (NCT02136771). We calculated the treatment effect and performed correlation analyses of n-oxPTH and tPTH with parameters of calcium, bone and lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Results: After treatment, compared to placebo, 25(OH)D concentrations increased, tPTH decreased by 9% (P < 0.001), n-oxPTH by 7% (P = 0.025) and the ratio of n-oxPTH/tPTH increased (P = 0.027). Changes in phosphate and HDL concentration correlated with changes in n-oxPTH, but not tPTH. Conclusions: tPTH and n-oxPTH decrease upon vitamin D supplementation. Our study suggests that vitamin D supplementation reduces the oxidation of PTH, as we observed a small but significant increase in the non-oxidised proportion of PTH upon treatment. In addition, we found that changes in phosphate and HDL concentration showed a relationship with changes in n-oxPTH, but not tPTH. This may be explained by the biological activity of n-oxPTH. Further research should be carried out to establish the clinical relevance of n-oxPTH.

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