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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359255

RESUMO

According to many guidelines, gentamicin is the empirical parenteral treatment for children with community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). However, increasing resistance rates are reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze risk factors for presenting with a UTI caused by a community-acquired gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli in children in our hospital and to describe their clinical outcome. A retrospective case-control local study was performed in a tertiary care hospital from January 2014 to December 2016. Cases and controls were children below 14 years old diagnosed in the Emergency Department with febrile CA-UTI caused by gentamicin-resistant and gentamicin-susceptible febrile E. coli strains, respectively. During the study period, 54 cases were included and compared with 98 controls. Patients with chronic conditions were more likely to present with a UTI due to gentamicin-resistant E. coli (OR 3.27; 95% CI 1.37-7.8, p < 0.05), as well as children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.2-10.1, p < 0.05). Cases had longer hospital stays than controls (5.8 ± 5 days vs. 4.4 ± 4 days, p = 0.017). Gentamicin-resistant strains associated higher rates of cefuroxime (29% vs. 3%), cefotaxime (27% vs. 0%), and quinolone resistance (40.7% vs. 6%) (p < 0.01) and produced more frequently extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (20% vs. 0%, p < 0.01) and carbapenemases (7.4% vs. 0%; p = 0.015). All gentamicin-resistant strains were amikacin-sensitive. The presence of chronic conditions and antibiotic prophylaxis could be potential risk factors for gentamicin-resistant E. coli CA-UTI in children. Simultaneous resistance to cephalosporins, quinolones, and ESBL/carbapenemase production is frequent in these strains.

2.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(6): 873-880, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory tract infections are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acute bronchiolitis (AB) is the leading cause of hospital admission among infants. Clinical scores have proven to be inaccurate in predicting prognosis. Our aim was to build a score based on findings of lung ultrasound (LU) performed at admission, to stratify patients at risk of needing respiratory support (non-invasive and invasive ventilation). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter study including infants <6 months of age admitted with AB. Point-of-care LU was performed on admission, and a score was calculated based on ultrasound findings (presence and localization of B lines, B line confluence and/or consolidations) and clinical data. Main outcome was need of respiratory support. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were included in the study, with a median age of 1.7 months [IQR: 1.2-2.8], 47.6% were female. Mean duration of symptoms prior to admission was 3.1 days (SD 1.8). Fifty-six patients (39%) required non-invasive ventilation (NIV), 14 (9.7%) were transferred to PICU, and 3 needed invasive ventilation (3/145). Identification of at least one posterior consolidation >1 cm was the main factor associated to NIV (RR 4.4; [CI95%1.8-10.8]) The LU score built according to the findings on admission showed an AUC: 0.845(CI95%:0.78-0.91). A score ≥3.5 showed a sensitivity of 89.1% (CI95%:78.2-94.9%) and specificity of 56% (CI95%: 45.3-66.1%) CONCLUSIONS: Among infants below 6 months of age admitted with AB, point-of-care LU was a helpful tool to identify patients at risk of needing respiratory support.

6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(2): 194-199, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of viruses in children with respiratory tract infections and humoral immunodeficiencies has hardly been studied. We have evaluated these infections in children with humoral immunodeficiencies who required immunoglobulin replacement therapy, considering their relationship with symptoms, lung function, bacterial co-infection, and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study during a 1-year period, including children with humoral immunodeficiencies receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy. For each patient, at least one healthy family member was included. Respiratory samples for viral detection were taken every 1-3 months, and in case of respiratory tract infections. Symptoms questionnaires were filled biweekly. Spirometry and sputum culture were performed in every episode. RESULTS: Sixty-six episodes were analyzed in 14 patients (median age 12 years; IQR 7-17), identifying 18 respiratory viruses (27.3%), being rhinovirus the most frequently isolated one (12/18; 66%). Positive viral episodes were associated with clinical symptoms (89% vs 43%), more frequent antibiotic treatment (44% vs 15%) or hospital admission (22% vs 0%) than negative ones. Patients with positive viral detection showed impaired lung function, with lower FEV1 and FVC values. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, viral respiratory tract infections can cause significant respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function, in children with HID, despite immunoglobulin replacement therapy. These patients could benefit from the monitoring of viral infections, as these may be a gateway for ongoing lung damage.

8.
PLoS Med ; 15(7): e1002591, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 32,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin) each year. Little is known about the optimal treatment for these children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To inform the pediatric aspects of the revised World Health Organization (WHO) MDR-TB treatment guidelines, we performed a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis, describing treatment outcomes in children treated for MDR-TB. To identify eligible reports we searched PubMed, LILACS, Embase, The Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, and BioMedCentral databases through 1 October 2014. To identify unpublished data, we reviewed conference abstracts, contacted experts in the field, and requested data through other routes, including at national and international conferences and through organizations working in pediatric MDR-TB. A cohort was eligible for inclusion if it included a minimum of three children (aged <15 years) who were treated for bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed MDR-TB, and if treatment outcomes were reported. The search yielded 2,772 reports; after review, 33 studies were eligible for inclusion, with IPD provided for 28 of these. All data were from published or unpublished observational cohorts. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and treatment factors as predictors of treatment outcome. In order to obtain adjusted estimates, we used a random-effects multivariable logistic regression (random intercept and random slope, unless specified otherwise) adjusted for the following covariates: age, sex, HIV infection, malnutrition, severe extrapulmonary disease, or the presence of severe disease on chest radiograph. We analyzed data from 975 children from 18 countries; 731 (75%) had bacteriologically confirmed and 244 (25%) had clinically diagnosed MDR-TB. The median age was 7.1 years. Of 910 (93%) children with documented HIV status, 359 (39%) were infected with HIV. When compared to clinically diagnosed patients, children with confirmed MDR-TB were more likely to be older, to be infected with HIV, to be malnourished, and to have severe tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiograph (p < 0.001 for all characteristics). Overall, 764 of 975 (78%) had a successful treatment outcome at the conclusion of therapy: 548/731 (75%) of confirmed and 216/244 (89%) of clinically diagnosed children (absolute difference 14%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8%-19%, p < 0.001). Treatment was successful in only 56% of children with bacteriologically confirmed TB who were infected with HIV who did not receive any antiretroviral treatment (ART) during MDR-TB therapy, compared to 82% in children infected with HIV who received ART during MDR-TB therapy (absolute difference 26%, 95% CI 5%-48%, p = 0.006). In children with confirmed MDR-TB, the use of second-line injectable agents and high-dose isoniazid (15-20 mg/kg/day) were associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.9, 95% CI 1.0-8.3, p = 0.041 and aOR 5.9, 95% CI 1.7-20.5, p = 0.007, respectively). These findings for high-dose isoniazid may have been affected by site effect, as the majority of patients came from Cape Town. Limitations of this study include the difficulty of estimating the treatment effects of individual drugs within multidrug regimens, only observational cohort studies were available for inclusion, and treatment decisions were based on the clinician's perception of illness, with resulting potential for bias. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that children respond favorably to MDR-TB treatment. The low success rate in children infected with HIV who did not receive ART during their MDR-TB treatment highlights the need for ART in these children. Our findings of individual drug effects on treatment outcome should be further evaluated.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29613974

RESUMO

Newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using T-cell receptor-excision circles (TRECs) allows prompt diagnosis and initiation of supportive and curative therapy thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. However, profound combined immunodeficiencies with normal numbers of non-functional T cells will go undetected. We present a patient with ORAI1 deficiency and normal TREC numbers observed after diagnosis at the age of 14 months who suffered from disseminated fatal cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection, demonstrating a potential pitfall of the current NBS program.

11.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 88(1): 52.e1-52.e12, ene. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170646

RESUMO

La tuberculosis (TB) es la enfermedad infecciosa más importante del mundo, asociando enorme morbimortalidad. La TB pediátrica ha sido una epidemia oculta por su escasa capacidad infectiva y menor incidencia comparada con adultos. El informe-OMS 2015 estimó un millón de niños enfermos de TB en el mundo y 169.000 fallecidos. En Europa, el problema acuciante es la tuberculosis multirresistente, con tasas del 16% en nuevos diagnósticos, especialmente en países del este. En 2014, 219.000 niños se infectaron por cepas-MDR en Europa, 2.120 desarrollaron enfermedad. España es el país de Europa con mayor número de casos pediátricos, con una incidencia en 2014: 4,3/100.000 habitantes. La mortalidad por TB pediátrica en nuestro país es excepcional, pero las formas extrapulmonares ocasionan importantes complicaciones. La TB resistente en niños en España presenta una prevalencia > 4%, superando incluso la notificada en adultos. Estos datos reflejan que la TB en niños en nuestro medio continúa siendo un problema de salud pública prioritario. Las dificultades diagnósticas del niño y la falta de formulaciones pediátricas óptimas son el mayor desafío para control de TB infantil. El Grupo de expertos de TB pediátrica realiza un análisis de las nuevas tendencias internacionales y guías terapéuticas de tuberculosis en niños, según nuevas evidencias disponibles; y considera una prioridad actualizar las guías pediátricas nacionales de exposición a TB, infección tuberculosa latente y enfermedad, y particularmente los casos de resistencia a fármacos. Este documento, por tanto, sustituye a todos los previos en cuanto a las pautas terapéuticas, aunque siguen estando vigentes las indicaciones diagnósticas (AU)


Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease. Spain is the Western European country with more paediatric cases, with an incidence 4.3/100,000 inhabitants in 2014. Paediatric tuberculosis mortality in Spain is rare, but extra-pulmonary disease is associated with significant complications. The prevalence of paediatric drug resistant TB in Spain is over 4%, higher than the estimated incidence in adult population, representing mayor difficulties for therapeutic intervention. These data reveal that paediatric TB is still a Public Health priority in our country. The difficulties in diagnosis and the lack of optimal paediatric drug formulations are the major challenges for controlling the childhood's tuberculosis epidemic. A group of national paeditric TB experts has reviewed the international guidelines and the most recent evidences, and has established new recommendations for the management of paediatric TB contacts, latent infection and active TB disease, especially focused in drug resistant cases. This document replaces the former national guidelines from the Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectios Diseases, although the prior recommendations on the diagnosis remain valid (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
12.
Pediatrics ; 141(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269387

RESUMO

Bleomycin has progressively been used to treat low-flow vascular malformations in children. No significant systemic side effects have been reported in large series after low doses, but some authors are still concerned about its use. We report a case of a severe acute lung toxicity after a low dose of a second bleomycin intralesional injection in a 5-year-old girl. She had no risk factors and presented a cervical low-flow venous malformation. Twenty-four hours after this second administration, she presented with fever and respiratory distress. A chest radiograph showed bilateral opacities and computerized tomography revealed extensive and diffuse lung ground-glass opacities. The patient started to receive intravenous methylprednisolone, but she experienced progressively increased dyspnea, and montelukast was added. She improved and was discharged from the hospital without oxygen support, with montelukast and prednisolone for tapering doses during months. Five months after onset, the patient is developing well, is active, and walks and talks without dyspnea. A new low-dose computed tomography shows improvement in radiologic findings. This is the second case of pulmonary toxicity observed in a child after bleomycin intralesional administration, and the first reported after the lowest dose of this drug to date (7 mg: 0.28 mg/kg; 10 U: 0.4 U/kg). A delay in the diagnosis and treatment of this complication can be fatal. Any physician who treats these patients must be alert and consider this complication in children with respiratory symptoms after bleomycin sclerotherapy. Early detection of pulmonary toxicity would allow prompt therapy and could avoid pulmonary damage.

13.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 88(1): 52.e1-52.e12, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729186

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease. Spain is the Western European country with more paediatric cases, with an incidence 4.3/100,000 inhabitants in 2014. Paediatric tuberculosis mortality in Spain is rare, but extra-pulmonary disease is associated with significant complications. The prevalence of paediatric drug resistant TB in Spain is over 4%, higher than the estimated incidence in adult population, representing mayor difficulties for therapeutic intervention. These data reveal that paediatric TB is still a Public Health priority in our country. The difficulties in diagnosis and the lack of optimal paediatric drug formulations are the major challenges for controlling the childhood's tuberculosis epidemic. A group of national paeditric TB experts has reviewed the international guidelines and the most recent evidences, and has established new recommendations for the management of paediatric TB contacts, latent infection and active TB disease, especially focused in drug resistant cases. This document replaces the former national guidelines from the Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectios Diseases, although the prior recommendations on the diagnosis remain valid.

18.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(4): 243-245, abr. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162745

RESUMO

Revisión de los lactantes menores de 3 meses con tuberculosis durante el periodo 1978-2014. Se diagnosticaron 8 casos (1,4% de las tuberculosis pediátricas): 3 tuberculosis congénitas, 3 sugestivas (biopsia endometrial no realizada) y 2 posnatales. La prueba de tuberculina fue negativa en 2 casos. La rentabilidad diagnóstica del cultivo (7/7, 100%) o PCR (3/3, 100%) de aspirado gástrico fue superior a la de la baciloscopia (5/8, 62%) y el test IGRA (1/3, 33%). Tres pacientes presentaron diseminación miliar y uno falleció. En conclusión, la tuberculosis en este grupo de edad es infrecuente, grave y de difícil diagnóstico. En ausencia de contactos posnatales conocidos, se recomienda descartar tuberculosis genital materna mediante biopsia endometrial (AU)


A review was conducted on infants less than 3 months of age diagnosed with tuberculosis between 1978 and 2014. Eight patients were diagnosed (1.4% of paediatric tuberculosis cases): 3 confirmed congenital tuberculosis, 3 suspected (endometrial biopsy was not performed), and 2 postnatal tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test was negative in two patients. Diagnostic performance of culture (7/7, 100%) and PCR (3/3, 100%) of gastric aspirates was higher than that of acid-fast bacilli smears (5/8, 62%) and IGRA test (1/3, 33%). Three patients developed miliary disease, and one died. In conclusion, tuberculosis in this age group is rare, severe, and difficult to diagnose. In cases lacking known postnatal contacts, maternal genital tuberculosis should be ruled out by endometrial biopsy (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/congênito , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste Tuberculínico/estatística & dados numéricos
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