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1.
Dalton Trans ; 48(24): 8872-8881, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140508

RESUMO

Octahydridoborate, i.e. [B3H8]- containing compounds, have recently attracted interest for hydrogen storage. In the present study, the structural, hydrogen storage, and ion conductivity properties of KB3H8 have been systematically investigated. Two distinct polymorphic transitions are identified for KB3H8 from a monoclinic (α) to an orthorhombic (α') structure at 15 °C via a second-order transition and eventually to a cubic (ß) structure at 30 °C by a first-order transition. The ß-polymorph of KB3H8 displays a high degree of disorder of the [B3H8]- anion, which facilitates increased cation mobility, reaching a K+ conductivity of ∼10-7 S cm-1 above 100 °C. ß-KB3H8 starts to release hydrogen at ∼160 °C, simultaneously with the release of B5H9 and trace amounts of B2H6. KBH4 and K3(BH4)(B12H12) are identified as crystalline decomposition products above 200 °C, and the formation of a KBH4 deficient structure of K3-x(BH4)1-x(B12H12) is observed at elevated temperature. The hydrogen-uptake properties of a KB3H8-2KH composite have been examined under 380 bar H2, resulting in the formation of KBH4 at T≥ 150 °C along with higher metal hydridoborates, i.e. K2B9H9, K2B10H10, and K2B12H12.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(8): 4753-4760, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938152

RESUMO

Ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), is very attractive for hydrogen storage; however, it dehydrogenates exothermally, producing a mixture of polymeric products with limited potential for direct rehydrogenation. Recently, it was shown that AB complexed with Al3+ in Al(BH4)3·AB endothermically dehydrogenates to a single product identified as Al(BH4)3·NHBH, with the potential for direct rehydrogenation of AB. Here we explore the reactivity of AB-derived RNH2BH3 (R = -CH3, -CH2-) with AlX3 salts (X = BH4-, Cl-), aiming to extend the series to different anions and to enlarge the stability window for Al(BH4)3·NRBH. Three novel complexes were identified: Al(BH4)3·CH3NH2BH3 having a molecular structure similar to that of Al(BH4)3·AB but different dehydrogenation properties, as well as [Al(CH3NH2BH3)2Cl2][AlCl4] and [Al(NH2CH2CH2NH2)(BH4)2][Al(BH4)4], rare examples of Al3+ making part of the cations and anions simultaneously. The latter compounds are of interest in the design of novel electrolytes for Al-based batteries. The coordination of two ABs to a single Al atom opens a route to materials with higher hydrogen content.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(9): 5503-5517, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013080

RESUMO

Synthesis, crystal structures, and thermal and magnetic properties of the complete series of halide-free rare-earth (RE) metal borohydrides are presented. A new synthesis method provides high yield and high purity products. Fifteen new metal borohydride structures are reported. The trends in crystal structures, thermal behavior, and magnetic properties for the entire series of RE(BH4) x are compared and discussed. The RE(BH4) x possess a very rich crystal chemistry, dependent on the oxidation state and the ionic size of the rare-earth ion. Due to the lanthanide contraction, there is a significant decrease in the volume of the RE3+-ion with increasing atomic number, which correlates linearly with the unit cell volume of the α- and ß-RE(BH4)3 polymorphs and the solvated complexes α-RE(BH4)3·S(CH3)2. The thermal analysis reveals a one-step decomposition pathway in the temperature range from 247 to 277 °C for all RE(BH4)3 except Lu(BH4)3, which follows a three-step decomposition pathway. In contrast, the RE(BH4)2 decompose at higher temperatures in the range 306 to 390 °C due to lower charge density on the rare-earth ion. The RE(BH4)3 show increasing stability with increasing Pauling electronegativity, which contradicts other main group and transition metal borohydrides. The majority of the compounds follow Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior down to 3 K with weak antiferromagnetic interactions and magnetic moments in accord with those of isolated 4f ions. Some of the RE(BH4) x display varying degrees of temperature-dependent magnetic moments due to low-lying excited stated induced by crystal field effects. Additionally, a weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in Gd(BH4)3, indicating superexchange through a borohydride group.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3410-3413, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839031

RESUMO

Solvated lithium closo-dodecaborate, Li2B12H12 with tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, show unexpected melting below 150 °C. This feature has been explored to melt-infiltrate Li2B12H12 in a nanoporous SiO2 scaffold. The ionic conductivity of Li2B12H12·xACN reaches 0.08 mS cm-1 in the liquid state at 150 °C making them suitable as battery electrolytes.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 57(17): 10768-10780, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137973

RESUMO

Commencing from metal hydrides, versatile synthesis, purification, and desolvation approaches are presented for a wide range of metal borohydrides and their solvates. An optimized and generalized synthesis method is provided for 11 different metal borohydrides, M(BH4) n, (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb), providing controlled access to more than 15 different polymorphs and in excess of 20 metal borohydride solvate complexes. Commercially unavailable metal hydrides (MH n, M = Sr, Ba, Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb) are synthesized utilizing high pressure hydrogenation. For synthesis of metal borohydrides, all hydrides are mechanochemically activated prior to reaction with dimethylsulfide borane. A purification process is devised, alongside a complementary desolvation process for solvate complexes, yielding high purity products. An array of polymorphically pure metal borohydrides are synthesized in this manner, supporting the general applicability of this method. Additionally, new metal borohydrides, α-, α'- ß-, γ-Yb(BH4)2, α-Nd(BH4)3 and new solvates Sr(BH4)2·1THF, Sm(BH4)2·1THF, Yb(BH4)2· xTHF, x = 1 or 2, Nd(BH4)3·1Me2S, Nd(BH4)3·1.5THF, Sm(BH4)3·1.5THF and Yb(BH4)3· xMe2S (" x" = unspecified), are presented here. Synthesis conditions are optimized individually for each metal, providing insight into reactivity and mechanistic concerns. The reaction follows a nucleophilic addition/hydride-transfer mechanism. Therefore, the reaction is most efficient for ionic and polar-covalent metal hydrides. The presented synthetic approaches are widely applicable, as demonstrated by permitting facile access to a large number of materials and by performing a scale-up synthesis of LiBH4.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(23): 16266-16275, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863201

RESUMO

The hydrogen absorption properties of metal closo-borate/metal hydride composites, M2B10H10-8MH and M2B12H12-10MH, M = Li or Na, are studied under high hydrogen pressures to understand the formation mechanism of metal borohydrides. The hydrogen storage properties of the composites have been investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction at p(H2) = 400 bar and by ex situ hydrogen absorption measurements at p(H2) = 526 to 998 bar. The in situ experiments reveal the formation of crystalline intermediates before metal borohydrides (MBH4) are formed. On the contrary, the M2B12H12-10MH (M = Li and Na) systems show no formation of the metal borohydride at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 537 to 970 bar. 11B MAS NMR of the M2B10H10-8MH composites reveal that the molar ratio of LiBH4 or NaBH4 and the remaining B species is 1 : 0.63 and 1 : 0.21, respectively. Solution and solid-state 11B NMR spectra reveal new intermediates with a B : H ratio close to 1 : 1. Our results indicate that the M2B10H10 (M = Li, Na) salts display a higher reactivity towards hydrogen in the presence of metal hydrides compared to the corresponding [B12H12]2- composites, which represents an important step towards understanding the factors that determine the stability and reversibility of high hydrogen capacity metal borohydrides for hydrogen storage.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 46(35): 11905-11912, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849828

RESUMO

A new synthesis method of samarium borohydride, Sm(BH4)2, using tetrahydrofuran borane, THF-BH3, and samarium hydride, SmH2, has been demonstrated and verified. The synthesised Sm(BH4)2 was mechanochemically treated with MBH4, M = K, Rb, Cs. Initially, the formation of KSm(BH4)3 is observed while subsequent heat treatment is necessary to form MSm(BH4)3, M = Rb, Cs. The new compounds crystallise in orthorhombic unit cells adopting perovskite-type 3D frameworks containing distorted [Sm(BH4)6] octahedra. In situ X-ray diffraction studies reveal two second-order polymorphic transitions of α-CsSm(BH4)3via a tetragonal intermediate, α'-CsSm(BH4)3, into a cubic high-temperature polymorph, ß-CsSm(BH4)3, resembling an ideal perovskite structure. The new compounds, MSm(BH4)3, are thermally stable up to T ∼ 280 °C after which they decompose into mainly MBH4, SmH2 and possibly SmB6 and SmB12H12. Finally, after three cycles of hydrogen release and uptake, the storage capacity was 1.0 wt% for KSm(BH4)3 and 0.84 wt% for RbSm(BH4)3 and CsSm(BH4)3.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(39): 27545-27553, 2016 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722466

RESUMO

Metal borides are often decomposition products from metal borohydrides and thus play a role in the reverse reaction where hydrogen is absorbed. In this work, aluminium boride, AlB2, has been investigated as a boron source for the formation of borohydrides under hydrogen pressures of p(H2) = 100 or 600 bar at elevated temperatures (350 or 400 °C). The systems AlB2-MHx (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca) have been investigated, producing LiBH4, NaBH4 and Ca(BH4)2, whereas the formation of Mg(BH4)2 was not observed at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar. The formation of the metal borohydrides is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy and the fraction of boron in AlB2 and M(BH4)x is determined quantitatively by 11B MAS NMR. Hydrogenation for 12 h at T = 350-400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar leads to the formation of substantial amounts of LiBH4 (38.6 mol%), NaBH4 (83.0 mol%) and Ca(BH4)2 (43.6 mol%).

9.
Dalton Trans ; 45(2): 831-40, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26646319

RESUMO

Three new perovskite-type bimetallic alkali metal strontium borohydride compounds, α-MSr(BH4)3 (M = K, Rb, Cs), have been synthesized and investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry and Sievert's measurements. The bimetallic borohydrides were synthesized via an addition reaction between Sr(BH4)2 and MBH4 (M = K, Rb, Cs) by mechanochemical treatment. The Sr(BH4)2-NaBH4 system, which was treated in a similar manner, did not undergo reaction. All three α-MSr(BH4)3 compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic crystal system at room temperature: KSr(BH4)3 (P21cn), a = 7.8967(6), b = 8.2953(7), and c = 11.508(1) Å (V = 753.82(12) Å(3)). RbSr(BH4)3 (Pbn21), a = 8.0835(3), b = 8.3341(4), and c = 11.6600(5) Å (V = 785.52(6) Å(3)). CsSr(BH4)3 (P22121), a = 8.2068(9), b = 8.1793(9), and c = 6.0761(4) Å (V = 407.87(7) Å(3)). All three compounds are perovskite-type 3D framework structures built from distorted [Sr(BH4)6] octahedra. High-temperature polymorphs are identified to form at 258, 220 and 150 °C for MSr(BH4)3, M = K, Rb and Cs, respectively. The new compounds are thermally stable and decompose at T > 360 °C into SrB6, SrH2 and MBH4 (M = K, Rb, Cs).

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