Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 738
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Science ; 366(6469): 1107-1110, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780554

RESUMO

Robustly coherent spin centers that can be integrated into devices are a key ingredient of quantum technologies. Vacancies in semiconductors are excellent candidates, and theory predicts that defects in conjugated carbon materials should also display long coherence times. However, the quantum performance of carbon nanostructures has remained stunted by an inability to alter the sp2-carbon lattice with atomic precision. Here, we demonstrate that topological tailoring leads to superior quantum performance in molecular graphene nanostructures. We unravel the decoherence mechanisms, quantify nuclear and environmental effects, and observe spin-coherence times that outclass most nanomaterials. These results validate long-standing assumptions on the coherent behavior of topological defects in graphene and open up the possibility of introducing controlled quantum-coherent centers in the upcoming generation of carbon-based optoelectronic, electronic, and bioactive systems.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742413

RESUMO

Due to its outstanding electrical properties and chemical stability, graphene finds widespread use in various electrochemical applications. Although the presence of electrolytes strongly affects its electrical conductivity, the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we employ terahertz spectroscopy as a contact-free means to investigate the impact of ubiquitous cations (Li+, Na+, K+, and Ca2+) in aqueous solution on the electronic properties of SiO2-supported graphene. We find that, without applying any external potential, cations can shift the Fermi energy of initially hole-doped graphene by ∼200 meV up to the Dirac point, thus counteracting the initial substrate-induced hole doping. Remarkably, the cation concentration and cation hydration complex size determine the kinetics and magnitude of this shift in the Fermi level. Combined with theoretical calculations, we show that the ion-induced Fermi level shift of graphene involves cationic permeation through graphene. The interfacial cations located between graphene and SiO2 electrostatically counteract the substrate-induced hole doping effect in graphene. These insights are crucial for graphene device processing and further developing graphene as an ion-sensing material.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(41): 16439-16449, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589425

RESUMO

Dibenzo[hi,st]ovalene (DBOV), as a new nanographene, has demonstrated promising optical properties, such as red emission with a high fluorescence quantum yield of 79% and stimulated emission, as well as high thermal stability and photostability, which indicated its promise as a light-emitting and optical gain material. However, the previous synthetic routes required at least 12 steps. This obstructed access to different derivatives, e.g., to obtain crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis and to tune the optoelectronic properties. Here, we report an efficient synthetic pathway to DBOV based on a sequential iodination-benzannulation of bi(naphthylphenyl)diyne, followed by photochemical cyclodehydroiodination (PCDHI). This protocol included a fused bischrysene as a key intermediate and furnished scalable amounts of meso-substituted DBOV derivatives with different substituents. DBOV with 2,6-dimethylphenyl groups could be used for single-crystal X-ray analysis, revealing the precise structure of the DBOV core. The optoelectronic properties of the DBOV derivatives were investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and density functional theory calculations. Single-molecule spectroscopy at room and low temperatures provided novel insights into the photophysics of DBOV embedded in a polymer film. As a result of weak coupling of the optical transitions to the matrix, single-molecule emission spectra at 4.5 K showed narrow vibronic lines. The fluorescence autocorrelation function covering 9 orders of magnitude in time displayed high contrast photon antibunching and bunching, from which the fluorescence decay rate and the triplet population and depopulation rates could be retrieved. Remarkably, the intersystem crossing rate into the triplet state decreased by more than an order of magnitude at low temperature, demonstrating that temperature can be a crucial parameter to boost single photon emission of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

4.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 13083-13091, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573799

RESUMO

Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have attracted considerable interest, as their atomically tunable structure makes them promising candidates for future electronic devices. However, obtaining detailed information about the length of GNRs has been challenging and typically relies on low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. Such methods are ill-suited for practical device application and characterization. In contrast, Raman spectroscopy is a sensitive method for the characterization of GNRs, in particular for investigating their width and structure. Here, we report on a length-dependent, Raman-active low-energy vibrational mode that is present in atomically precise, bottom-up-synthesized armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs). Our Raman study demonstrates that this mode is present in all families of AGNRs and provides information on their length. Our spectroscopic findings are corroborated by scanning tunneling microscopy images and supported by first-principles calculations that allow us to attribute this mode to a longitudinal acoustic phonon. Finally, we show that this mode is a sensitive probe for the overall structural integrity of the ribbons and their interaction with technologically relevant substrates.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657497

RESUMO

Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has enabled important breakthroughs in biology and materials science. Implementations such as single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) and minimal emission fluxes (MINFLUX) microscopy in the localization mode exploit fluorophores that blink, i.e., switch on and off, stochastically. Here, we introduce nanographenes, namely large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can also be regarded as atomically precise graphene quantum dots, as a new class of fluorophores for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Nanographenes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties: intrinsic blinking even in air, excellent fluorescence recovery, and stability over several months. As a proof of concept for super-resolution applications, we use nanographenes in SMLM to generate 3D super-resolution images of silica nanocracks. Our findings open the door for the widespread application of nanographenes in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.

6.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(9): 2491-2505, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478641

RESUMO

Nanographenes, which are defined as nanoscale (1-100 nm) graphene cutouts, include quasi-one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and quasi-zero-dimensional graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) larger than 1 nm can be viewed as GQDs with atomically precise molecular structures and can thus be termed nanographene molecules. As a result of quantum confinement, nanographenes are promising for next-generation semiconductor applications with finite band gaps, a significant advantage compared with gapless two-dimensional graphene. Similar to the atomic doping strategy in inorganic semiconductors, incorporation of heteroatoms into nanographenes is a viable way to tune their optical, electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties. Such properties are highly dependent not only on the molecular size and edge structure but also on the heteroatom type, doping position, and concentration. Therefore, reliable synthetic methods are required to precisely control these structural features. In this regard, bottom-up organic synthesis provides an indispensable way to achieve structurally well-defined heteroatom-doped nanographenes. Polycyclic heteroaromatic compounds have attracted great attention of organic chemists for decades. Research in this direction has been further promoted by modern interest in supramolecular chemistry and organic electronics. The rise of graphene in the 21st century has endowed large polycyclic heteroaromatic compounds with a new role as model systems for heteroatom-doped graphene. Heteroatom-doped nanographene molecules are in their own right promising materials for photonic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications because of the extended π conjugation. Despite the significant advances in polycyclic heteroaromatic compounds, heteroatom-doped nanographene molecules with sizes of over 1 nm and their relevant GNRs are still scarce. In this Account, we describe the synthesis and properties of large heteroatom-doped nanographenes, mainly summarizing relevant advances in our group in the past decade. We first present several examples of heteroatom doping based on the prototypical nanographene molecule, i.e., hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC), including nitrogen-doped HBC analogues by formal replacement of benzene with other heterocycles (e.g., aromatic pyrimidine and pyrrole and antiaromatic pyrazine) and sulfur-doped nanographene molecules via thiophene annulation. We then introduce heteroatom-doped zigzag edges and a variety of zigzag-edged nanographene molecules incorporating nitrogen, boron, and oxygen atoms. We finally summarize heteroatom-doped GNRs based on the success in the molecular cases. We hope that this Account will further stimulate the synthesis and applications of heteroatom-doped nanographenes with a combined effort from different disciplines.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(42): 14969-14973, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430019

RESUMO

Chemical reduction of OBO-fused double[5]helicene with Group 1 metals (Na and K) has been investigated for the first time. Two doubly-reduced products have been isolated and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing a solvent-separated ion triplet (SSIT) with Na+ ions and a contact-ion pair (CIP) with K+ ion. As the key structural outcome, the X-ray crystallographic analysis discloses the consequences of adding two electrons to the double helicene core in the SSIT without metal binding and reveals the preferential binding site in the CIP with K+ counterions. In both products, an increase in the twisting of the double helicene core upon charging was observed. The negative charge localization at the central core has been identified by theoretical calculations, which are in full agreement with X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic results. Notably, it was confirmed that the two-electron reduction of OBO-fused double[5]helicene is reversible.

8.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(8): 2266-2277, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373482

RESUMO

Fighting cancer with the means of chemistry remains a tremendous challenge and defines a pressing societal need. Compounds based on synthetic organic dyes have long been recognized as vital tools for cancer diagnosis and therapy (theranostics). Fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of cancer as well as cancer treatment protocols such as photodynamic and photothermal therapy are all photobased technologies that require chromophores. However, a serious drawback of most chromophoric molecules is photobleaching over the course of their use in biological environments, which severely compromises the desired theranostic effects. At this point, rylenecarboximide (RI) dyes with ultrahigh photostability hold enormous promise. RI stands for a homologous series of dyes consisting of an aromatic core and carboximide auxochromic groups. They possess high molar extinction coefficients and finely tunable photophysical properties. RIs such as perylenebiscarboxylic acid monoimide (PMI), perylenetetracarboxylic acid diimide (PDI), terrylenetetracarboxylic acid diimide (TDI), and quaterrylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide (QDI) have attracted great scientific attention as colorants, components of organic photovoltaics and organic field-effect transistors, as well as tools for biological applications. PDI has appeared as one of the most widely studied RI dyes for fluorescence bioimaging. Our recent breakthroughs including chemotherapy with PDI-based DNA intercalators and photothermal therapy guided by photoacoustic imaging using PDI, TDI, or QDI, define urgent needs for further scientific research and clinical translation. In this Account, we tackle the relationship between chemical structures and photophysical and pharmacologic properties of RIs aiming at new contrast and anticancer agents, which then lay the ground for further biomedical applications. First, we introduce the design concepts for RIs with a focus on their structure-property relationships. Chemical structure has an enormous impact on the fluorescent, chemotoxic, photodynamic, and photothermal performance of RIs. Next, based on the resulting performance criteria, we employ RIs for fluorescence and photoacoustic cancer imaging as well as cancer therapies. When carrying electron donating substituents, PDIs and PMIs possess high fluorescence quantum yield and red-shifted emission which qualifies them for use in cancer fluorescence imaging. Also, some fluorescent PDIs are combined with chemodrugs or developed into DNA intercalators for chemotherapy. PDI-based photosensitizers are prepared by "heavy atom" substitution, showing potential for photodynamic therapy. Further, photothermal agents using PDI, TDI, and QDI with near-infrared absorption and excellent photothermal conversion efficiency offer high promise in photothermal cancer therapy monitored by photoacoustic imaging. Finally, looking jointly at the outstanding properties of RIs and the demands of current biomedicine, we offer an outlook toward further modifications of RIs as a powerful and practical platform for advanced cancer theranostics as well as treatment of other diseases.

9.
Small ; 15(34): e1900244, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259465

RESUMO

Schiff-base networks (SBNs), as typical examples of nitrogen-doped microporous organic polymers (MOPs), exhibit promising application prospects owing to their stable properties and tunable chemical structures. However, their band structure engineering, which plays a key role in optical properties, remains elusive due to the complicated mechanisms behind energy level adjustment. In this work, a series of SBNs are fabricated by tailoring the ratio of p-phthalaldehyde and o-phthalaldehyde in the Schiff-base chemistry reaction with melamine, resulting in a straightforward as well as continuous tuning of their band gaps ranging from 4.4 to 1.4 eV. Consequently, SBNs can be successfully used as photocatalysts with excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity even under metal-free conditions. Significantly, electronic structures of SBNs are systematically studied by electrochemical and spectroscopic characterizations, demonstrating that the enhanced performance is ascribed to proper band structure and improved charge separation ability. More importantly, in combination with theoretical calculations, the band structure regulation mechanism and band structure-photocatalytic property relationship are deeply disclosed. The results obtained from this study will not only furnish SBN materials with excellent performance for solar energy conversion, but also open up elegant protocols for the molecular engineering of MOPs with desirable band structures.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(32): 12797-12803, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330100

RESUMO

A π-extended double [7]carbohelicene 2 with fused pyrene units was synthesized, revealing considerable intra- and intermolecular π-π interactions as confirmed with X-ray crystallography. As compared to the previous double [7]carbohelicene 1, the π-extended homologue 2 demonstrated considerably red-shifted absorption with an onset at 645 nm (1: 550 nm) corresponding to a smaller optical gap of 1.90 eV (1: 2.25 eV). A broad near-infrared emission from 600 to 900 nm with a large Stokes shift of ∼100 nm (2.3 × 103 cm-1) was recorded for 2, implying formation of an intramolecular excimer upon excitation, which was corroborated with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Moreover, 2 revealed remarkable chiral stability with a fairly high isomerization barrier of 46 kcal mol-1, according to density functional theory calculations, which allowed optical resolution by chiral HPLC and suggests potential applications in chiroptical devices.

11.
Chemphyschem ; 20(18): 2348-2353, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304992

RESUMO

We study the band gap of finite N A = 7 armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) on Au(111) through scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations. The band gap of 7-AGNRs with lengths of 8 nm and more is converged to within 50 meV of its bulk value of ≈ 2 . 3 eV , while the band gap opens by several hundred meV in very short 7-AGNRs. We demonstrate that even an atomic defect, such as the addition of one hydrogen atom at the termini, has a significant effect - in this case, lowering the band gap. The effect can be captured in terms of a simple analytical model by introducing an effective "electronic length".

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 12011-12020, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299150

RESUMO

Nonbenzenoid carbocyclic rings are postulated to serve as important structural elements toward tuning the chemical and electronic properties of extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, or namely nanographenes), necessitating a rational and atomically precise synthetic approach toward their fabrication. Here, using a combined bottom-up in-solution and on-surface synthetic approach, we report the synthesis of nonbenzenoid open-shell nanographenes containing two pairs of embedded pentagonal and heptagonal rings. Extensive characterization of the resultant nanographene in solution shows a low optical gap, and an open-shell singlet ground state with a low singlet-triplet gap. Employing ultra-high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we conduct atomic-scale structural and electronic studies on a cyclopenta-fused derivative on a Au(111) surface. The resultant five to seven rings embedded nanographene displays an extremely narrow energy gap of 0.27 eV and exhibits a pronounced open-shell biradical character close to 1 (y0 = 0.92). Our experimental results are supported by mean-field and multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations. Access to large nanographenes with a combination of nonbenzenoid topologies and open-shell character should have wide implications in harnessing new functionalities toward the realization of future organic electronic and spintronic devices.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8749-8759, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322856

RESUMO

The surface of proteins is heterogeneous with sophisticated but precise hydrophobic and hydrophilic patches, which is essential for their diverse biological functions. To emulate such distinct surface patterns on macromolecules, we used rigid spherical synthetic dendrimers (polyphenylene dendrimers) to provide controlled amphiphilic surface patches with molecular precision. We identified an optimal spatial arrangement of these patches on certain dendrimers that enabled their interaction with human adenovirus 5 (Ad5). Patchy dendrimers bound to the surface of Ad5 formed a synthetic polymer corona that greatly altered various host interactions of Ad5 as well as in vivo distribution. The dendrimer corona (1) improved the ability of Ad5-derived gene transfer vectors to transduce cells deficient for the primary Ad5 cell membrane receptor and (2) modulated the binding of Ad5 to blood coagulation factor X, one of the most critical virus-host interactions in the bloodstream. It significantly enhanced the transduction efficiency of Ad5 while also protecting it from neutralization by natural antibodies and the complement system in human whole blood. Ad5 with a synthetic dendrimer corona revealed profoundly altered in vivo distribution, improved transduction of heart, and dampened vector sequestration by liver and spleen. We propose the design of bioactive polymers that bind protein surfaces solely based on their amphiphilic surface patches and protect against a naturally occurring protein corona, which is highly attractive to improve Ad5-based in vivo gene therapy applications.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(31): 12346-12354, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309832

RESUMO

Polycyclic hydrocarbons have received great attention due to their potential role in organic electronics and, for open-shell systems with unpaired electron densities, in spintronics and data storage. However, the intrinsic instability of polyradical hydrocarbons severely limits detailed investigations of their electronic structure. Here, we report the on-surface synthesis of conjugated polymers consisting of indeno[2,1-b]fluorene units, which are antiaromatic and open-shell biradicaloids. The observed reaction products, which also include a nonbenzenoid porous ribbon arising from lateral fusion of unprotected indeno[2,1-b]fluorene chains, have been characterized via low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy, complemented by density-functional theory calculations. These polymers present a low band gap when adsorbed on Au(111). Moreover, their pronounced antiaromaticity and radical character, elucidated by ab initio calculations, make them promising candidates for applications in electronics and spintronics. Further, they provide a rich playground to explore magnetism in low-dimensional organic nanomaterials.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(27): 10621-10625, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241927

RESUMO

The electronic and magnetic properties of nanographenes strongly depend on their size, shape and topology. While many nanographenes present a closed-shell electronic structure, certain molecular topologies may lead to an open-shell structure. Triangular-shaped nanographenes with zigzag edges, which exist as neutral radicals, are of considerable interest both in fundamental science and for future technologies aimed at harnessing their intrinsic high-spin magnetic ground states for spin-based operations and information storage. Their synthesis, however, is extremely challenging owing to the presence of unpaired electrons, which confers them with enhanced reactivity. We report a combined in-solution and on-surface synthesis of π-extended triangulene, a non-Kekulé nanographene with the structural formula C33H15, consisting of ten benzene rings fused in a triangular fashion. The distinctive topology of the molecule entails the presence of three unpaired electrons that couple to form a spin quartet ground state. The structure of individual molecules adsorbed on an inert gold surface is confirmed through ultrahigh-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. The electronic properties are studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy, wherein unambiguous spectroscopic signatures of the spin-split singly occupied molecular orbitals are found. Detailed insight into its properties is obtained through tight-binding, density functional and many-body perturbation theory calculations, with the latter providing evidence that π-extended triangulene retains its open-shell quartet ground state on the surface. Our work provides unprecedented access to open-shell nanographenes with high-spin ground states, potentially useful in carbon-based spintronics.

17.
Chemistry ; 25(52): 12074-12082, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190412

RESUMO

A bottom up method for the synthesis of unique tetracene-based nanoribbons, which incorporate cyclobutadiene moieties as linkers between the acene segments, is reported. These structures were achieved through the formal [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of ortho-functionalized tetracene precursor monomers. The formation mechanism and the electronic and magnetic properties of these nanoribbons were comprehensively studied by means of a multitechnique approach. Ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy showed the occurrence of metal-coordinated nanostructures at room temperature and their evolution into nanoribbons through formal [2+2] cycloaddition at 475 K. Frequency-shift non-contact atomic force microscopy images clearly proved the presence of bridging cyclobutadiene moieties upon covalent coupling of activated tetracene molecules. Insight into the electronic and vibrational properties of the so-formed ribbons was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. Magnetic properties were addressed from a computational point of view, allowing us to propose promising candidates to magnetic acene-based ribbons incorporating four-membered rings. The reported findings will increase the understanding and availability of new graphene-based nanoribbons with high potential in future spintronics.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(19): 7726-7730, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046260

RESUMO

On-surface synthesis provides an effective approach toward the formation of graphene nanostructures that are difficult to achieve via traditional solution chemistry. Here, we report on the design and synthesis of a nonplanar porous nanographene with 78 sp 2 carbon atoms, namely C78. Through a highly selective oxidative cyclodehydrogenation of 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexa(naphthalen-1-yl)triphenylene (2), propeller nanographene precursor 1 was synthesized in solution. Interestingly, although 1 could not be cyclized further in solution, porous nanographene C78 was successfully achieved from 1 by on-surface assisted cyclodehydrogenation on Au(111). The structure and electronic properties of C78 have been investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, noncontact atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, complemented by computational investigations. Our results provide perspectives for the on-surface synthesis of porous graphene nanostructures, offering a promising strategy for the engineering of graphene materials with tailor-made properties.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(21): 19481-19488, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050397

RESUMO

We investigated unsubstituted poly( para-phenylene) (PPP), a long-desired prototype of a conjugated polymer semiconductor. PPP was accessed via thermal aromatization of a precursor polymer bearing kinked, solubility-inducing dimethoxycyclohexadienylene moieties. IR spectroscopy and Vis ellipsometry studies revealed that the rate of conversion of the precursor to PPP increases with temperature and decreases with film density, indicating a process with high activation volume. The obtained PPP films were analyzed in thin-film transistors to gain insights into the interplay between the degree of conversion and the resulting p-type semiconducting properties. The semiconducting behavior of PPP was further unambiguously proven through IR and transistor measurements of molybdenum trioxide p-doped films.

20.
Chemphyschem ; 20(18): 2360-2366, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087751

RESUMO

On-surface synthesis is a unique tool for growing low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials with precise structural control down to the atomic level. This novel approach relies on carefully designed precursor molecules, which are deposited on suitable substrates and activated to ultimately form the desired nanostructures. One of the most applied reactions to covalently interlink molecular precursors is dehalogenative aryl-aryl coupling. Despite the versatility of this approach, many unsuccessful attempts are also known, most of them associated to the poor capability of the activated precursors to couple to each other. Such failure is often related to the steric hindrance between reactants, which may arise due to their coplanarity upon adsorption on a surface. Here, we propose a copolymerization approach to overcome the limitations that prevent intermolecular homocoupling. We apply the strategy of using suitable linkers as additional reactants to the formation of fully conjugated polycyclic nanowires incorporating non-benzenoid rings.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA