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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399550

RESUMO

Prenatal stress exposure is associated with risk for psychiatric disorders later in life. This may be mediated in part via enhanced exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs), which are known to impact neurogenesis. We aimed to identify molecular mediators of these effects, focusing on long-lasting epigenetic changes. In a human hippocampal progenitor cell (HPC) line, we assessed the short- and long-term effects of GC exposure during neurogenesis on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles. GC exposure induced changes in DNAm at 27,812 CpG dinucleotides and in the expression of 3,857 transcripts (false discovery rate [FDR] ≤ 0.1 and absolute fold change [FC] expression ≥ 1.15). HPC expression and GC-affected DNAm profiles were enriched for changes observed during human fetal brain development. Differentially methylated sites (DMSs) with GC exposure clustered into 4 trajectories over HPC differentiation, with transient as well as long-lasting DNAm changes. Lasting DMSs mapped to distinct functional pathways and were selectively enriched for poised and bivalent enhancer marks. Lasting DMSs had little correlation with lasting expression changes but were associated with a significantly enhanced transcriptional response to a second acute GC challenge. A significant subset of lasting DMSs was also responsive to an acute GC challenge in peripheral blood. These tissue-overlapping DMSs were used to compute a polyepigenetic score that predicted exposure to conditions associated with altered prenatal GCs in newborn's cord blood DNA. Overall, our data suggest that early exposure to GCs can change the set point of future transcriptional responses to stress by inducing lasting DNAm changes. Such altered set points may relate to differential vulnerability to stress exposure later in life.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
3.
Mol Cancer Res ; 16(3): 390-402, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330288

RESUMO

Most lung cancer deaths are related to metastases, which indicates the necessity of detecting and inhibiting tumor cell dissemination. Here, we aimed to identify miRNAs involved in metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To that end, lymph node metastasis-associated miRNAs were identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas lung adenocarcinoma patient cohort (sequencing data; n = 449) and subsequently validated by qRT-PCR in an independent clinical cohort (n = 108). Overexpression of miRNAs located on chromosome 14q32 was associated with metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test revealed that higher expression levels of individual 14q32 miRNAs (mir-539, mir-323b, and mir-487a) associated with worse disease-free survival of never-smoker patients. Epigenetic analysis including DNA methylation microarray data and bisulfite sequencing validation demonstrated that the induction of 14q32 cluster correlated with genomic hypomethylation of the 14q32 locus. CRISPR activation technology, applied for the first time to functionally study the increase of clustered miRNA levels in a coordinated manner, showed that simultaneous overexpression of 14q32 miRNAs promoted tumor cell migratory and invasive properties. Analysis of individual miRNAs by mimic transfection further illustrated that miR-323b-3p, miR-487a-3p, and miR-539-5p significantly contributed to the invasive phenotype through the indirect regulation of different target genes. In conclusion, overexpression of 14q32 miRNAs, associated with the respective genomic hypomethylation, promotes metastasis and correlates with poor patient prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.Implications: This study points to chromosome 14q32 miRNAs as promising targets to inhibit tumor cell dissemination and to predict patient prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Mol Cancer Res; 16(3); 390-402. ©2018 AACR.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(45): E9579-E9588, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078328

RESUMO

To elucidate the molecular basis of BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) toward progeny with trophectoderm characteristics, we produced transcriptome, epigenome H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and CpG methylation maps of trophoblast progenitors, purified using the surface marker APA. We combined them with the temporally resolved transcriptome of the preprogenitor phase and of single APA+ cells. This revealed a circuit of bivalent TFAP2A, TFAP2C, GATA2, and GATA3 transcription factors, coined collectively the "trophectoderm four" (TEtra), which are also present in human trophectoderm in vivo. At the onset of differentiation, the TEtra factors occupy multiple sites in epigenetically inactive placental genes and in OCT4 Functional manipulation of GATA3 and TFAP2A indicated that they directly couple trophoblast-specific gene induction with suppression of pluripotency. In accordance, knocking down GATA3 in primate embryos resulted in a failure to form trophectoderm. The discovery of the TEtra circuit indicates how trophectoderm commitment is regulated in human embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-2/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Gravidez , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
5.
Oncotarget ; 7(11): 12937-50, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26887050

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults with a median survival below 12 months in population-based studies. The main reason for tumor recurrence and progression is constitutive or acquired resistance to the standard of care of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ/RT→TMZ). Here, we investigated the role of microRNA (miRNA) alterations as mediators of alkylator resistance in glioblastoma cells. Using microarray-based miRNA expression profiling of parental and TMZ-resistant cultures of three human glioma cell lines, we identified a set of differentially expressed miRNA candidates. From these, we selected miR-138 for further functional analyses as this miRNA was not only upregulated in TMZ-resistant versus parental cells, but also showed increased expression in vivo in recurrent glioblastoma tissue samples after TMZ/RT→TMZ treatment. Transient transfection of miR-138 mimics in glioma cells with low basal miR-138 expression increased glioma cell proliferation. Moreover, miR-138 overexpression increased TMZ resistance in long-term glioblastoma cell lines and glioma initiating cell cultures. The apoptosis regulator BIM was identified as a direct target of miR-138, and its silencing mediated the induced TMZ resistance phenotype. Altered sensitivity to apoptosis played only a minor role in this resistance mechanism. Instead, we identified the induction of autophagy to be regulated downstream of the miR-138/BIM axis and to promote cell survival following TMZ exposure. Our data thus define miR-138 as a glioblastoma cell survival-promoting miRNA associated with resistance to TMZ therapy in vitro and with tumor progression in vivo.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/biossíntese , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos
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