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1.
J Relig Health ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948977

RESUMO

Health and holistic quality of life, physical and emotional needs, somatic and spiritual aspects contain a comprehensive promise of healing. The aim of the current study is to measure the expectations of patients of medicine, alternative medicine and religion related to health and illness. The survey was carried out among 103 patients of a rural general practitioner from May to June 2013 and among 103 patients of the outpatient department for endocrinology and metabolic disease of the Jena University Hospital in 2013. All patients were asked by one interviewer (HM) on fears in relation to health/illness and expectations of help for its own life, medicine, alternative medicine and religion. The biggest fear of patients is "being in need of help of others." There is no significant difference between religious and non-religious patients. Overall, the expectations of medicine were significantly higher in all sectors than in alternative medicine or religion. Comparing alternative medicine and religion, the expectations of alternative medicine were significantly higher excluding consolation and inner peace. The expectations for medicine in general and for the physician are very high and comprehensive and go beyond diagnosis and realization of therapies. Patients expect hope, guidance, support, comfort, inner peace and advice most from medicine. This results in considerable challenges for the physician, especially in a healthcare system with limited resources and without suitable offers. There is an urgent need to integrate these requirements into daily routine.

2.
J Genet Psychol ; : 1-7, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811348

RESUMO

Our aim was to examine the role of parents in the transmission of weight bias to young children. Specifically, we assessed mothers' and fathers' weight bias and beliefs about the controllability of weight, and fear of fat in relation to their children's weight bias. Eighty-three mothers, 57 fathers, and their children (4- to 7-year-olds) participated. We failed to find any significant associations between children's weight bias, maternal responses, and most paternal responses. Only fathers' dislike of adults with overweight had daughters with more positive views of overweight figures. These results suggest that parents do not appear to contribute to the weight bias of preschoolers and their influence may only emerge in middle childhood. The present study also suggests that more work on the psychometric properties of weight bias scales and tasks to measure weight bias in children is vital to accurately evaluate interventions to decrease weight bias.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777840

RESUMO

AIMS: Prevention and prediction of microvascular complications are important aims of medical care in people with type 1 diabetes. Since the course of the disease is heterogenous, we tried to identify subgroups with specific risk profiles for microvascular complications. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 285 people (22637 consultations) with >10 years of type 1 diabetes. Persons were grouped into slow (<15 years), fast (>15 years) and non progressors according to the average onset of microvascular complications. Generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes were applied and pseudo coefficients of determination were calculated. RESULTS: Progression to microvascular disease was associated with age (OR: 1.034 [1.001-1.068]; p=0.04), diabetes duration (OR: 1.057 [1.021-1.094]; p=0.002), HbA1c (OR: 1.035 [1.011-1.060]; p=0.005), BMI (OR: 0.928 [0.866-0.994]; p=0.034) and the social strata index (OR: 0.910 [0.830-0.998]; p=0.046). Generalized estimating equations predicted 31.02% and exclusion of HbA1c marginally reduced the value to 28.88%. The proportion of patients with LADA was higher in fast than slow progressors [13 (26.5%) vs. 14 (11.9%); p=0.019]. A generalized estimating equation comparing slow to fast progressors revealed no significant markers. CONCLUSION: In our analysis, we were able to confirm known risk factors for microvascular disease in people with type 1 diabetes. Overall, prediction of individual risk was difficult, the effect of individual markers minor and we could not find differences regarding slow or fast progression. We therefore emphasis the need for additional markers to predict individual risk for microvascular disease.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796560

RESUMO

Wood and natural fibers exhibit an advantageous combination of good mechanics at comparably low density. Nevertheless, comparing absolute strength and stiffness, wood is clearly inferior to materials such as metals and engineered composites. Since there is a strong correlation between wood density and wood mechanical performance, densification by transversal compression suggests itself as a route towards improved mechanics. Partially delignified densified spruce veneers with excellent tensile properties were produced by means of an alkaline (AL) and an organosolv (OS) approach. Plywood specimens were manufactured using treated veneers glued with a phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive and were compared with plywood samples made of native spruce veneers (Ref) and spruce veneer densified after plasticization by water impregnation (H2O). Roughly, the bending strength and the modulus of elasticity of plywood from partially delignified densified wood were improved by a factor of 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. Interlaminar shear strength did not match this improvement after partial delignification. Together with excessive thickness swelling, this might be a drawback of partially delignified densified wood in need for further research.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608053

RESUMO

Reaction of CsF with ClF3 leads to Cs[Cl3 F10 ]. It contains a molecular, propeller-shaped [Cl3 F10 ]- anion with a central µ3 -F atom and three T-shaped ClF3 molecules coordinated to it. This anion represents the first example of a heteropolyhalide anion of higher ClF3 content than [ClF4 ]- and is the first Cl-containing interhalogen species with a µ-bridging F atom. The chemical bonds to the central µ3 -F atom are highly ionic and quite weak as the bond lengths within the coordinating XF3 units (X = Cl, and also calculated for Br, I) are almost unchanged in comparison to free XF3 molecules. Cs[Cl3 F10 ] crystallizes in a very rarely observed A[5] B[5] structure type, where cations and anions are each pseudohexagonally close packed, and reside, each with coordination number five, in the trigonal bipyramidal voids of the other.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557505

RESUMO

Gastroparesis is an important complication of diabetes. Motility disorders are underdiagnosed and can lead to unexplained hypoglycemia. Currently diagnostic options are limited. All established methods harbor certain disadvantages. The 3D-MAGMA system is capable of reliably measuring gastric and small intestinal motility. The aim of the current study was to determine if 3D-MAGMA is able to detect changes in intestinal motility in people with type 2 diabetes. 18 healthy volunteers and 19 people with type 2 diabetes underwent motility testing by 3D-MAGMA. In the control group the retention time in the stomach was 33.0 [min] compared to 75.3 [min] in the diabetes group. The median time in the duodenum was 12.7 [min] compared to 8.1 [min]. The time for the first 50 cm of the jejunum was 29.9 [min] compared to 28.2 [min]. Discussion and conclusion: 3D-MAGMA is able to detect changes in intestinal motility. Its clinical value might be useful in patients with fluctuating blood glucose levels and unexplained hypoglycemic episodes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453899

RESUMO

There are a large number of zeolites, such as ITH, that cannot be prepared in the aluminosilicate form. Now, the successful synthesis of aluminosilicate ITH zeolite using a simple cationic oligomer as an organic template is presented. Key to the success is that the cationic oligomer has a strong complexation ability with aluminum species combined with a structural directing ability for the ITH structure similar to that of the conventional organic template. The aluminosilicate ITH zeolite has very high crystallinity, nanosheet-like crystal morphology, large surface area, fully four-coordinated Al species, and abundant acidic sites. Methanol-to-propylene (MTP) tests reveal that the Al-ITH zeolite shows much higher selectivity for propylene and longer lifetime than commercial ZSM-5. FCC tests show that Al-ITH zeolite is a good candidate as a shape-selective FCC additive for enhancing propylene and butylene selectivity.

8.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 20: 739-753, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408052

RESUMO

Significant advances in biotechnology have led to the development of a number of different mutation-directed therapies. Some of these techniques have matured to a level that has allowed testing in clinical trials, but few have made it to approval by drug-regulatory bodies for the treatment of specific diseases. While there are still various hurdles to be overcome, recent success stories have proven the potential power of mutation-directed therapies and have fueled the hope of finding therapeutics for other genetic disorders. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art of various therapeutic approaches and assess their applicability to the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). NF1 is caused by the loss of function of neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor and downregulator of the Ras signaling pathway. The condition is characterized by a variety of phenotypes and includes symptoms such as skin spots, nervous system tumors, skeletal dysplasia, and others. Hence, depending on the patient, therapeutics may need to target different tissues and cell types. While we also discuss the delivery of therapeutics, in particular via viral vectors and nanoparticles, our main focus is on therapeutic techniques that reconstitute functional neurofibromin, most notably cDNA replacement, CRISPR-based DNA repair, RNA repair, antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics including exon skipping, and nonsense suppression.

9.
Neuron ; 107(1): 126-143.e8, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343945

RESUMO

TMC1 and TMC2 (TMC1/2) have been proposed to form the pore of the mechanotransduction channel of cochlear hair cells. Here, we show that TMC1/2 cannot form mechanotransduction channels in cochlear hair cells without TMIE. TMIE binds to TMC1/2, and a TMIE mutation that perturbs TMC1/2 binding abolishes mechanotransduction. N-terminal TMIE deletions affect the response of the mechanotransduction channel to mechanical force. Similar to mechanically gated TREK channels, the C-terminal cytoplasmic TMIE domain contains charged amino acids that mediate binding to phospholipids, including PIP2. TMIE point mutations in the C terminus that are linked to deafness disrupt phospholipid binding, sensitize the channel to PIP2 depletion from hair cells, and alter the channel's unitary conductance and ion selectivity. We conclude that TMIE is a subunit of the cochlear mechanotransduction channel and that channel function is regulated by a phospholipid-sensing domain in TMIE with similarity to those in other mechanically gated ion channels.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(19): 8897-8909, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302135

RESUMO

A series of copper(I) complexes bearing a cyclic (amino)(aryl)carbene (CAArC) ligand with various complex geometries have been investigated in great detail with regard to their structural, electronic, and photophysical properties. Comparison of [CuX(CAArC)] (X = Br (1), Cbz (2), acac (3), Ph2acac (4), Cp (5), and Cp* (6)) with known CuI complexes bearing cyclic (amino)(alkyl), monoamido, or diamido carbenes (CAAC, MAC, or DAC, respectively) as chromophore ligands reveals that the expanded π-system of the CAArC leads to relatively low energy absorption maxima between 350 and 550 nm in THF with high absorption coefficients of 5-15 × 103 M-1 cm-1 for 1-6. Furthermore, 1-5 show intense deep red to near-IR emission involving their triplet excited states in the solid state and in PMMA films with λemmax = 621-784 nm. Linear [Cu(Cbz)(DippCAArC)] (2) has been found to be an exceptional deep red (λmax = 621 nm, ϕ = 0.32, τav = 366 ns) thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter with a radiative rate constant kr of ca. 9 × 105 s-1, exceeding those of commercially employed IrIII- or PtII-based emitters. Time-resolved transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion experiments complemented by quantum chemical calculations employing Kohn-Sham density functional theory and multireference configuration interaction methods as well as temperature-dependent steady-state and time-resolved luminescence studies provide a detailed picture of the excited-state dynamics of 2. To demonstrate the potential applicability of this new class of low-energy emitters in future photonic applications, such as nonclassical light sources for quantum communication or quantum cryptography, we have successfully conducted single-molecule photon-correlation experiments of 2, showing distinct antibunching as required for single-photon emitters.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) influences the type of antiglycaemic therapy and the risk for hypoglycaemia. METHODS: In 2006, 2011 and 2016 health insurance data of people with diabetes type 2 were screened for CKD and the presence of severe hypoglycaemia (sHypo). The type of antihyperglycaemic therapy was recorded due to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes up to 3 months before suffering sHypo. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD increased from 5.3% in 2006 to 7.3% in 2011 and 11.2% in 2016. Insulin-based therapies were used in 39.0, 39.1, and 37.9% of patients with, but only in 17.7, 17.4, and 18.8% of patients without CKD. Although the proportion of the CKD stages 1, 2 and 5 decreased, CKD stages 3 and 4 increased. The proportion of sHypo in CKD declined from 2006 (3.5%) to 2011 (3.0%) and 2016 (2.2%) but was still more than 10 times higher as compared to type 2 diabetic patients without CKD (0.3/0.2/0.2%) conferring a significantly higher probability of sHypo (OR 9.30, 95%CI 9.07-9.54) in CKD. The probability of sHypo was significantly lower in 2016 than in 2006 both in patients with (OR 0.58; CI 0.55-0.61) and without CKD (OR 0.70; CI 0.68-0.73). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CKD increased from 2006 to 2016. Patients with CKD exhibited a 9-fold increased probability of sHypo, especially in patients treated with insulin plus oral anti-diabetic drugs. However, the rate and risk for sHypo decreased over time, probably as a consequence of new antidiabetic treatment options, better awareness of sHypo, and changed therapy goals.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 130(5): 2206-2208, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310224

RESUMO

Hearing loss caused by the death of sensory hair cells of the inner ear is an unfortunate side effect for many patients treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics or platinum-containing chemotherapy agents. In animal models, induction of heat shock confers substantial otoprotection against aminoglycoside- and cisplatin-induced hair cell death. In this issue of the JCI, Breglio et al. demonstrate that inner ear tissue released exosomes carrying heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in response to heat stress. HSP70 acted by a paracrine mechanism that engaged the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on hair cells to protect them from death. Exosomes and the HSP70/TLR4 pathway could thus provide treatment targets for the protection of hair cells from chemically induced death or from other insults, such as noise.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(7)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218244

RESUMO

The currently pursued implementation of wood into novel high performance applications such as automotive parts require knowledge about the material behaviour including ultimate strength. Previous research has shown that fiber deviation seems to be the dominating factor influencing the strength of thin veneers. This study aims to further investigate and quantify the influence of fiber deviation in two dimension and different hierarchical levels on the tensile strength of thin birch veneers. The fiber deviation in- and out-of-plane as well as the micro fibril angle were assessed by means of wide-angle X-ray scattering. Tensile strength was determined in laboratory experiments. Results show a high variability for in-plane fiber deviation mainly constituted by knots and other growth influencing factors. Pearson correlations between strength and fiber deviation ranged from -0.594 up to -0.852. Best correlation (r = -0.852) was achieved for maximum in-plane fiber deviation directly followed by a combined angle of in- and out-of-plane fiber deviation (r = -0.846). Based on the results it was shown that fiber deviation in- and out-of-plane is the dominating factor influencing ultimate tensile strength of thin birch veneers. Further research in regard to non-destructive strength prediction is necessary.

15.
ACS Nano ; 13(12): 14337-14347, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769965

RESUMO

Despite the excellent catalytic properties of individual nanoparticles and atomic clusters, the current capabilities to assemble them into a complex system are insufficient for many practical applications. An objective of this work is to develop a fabrication technology that allows for the simultaneous control of the nanoparticle surface chemistry, elemental distribution, microscale geometry, and large-scale assembly. Using a cellulose structure derived from wood, we fabricate hierarchical porous cellulose scaffolds combining with cerium-doped TiO2. This hybrid material serves as the support for atomically dispersed Pt catalysts and is used to successfully decompose ethylene at 0 °C. The fabrication concept developed in this work would allow mitigating the conflict between the required large active surfaces and the difficulties in handling nanopowders in environmental catalysis, including food preservation and indoor air purification. We thus discover a promising route to manufacture multifunctional materials with complex structures by combining a controllable chemical synthesis with the nature-designed wood scaffold.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(45): 18318-18324, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644275

RESUMO

A large amount of zeolite structures are still not synthetically available or not available in the form of aluminosilicate currently. Despite significant progress in the development of predictive concepts for zeolite synthesis, accessing some of these new materials is still challenging. One example is the IWR structure as well. Despite successful synthesis of Ge-based IWR zeolites, direct synthesis of aluminosilicate IWR zeolite is still not successful. In this report we show how a suitable organic structure directing agent (OSDA), through modeling of an OSDA/zeolite cage interaction, could access directly the aluminum-containing IWR structure (denoted as COE-6), which might allow access to new classes of materials and thus open opportunities in valuable chemical applications. The experimental results reveal that the COE-6 zeolites with a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio as low as 30 could be obtained. Very interestingly, the COE-6 zeolite has much higher hydrothermal and thermal stabilities than those of the conventional Ge-Al-IWR zeolite. In methanol-to-propylene (MTP) reaction, the COE-6 zeolite exhibits excellent selectivity for propylene, offering a potential catalyst for MTP reaction in the future.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess outcomes before and one year after participation in a structured inpatient intervention including participation in an education programme for people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In 2014, 81 individuals, who were admitted to optimise insulin therapy, participated in a structured inpatient intervention and were invited to participate in a follow-up visit after one year. RESULTS: Seventy participants (46.9% female, age 68.3 y, diabetes duration 17.9 y, HbA1c 9.7%/82.5 mmol/mol) were followed-up after 1.2 y (3 died by non-diabetic causes, 8 declined/were not available). HbA1c decreased by 1.1% (p<0.001) without change of insulin dose (79.7 vs. 79.3 IU, n.s.) or BMI (33.6 vs. 33.8 kg/m2, n.s.). 5 people admitted because of severe hypoglycaemia (one person with 5 episodes and 4 with one episode in the year prior to participation) did not experience another event in the evaluation period, nor did anyone in the rest of the cohort (frequency of severe hypoglycaemia 0.12 events/year before and 0.0 after intervention). CONCLUSIONS: In people admitted for optimising insulin therapy or severe hypoglycaemia, metabolic control improved substantially and frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly reduced after participation in a structured inpatient intervention. Reasons could be motivational and better adapted eating habits, tailoring individual therapy solutions and deescalating diabetes therapy in people after severe hypoglycaemia.

18.
Chemistry ; 25(68): 15463-15471, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478580

RESUMO

Up to three polychlorinated pyridyldiphenylmethyl radicals bridged by a triphenylamine carrying electron withdrawing (CN), neutral (Me), or donating (OMe) groups were synthesized and analogous radicals bridged by tris(2,6-dimethylphenyl)borane were prepared for comparison. All compounds were as stable as common closed-shell organic compounds and showed significant fluorescence upon excitation. Electronic, magnetic, absorption, and emission properties were examined in detail, and experimental results were interpreted using DFT calculations. Oxidation potentials, absorption and emission energies could be tuned depending on the electron density of the bridges. The triphenylamine bridges mediated intramolecular weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the radical spins, and the energy difference between the high spin and low spin states was determined by temperature dependent ESR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The fluorescent properties of all radicals were examined in detail and revealed no difference for high and low spin states which facilitates application of these dyes in two-photon absorption spectroscopy and OLED devices.

19.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 127(10): 645-652, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The quality report of the disease management programmes of North Rhine Westphalia 2016 showed prevalences for long-term complications (neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy) of less than 30% for people with diabetes type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2). The aim of this study was to assess risk expectations and fear regarding long-term complications of diabetes in people with DM1 and DM2. METHODS: We assessed risk expectations and fear regarding diabetes complications in people with DM1 (n=110) and DM2 (n=143 without insulin, n=249 with insulin) visiting an University outpatient department of metabolic diseases. Fear of long-term complications was measured with the "Fear of Complications Questionnaire (FCQ)" (range 0-45 points, scores ≥30 suggest elevated fear). Participants were asked to estimate general and personal risks of long-term complications 10 years after developing diabetes in %. RESULTS: Elevated fear of complications (FCQ scores ≥30) was observed in 34.5, 25.9, and 43.0% of those with DM1, DM2 without insulin and DM2 with insulin, respectively. Participants estimated a mean general risk of diabetes-related complications after 10 years amounting to 45.9±15.8% (DM1), 49.7±15.4% (DM2 without insulin), and 52.5±16.4% (DM2 with insulin) and personal risk with 52.5±24.4% (DM1), 45.8±22.7% (DM2 without insulin), and 54.1±23.4% (DM2 with insulin), respectively. Higher risk expectations were associated with higher fear of complications (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Risk estimations regarding long-term complications were exaggerated in people with DM1 and DM2. About one third of the participants reported elevated fear of complications. Participants' risk expectations and fear regarding diabetes complications appear excessive compared to population-based prevalence rates.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
20.
EMBO Rep ; 20(8): e48216, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264358

RESUMO

Insulin orchestrates metabolic homeostasis through a complex signaling network for which the precise mechanisms controlling its fine-tuning are not completely understood. Here, we report that Afadin, a scaffold protein, is phosphorylated on S1795 (S1718 in humans) in response to insulin in adipocytes, and this phosphorylation is impaired with obesity and insulin resistance. In turn, loss of Afadin enhances the response to insulin in adipose tissues via upregulation of the insulin receptor protein levels. This happens in a cell-autonomous and phosphorylation-dependent manner. Insulin-stimulated Afadin-S1795 phosphorylation modulates Afadin binding with interaction partners in adipocytes, among which HDAC6 preferentially interacts with phosphorylated Afadin and acts as a key intermediate to suppress insulin receptor protein levels. Adipose tissue-specific Afadin depletion protects against insulin resistance and improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice, independently of adiposity. Altogether, we uncover a novel insulin-induced cellular feedback mechanism governed by the interaction of Afadin with HDAC6 to negatively control insulin action in adipocytes, which may offer new strategies to alleviate insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/genética , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/genética , Insulina/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Obesidade/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucose/metabolismo , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo
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