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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 187, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383853

RESUMO

The identification of generalizable treatment response classes (TRC[s]) in major depressive disorder (MDD) would facilitate comparisons across studies and the development of treatment prediction algorithms. Here, we investigated whether such stable TRCs can be identified and predicted by clinical baseline items. We analyzed data from an observational MDD cohort (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature [MARS] study, N = 1017), treated individually by psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic means, and a multicenter, partially randomized clinical/pharmacogenomic study (Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression [GENDEP], N = 809). Symptoms were evaluated up to week 16 (or discharge) in MARS and week 12 in GENDEP. Clustering was performed on 809 MARS patients (discovery sample) using a mixed model with the integrated completed likelihood criterion for the assessment of cluster stability, and validated through a distinct MARS validation sample and GENDEP. A random forest algorithm was used to identify prediction patterns based on 50 clinical baseline items. From the clustering of the MARS discovery sample, seven TRCs emerged ranging from fast and complete response (average 4.9 weeks until discharge, 94% remitted patients) to slow and incomplete response (10% remitted patients at week 16). These proved stable representations of treatment response dynamics in both the MARS and the GENDEP validation sample. TRCs were strongly associated with established response markers, particularly the rate of remitted patients at discharge. TRCs were predictable from clinical items, particularly personality items, life events, episode duration, and specific psychopathological features. Prediction accuracy improved significantly when cluster-derived slopes were modelled instead of individual slopes. In conclusion, model-based clustering identified distinct and clinically meaningful treatment response classes in MDD that proved robust with regard to capturing response profiles of differently designed studies. Response classes were predictable from clinical baseline characteristics. Conceptually, model-based clustering is translatable to any outcome measure and could advance the large-scale integration of studies on treatment efficacy or the neurobiology of treatment response.

3.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(4): e573, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355309

RESUMO

Objective: To identify CSF parameters at diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and MS that are associated with early inflammatory disease activity as measured by standardized cerebral MRI (cMRI). Methods: One hundred forty-nine patients with newly diagnosed CIS and MS were included in the retrospective study. cMRI at onset and after 12 months was analyzed for T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. CSF was tested for oligoclonal bands and intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G (IgG), A (IgA), and M (IgM) before initiation of disease-modifying therapy (DMT). In a subgroup of patients, CSF and serum samples were analyzed for sCD27, neurofilament light chain, and IgG subclasses 1 and 3. Association between CSF parameters and cMRI activity was investigated by univariable and multivariable regression analysis in all patients, DMT-treated patients, and untreated patients. Results: IgG index, sCD27 levels in CSF, and to a lesser extent IgM index were associated with the occurrence of new cMRI lesions. IgG index and sCD27 levels in CSF were highly correlated. In a multivariable analysis, IgG index and to a lesser extent IgM index together with DMT treatment status and gender were strongest predictors of future cMRI activity. Conclusions: CSF parameters such as IgG and IgM index are independently associated with future MRI activity and thus might be helpful to support early treatment decisions in patients newly diagnosed with CIS and MS.

4.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11370-11379, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113877

RESUMO

Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-κB-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-κB regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-κB. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-κB through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-κB signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.

6.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 67-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076262

RESUMO

Schizotypy is a multidimensional risk phenotype distributed in the general population, constituting of subclinical, psychotic-like symptoms. It is associated with psychosis proneness, and several risk genes for psychosis are associated with schizotypy in non-clinical populations. Schizotypy might also modulate cognitive abilities as it is associated with attentional deficits in healthy subjects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that established genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737 are associated with psychometric schizotypy and that schizotypy mediates their effect on attention or vice versa. In 615 healthy subjects from the FOR2107 cohort study, we analysed the genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737, psychometric schizotypy (schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief SPQB), and a neuropsychological measure of sustained and selective attention (d2 test). ZNF804A rs1344706 C (non-risk) alleles were significantly associated with higher SPQ-B Cognitive-Perceptual subscores in women and with attention deficits in both sexes. This schizotypy dimension also mediated the effect of ZNF804A on attention in women, but not in men. CACNA1C rs1006737-A showed a significant sex-modulated negative association with Interpersonal schizotypy only in men, and no effect on attention. Our multivariate model demonstrates differential genetic contributions of two psychosis risk genes to dimensions of schizotypy and, partly, to attention. This supports a model of shared genetic influence between schizotypy and cognitive functions impaired in schizophrenia.

7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 626-634, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-regulation includes the volitional and nonvolitional regulation of emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses to stimulation. It develops from infancy through individual characteristics and the environment, with the stress hormone system as a central player. Accordingly, the authors hypothesized that genes involved in regulating the stress system, such as FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), interact with early-life stress exposure, such as exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), to predict self-regulation indicators and associated outcomes, including behavioral and learning problems in school. METHODS: Study participants were a longitudinal birth cohort of 910 children for whom FKBP5 genotypes were available and who were assessed for exposure to IPV during the first 2 years of life as well as multiple measures of self-regulation: stress-induced cortisol reactivity and fear-elicited emotional reactivity at 7, 15, and 24 months, executive function at 36, 48, and 60 months, and emotional and behavioral difficulties and reading and math achievement in school grades 1, 2, and 5. Data were analyzed using longitudinal clustering and ordinal logistic regression procedures followed by mixed linear modeling. RESULTS: Children with two copies of a risk FKBP5 haplotype and IPV exposure were significantly more likely to have a developmental trajectory characterized by high, prolonged stress-induced cortisol reactivity and emotional reactivity in toddlerhood, followed by low executive function at school entry and high emotional and behavior problems and low reading ability in the primary school grades. CONCLUSIONS: The interaction of FKBP5 and IPV affects the physiological response to stress early in life, with consequences for emotional and cognitive self-regulation. Targeting self-regulation may present an early intervention strategy for children facing genetic and environmental risk.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 77, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741946

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is one of the most prevalent learning disorders, with high impact on school and psychosocial development and high comorbidity with conditions like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety. DD is characterized by deficits in different cognitive skills, including word reading, spelling, rapid naming, and phonology. To investigate the genetic basis of DD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of these skills within one of the largest studies available, including nine cohorts of reading-impaired and typically developing children of European ancestry (N = 2562-3468). We observed a genome-wide significant effect (p < 1 × 10-8) on rapid automatized naming of letters (RANlet) for variants on 18q12.2, within MIR924HG (micro-RNA 924 host gene; rs17663182 p = 4.73 × 10-9), and a suggestive association on 8q12.3 within NKAIN3 (encoding a cation transporter; rs16928927, p = 2.25 × 10-8). rs17663182 (18q12.2) also showed genome-wide significant multivariate associations with RAN measures (p = 1.15 × 10-8) and with all the cognitive traits tested (p = 3.07 × 10-8), suggesting (relational) pleiotropic effects of this variant. A polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis revealed significant genetic overlaps of some of the DD-related traits with educational attainment (EDUyears) and ADHD. Reading and spelling abilities were positively associated with EDUyears (p ~ [10-5-10-7]) and negatively associated with ADHD PRS (p ~ [10-8-10-17]). This corroborates a long-standing hypothesis on the partly shared genetic etiology of DD and ADHD, at the genome-wide level. Our findings suggest new candidate DD susceptibility genes and provide new insights into the genetics of dyslexia and its comorbities.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dislexia/genética , Dislexia/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267149

RESUMO

Genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors are involved in the etiology and course of the major psychoses (MP), i.e. major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizoaffective disorder (SZA) and schizophrenia (SZ). The neurobiological correlates by which these predispositions exert their influence on brain structure, function and course of illness are poorly understood. In the FOR2107 consortium, animal models and humans are investigated. A human cohort of MP patients, healthy subjects at genetic and/or environmental risk, and control subjects (N = 2500) has been established. Participants are followed up after 2 years and twice underwent extensive deep phenotyping (MR imaging, clinical course, neuropsychology, personality, risk/protective factors, biomaterials: blood, stool, urine, hair, saliva). Methods for data reduction, quality assurance for longitudinal MRI data, and (deep) machine learning techniques are employed. In the parallelised animal cluster, genetic risk was introduced by a rodent model (Cacna1c deficiency) and its interactions with environmental risk and protective factors are studied. The animals are deeply phenotyped regarding cognition, emotion, and social function, paralleling the variables assessed in humans. A set of innovative experimental projects connect and integrate data from the human and animal parts, investigating the role of microRNA, neuroplasticity, immune signatures, (epi-)genetics and gene expression. Biomaterial from humans and animals are analyzed in parallel. The FOR2107 consortium will delineate pathophysiological entities with common neurobiological underpinnings ("biotypes") and pave the way for an etiologic understanding of the MP, potentially leading to their prevention, the prediction of individual disease courses, and novel therapies in the future.

10.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the classification of a previous spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) into; i) sPTB or ii) PPROM, impacts the efficacy of cervical pessary or vaginal progesterone in pregnant women with short cervix on transvaginal ultrasound. METHODS: Four European hospitals using pessary or vaginal progesterone as a primary PTB prevention treatment for asymptomatic high-risk singletons with a short cervix, provided retrospective cohort data. A log-rank test on Kaplan-Meier curves assessed the difference in performance of pessary and progesterone depending on history of sPTB or PPROM. A linear regression analysis evaluated significant predictors of gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: Between 2008-2015, 170 women were treated with pessary and 88 with vaginal progesterone. Rate of sPTB <34 weeks were 16% for 'pessary + sPTB history', 55% for pessary + PPROM history, 13% for 'progesterone + sPTB history' and 21% for 'progesterone + PPROM history'. Treatment with a pessary resulted in earlier delivery in women with previous PPROM than in any other subgroup; p=<0.0001 (p = 1.45e-09). Linear regression showed clear effect of PPROM history (p=7.773e-10), an interaction of PPROM with treatment (p = 0.0002590) and effect of CL (p = 0.0003763) on gestation at birth. CONCLUSION: Cervical pessary may be a less efficacious treatment option for women with previous PPROM, however results require prospective validation before change in practice is recommended. Phenotype of previous preterm births may be an important risk predictor and treatment effect modifier; this information should be reported in future clinical trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518763089, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with interferon ß can lead to the development of antibodies directed against interferon ß that interfere with treatment efficacy. Several observational studies have proposed different HLA alleles and genetic variants associated with the development of antibodies against interferon ß. OBJECTIVE: To validate the proposed genetic markers and to identify new markers. METHODS: Associations of genetic candidate markers with antibody presence and development were examined in a post hoc analysis in 941 patients treated with interferon ß-1b in the Betaferon® Efficacy Yielding Outcomes of a New Dose (BEYOND) and BEtaseron®/BEtaferon® in Newly Emerging multiple sclerosis For Initial Treatment (BENEFIT) prospective phase III trials. All patients were treated with interferon ß-1b for at least 6 months. In addition, a genome-wide association study was conducted to identify new genetic variants. RESULTS: We confirmed an increased risk for carriers of HLA-DRB1*04:01 (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, p = 6.9 × 10-4) and HLA-DRB1*07:01 (OR = 1.8, p = 3.5 × 10-3) for developing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Several additional, previously proposed HLA alleles and genetic variants showed nominally significant associations. In the exploratory analysis, variants in the HLA region were associated with NAb development at genome-wide significance (OR = 2.6, p = 2.30 × 10-15). CONCLUSION: The contribution of HLA alleles and HLA-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the development and titer of antibodies against interferon ß was confirmed in the combined analysis of two multi-national, multi-center studies.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 228: 20-25, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci. METHODS: We conducted gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) using 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 397 Reactome pathways and 24,025 patients with BD and controls. RNA expression of implicated individual genes and gene sets were examined in post-mortem brains across lifespan. RESULTS: Two pathways showed a significant enrichment after correction for multiple comparisons in the GSEA: GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, for which 6 of 21 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0377), and NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, for which 11 out of 62 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0451). Most pathway genes showed peaks of RNA co-expression during fetal development and infancy and mapped to neocortical areas and parts of the limbic system. LIMITATIONS: Pathway associations were technically reproduced by two methods, although they were not formally replicated in independent samples. Gene expression was explored in controls but not in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pathway analysis in large GWAS data of BD and follow-up of gene expression patterns in healthy brains provide support for an involvement of neurodevelopmental processes in the etiology of this neuropsychiatric disease. Future studies are required to further evaluate the relevance of the implicated genes on pathway functioning and clinical aspects of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Algoritmos , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/metabolismo
14.
J Sleep Res ; 27(4): e12557, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695622

RESUMO

Meis homeobox 1 (Meis1) is a transcription factor functioning in the development of the nervous system and the cardiovascular system. Both common and rare variants within the gene have been associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS), while its association with symptoms of insomnia has also been discovered recently. RLS is associated with sleep disturbances, and while Meis1 haploinsufficiency is one of the most promising strategies for an RLS animal model, sleep phenotyping of Meis1 knockout mice has never been conducted. We report a detailed sleep analysis of heterozygous Meis1 knockout mice and challenge it with pramipexole, a dopamine agonist used in the treatment of RLS. At baseline, the Meis1-haploinsufficient mice had a trend towards lower delta power in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep compared to the wild-type littermates, possibly indicating reduced sleep quality, but not sleep fragmentation. Pramipexole had a sleep disrupting effect in both genotype groups. In addition, it exerted differential effects on the EEG power spectra of the two mouse lines, remarkably elevating the theta power of the mutant mice during recovery more than that of the wild-types. In conclusion, Meis1 haploinsufficiency seems to have only a modest effect on sleep, but the gene may interact with the sleep-disrupting effect of dopamine agonists.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1287, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249830

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) affects about four million Europeans, with women affected twice as likely as men, causing substantial suffering and high economic costs. The etiopathogenesis of PD remains largely unknown, but both genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk. An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) was conducted to compare medication-free PD patients (n = 89) with healthy controls (n = 76) stratified by gender. Replication was sought in an independent sample (131 cases, 169 controls) and functional analyses were conducted in a third sample (N = 71). DNA methylation was assessed in whole blood using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. One genome-wide association surviving FDR of 5% (cg07308824, P = 1.094 × 10-7, P-adj = 0.046) was identified in female PD patients (N = 49) compared to controls (N = 48). The same locus, located in an enhancer region of the HECA gene, was also hypermethylated in female PD patients in the replication sample (P = 0.035) and the significance of the association improved in the meta-analysis (P-adj = 0.004). Methylation at this CpG site was associated with HECA mRNA expression in another independent female sample (N = 71) both at baseline (P = 0.046) and after induction by dexamethasone (P = 0.029). Of 15 candidates, 5 previously reported as associated with PD or anxiety traits also showed differences in DNA methylation after gene-wise correction and included SGK1, FHIT, ADCYAP1, HTR1A, HTR2A. Our study examines epigenome-wide differences in peripheral blood for PD patients. Our results point to possible sex-specific methylation changes in the HECA gene for PD but overall highlight that this disorder is not associated with extensive changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Adulto , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Epigenômica , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno de Pânico/metabolismo
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1273, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225345

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are primary major mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that they share certain psychopathological features and common risk genes, but unraveling the full genetic architecture underlying the risk of major mood disorders remains an important scientific task. The public genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets offer the opportunity to examine this topic by utilizing large amounts of combined genetic data, which should ultimately allow a better understanding of the onset and development of these illnesses. Genome-wide meta-analysis was performed by combining two GWAS data sets on BPD and MDD (19,637 cases and 18,083 controls), followed by replication analyses for the loci of interest in independent 12,364 cases and 76,633 controls from additional samples that were not included in the two GWAS data sets. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10791889 at 11q13.2 was significant in both discovery and replication samples. When combining all samples, this SNP and multiple other SNPs at 2q11.2 (rs717454), 8q21.3 (rs10103191), and 11q13.2 (rs2167457) exhibited genome-wide significant association with major mood disorders. The SNPs in 2q11.2 and 8q21.3 were novel risk SNPs that were not previously reported, and SNPs at 11q13.2 were in high LD with potential BPD risk SNPs implicated in a previous GWAS. The genome-wide significant loci at 2q11.2 and 11q13.2 exhibited strong effects on the mRNA expression of certain nearby genes in cerebellum. In conclusion, we have identified several novel loci associated with major mood disorders, adding further support for shared genetic risk between BPD and MDD. Our study highlights the necessity and importance of mining public data sets to explore risk genes for complex diseases such as mood disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1511, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142228

RESUMO

Emerging evidence emphasizes the strong impact of regulatory genomic elements in neurodevelopmental processes and the complex pathways of brain disorders. The present genome-wide quantitative trait loci analyses explore the cis-regulatory effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on DNA methylation (meQTL) and gene expression (eQTL) in 110 human hippocampal biopsies. We identify cis-meQTLs at 14,118 CpG methylation sites and cis-eQTLs for 302 3'-mRNA transcripts of 288 genes. Hippocampal cis-meQTL-CpGs are enriched in flanking regions of active promoters, CpG island shores, binding sites of the transcription factor CTCF and brain eQTLs. Cis-acting SNPs of hippocampal meQTLs and eQTLs significantly overlap schizophrenia-associated SNPs. Correlations of CpG methylation and RNA expression are found for 34 genes. Our comprehensive maps of cis-acting hippocampal meQTLs and eQTLs provide a link between disease-associated SNPs and the regulatory genome that will improve the functional interpretation of non-coding genetic variants in the molecular genetic dissection of brain disorders.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Neurol ; 16(11): 898-907, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder with potentially severe mental and physical health consequences. Clearer understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is needed to improve treatment options. We did a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify potential molecular targets. METHODS: In the discovery stage, we combined three GWAS datasets (EU-RLS GENE, INTERVAL, and 23andMe) with diagnosis data collected from 2003 to 2017, in face-to-face interviews or via questionnaires, and involving 15 126 cases and 95 725 controls of European ancestry. We identified common variants by fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analysis. Significant genome-wide signals (p≤5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in an independent GWAS of 30 770 cases and 286 913 controls, followed by a joint analysis of the discovery and replication stages. We did gene annotation, pathway, and gene-set-enrichment analyses and studied the genetic correlations between restless legs syndrome and traits of interest. FINDINGS: We identified and replicated 13 new risk loci for restless legs syndrome and confirmed the previously identified six risk loci. MEIS1 was confirmed as the strongest genetic risk factor for restless legs syndrome (odds ratio 1·92, 95% CI 1·85-1·99). Gene prioritisation, enrichment, and genetic correlation analyses showed that identified pathways were related to neurodevelopment and highlighted genes linked to axon guidance (associated with SEMA6D), synapse formation (NTNG1), and neuronal specification (HOXB cluster family and MYT1). INTERPRETATION: Identification of new candidate genes and associated pathways will inform future functional research. Advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie restless legs syndrome could lead to new treatment options. We focused on common variants; thus, additional studies are needed to dissect the roles of rare and structural variations. FUNDING: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Helmholtz Zentrum München-Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt, National Research Institutions, NHS Blood and Transplant, National Institute for Health Research, British Heart Foundation, European Commission, European Research Council, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, and UK Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/epidemiologia , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Netrinas , Semaforinas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 266, 2017 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814792

RESUMO

The immune system plays a major role in human health and disease, and understanding genetic causes of interindividual variability of immune responses is vital. Here, we isolate monocytes from 134 genotyped individuals, stimulate these cells with three defined microbe-associated molecular patterns (LPS, MDP, and 5'-ppp-dsRNA), and profile the transcriptomes at three time points. Mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), we identify 417 response eQTLs (reQTLs) with varying effects between conditions. We characterize the dynamics of genetic regulation on early and late immune response and observe an enrichment of reQTLs in distal cis-regulatory elements. In addition, reQTLs are enriched for recent positive selection with an evolutionary trend towards enhanced immune response. Finally, we uncover reQTL effects in multiple GWAS loci and show a stronger enrichment for response than constant eQTLs in GWAS signals of several autoimmune diseases. This demonstrates the importance of infectious stimuli in modifying genetic predisposition to disease.Insight into the genetic influence on the immune response is important for the understanding of interindividual variability in human pathologies. Here, the authors generate transcriptome data from human blood monocytes stimulated with various immune stimuli and provide a time-resolved response eQTL map.


Assuntos
Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Lipídeos , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 58(9): 1011-1013, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836675

RESUMO

We greatly appreciate Dr. Fisher's commentary that provides an excellent backdrop and well-considered perspective on our findings. We agree that our results mesh well with previous work documenting hypocortisolism among youth who experienced early adversity, especially neglect. Moreover, as also perceptively noted by Dr. Fisher, our cross-sectional data provide support for the notion that hypocortisolism is not simply a transient phenomenon, but, rather, a persistent pattern characterizing maltreated youth. Specifically, the consistency of the between group effect (from age 9.69 onwards) on a multimonth index of cumulative cortisol and the dose-dependent gradient of cortisol secretion within the maltreated group, which was related to the number of subtypes and the length of exposure to maltreatment, lend weight to this view.

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