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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590662

RESUMO

HeiDE is a longitudinal population-based study that started in the 1990s and, at baseline, assessed an array of health-related personality questionnaires in 5133 individuals. Five latent personality dimensions (The Heidelberg Five) were identified and interpreted as Emotional Lability (ELAB), Lack of Behavioral Control (LBCN), Type A Behavior (TYAB), Locus of Control over Disease (LOCC), and Psychoticism (PSYC). At follow-up, 3268 HeiDE participants (post-QC) were genotyped on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. To further characterize The Heidelberg Five, we analyzed genomic underpinnings, their relations to the genetic basis of the Big Five trait Neuroticism, and longitudinal associations with psychiatric symptoms at follow-up. SNP-based heritability was significant for ELAB (34%) and LBCN (29%). A genome-wide association study for each personality dimension was conducted; only the phenotype PSYC yielded a genome-wide significant finding (p < 5 × 10-8 , top SNP rs138223660). Gene-based analyses identified significant findings for ELAB, TYAB, and PSYC. Polygenic risk scores for Neuroticism were only associated with ELAB. Each of The Heidelberg Five was related to depressive symptoms at follow-up. ELAB, LBCN, and PSYC were also associated with lifetime anxiety symptoms. These results highlight the clinical importance of health-related personality traits and identify LBCN as a heritable "executive function" personality trait.

2.
Trials ; 22(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407710

RESUMO

Adaptations to the gold standard randomised controlled trial (RCT) have been introduced to decrease trial costs and avoid high sample sizes. To facilitate development of precision medicine algorithms that aim to optimise treatment allocation for individual patients, we propose a new RCT adaptation termed the nested-precision RCT (npRCT). The npRCT combines a traditional RCT (intervention A versus B) with a precision RCT (stratified versus randomised allocation to A or B). This combination allows online development of a precision algorithm, thus providing an integrated platform for algorithm development and its testing. Moreover, as both the traditional and the precision RCT include participants randomised to interventions of interest, data from these participants can be jointly analysed to determine the comparative effectiveness of intervention A versus B, thus increasing statistical power. We quantify savings of the npRCT compared to two independent RCTs by highlighting sample size requirements for different target effect sizes and by introducing an open-source power calculation app. We describe important practical considerations such as blinding issues and potential biases that need to be considered when designing an npRCT. We also highlight limitations and research contexts that are less suited for an npRCT. In conclusion, we introduce the npRCT as a novel precision medicine trial design strategy which may provide one opportunity to efficiently combine traditional and precision RCTs.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376202

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease risk is associated with reduced sun-exposure. This study assessed the relationship between measures of sun exposure (vitamin D [vitD], latitude) and MS severity in the setting of two multicenter cohort studies (n NationMS = 946, n BIONAT = 990). Additionally, effect-modification by medication and photosensitivity-associated MC1R variants was assessed. High serum vitD was associated with a reduced MS severity score (MSSS), reduced risk for relapses, and lower disability accumulation over time. Low latitude was associated with higher vitD, lower MSSS, fewer gadolinium-enhancing lesions, and lower disability accumulation. The association of latitude with disability was lacking in IFN-ß-treated patients. In carriers of MC1R:rs1805008(T), who reported increased sensitivity toward sunlight, lower latitude was associated with higher MRI activity, whereas for noncarriers there was less MRI activity at lower latitudes. In a further exploratory approach, the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-phototherapy on the transcriptome of immune cells of MS patients was assessed using samples from an earlier study. Phototherapy induced a vitD and type I IFN signature that was most apparent in monocytes but that could also be detected in B and T cells. In summary, our study suggests beneficial effects of sun exposure on established MS, as demonstrated by a correlative network between the three factors: Latitude, vitD, and disease severity. However, sun exposure might be detrimental for photosensitive patients. Furthermore, a direct induction of type I IFNs through sun exposure could be another mechanism of UV-mediated immune-modulation in MS.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170024

RESUMO

Background - Individual risk prediction based on genome-wide polygenic risk scores (PRS) utilizing millions of genetic variants has attracted much attention. It is under debate whether PRS models can be applied - without loss of precision - to populations of similar ethnic but different geographical background than the one the scores were trained on. Here, we examine how PRS trained in population-specific but European data sets perform in other European subpopulations in distinguishing between coronary artery disease patients and healthy individuals. Methods - We use data from UK and Estonian biobanks (UKB, EB) as well as case-control data from the German population (DE) to develop and evaluate PRS in the same and different populations. Results - PRS have the highest performance in their corresponding population testing data sets, whereas their performance significantly drops if applied to testing data sets from different European populations. Models trained on DE data revealed AUCs in independent testing sets in DE: 0.6752, EB: 0.6156, and UKB: 0.5989; trained on EB and tested on EB: 0.6565, DE: 0.5407, and UKB: 0.6043; trained on UKB and tested on UKB: 0.6133, DE: 0.5143 and EB: 0.6049. Conclusions - This result has direct impact on the clinical usability of PRS for risk prediction models utilizing PRS: a population effect must be kept in mind when applying risk estimation models which are based on additional genetic information even for individuals from different European populations of the same ethnicity.

5.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(6): 478-489, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172359

RESUMO

Objective: Developmental dyslexia is a highly heritable specific reading and writing disability. To identify a possible new locus and candidate gene for this disability, we investigated a four-generation pedigree where transmission of dyslexia is consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Methods: We performed genome wide array-based SNP genotyping and parametric linkage analysis and sequencing analysis of protein-coding exons, exon-intron boundaries and conserved extragenic regions within the haplotype cosegregating with dyslexia in DNA from one affected and one unaffected family member. Cosegregation was confirmed by sequencing all available family members. Additionally, we analyzed 96 dyslexic individuals who had previously shown positive LOD scores on chromosome 4q28 as well as an even larger sample (n = 2591). Results: We found a single prominent linkage interval on chromosome 4q, where sequence analysis revealed a nucleotide variant in the 3' UTR of brain expressed SPRY1 in the dyslexic family member that cosegregated with dyslexia. This sequence alteration might affect the binding efficiency of the IGF2BP1 RNA-binding protein and thus influence the expression level of the SPRY1 gene product. An analysis of 96 individuals from a cohort of dyslexic individuals revealed a second heterozygous variant in this gene, which was absent in the unaffected sister of the proband. An investigation of the region in a much larger sample further found a nominal p-value of 0.0016 for verbal short-term memory (digit span) in 2,591 individuals for a neighboring SNV. After correcting for the local number of analyzed SNVs, and after taking into account linkage disequilibrium, we found this corresponds to a p-value of 0.0678 for this phenotype. Conclusions: We describe a new locus for familial dyslexia and discuss the possibility that SPRY1 might play a role in the etiology of a monogenic form of dyslexia.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201861

RESUMO

Genetic factors undoubtedly affect the development of congenital heart disease (CHD), but still remain ill-defined. We sought to identify genetic risk factors associated with CHD and to accomplish functional analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-carrying genes. We performed a genome-wide association study of 4,034 Caucasian CHD patients and 8,486 healthy controls. One SNP on chromosome 5q22.2 reached genome-wide significance across all CHD phenotypes and was also indicative for septal defects. One region on chromosome 20p12.1 pointing to the MACROD2 locus identified four highly significant SNPs in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Three highly significant risk variants on chromosome 17q21.32 within the GOSR2 locus were detected in patients with anomalies of thoracic arteries and veins (ATAV). Genetic variants associated with ATAV are suggested to influence expression of WNT3, and variant rs870142 related to septal defects is proposed to influence expression of MSX1. The expression of all four genes was analyzed during cardiac differentiation of human and murine induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and by single-cell RNAseq analyses of developing murine and human hearts. Our data show that MACROD2, GOSR2, WNT3 and MSX1 play an essential functional role in heart development at the embryonic and newborn stage.

7.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 298, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upon treatment with biopharmaceuticals, the immune system may produce anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that inhibit the therapy. Up to 40% of multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon ß (IFNß) develop ADA, for which a genetic predisposition exists. Here, we present a genome-wide association study on ADA and predict the occurrence of antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients treated with different interferon ß preparations. METHODS: We analyzed a large sample of 2757 genotyped and imputed patients from two cohorts (Sweden and Germany), split between a discovery and a replication dataset. Binding ADA (bADA) levels were measured by capture-ELISA, neutralizing ADA (nADA) titers using a bioassay. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted stratified by cohort and treatment preparation, followed by fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Binding ADA levels and nADA titers were correlated and showed a significant heritability (47% and 50%, respectively). The risk factors differed strongly by treatment preparation: The top-associated and replicated variants for nADA presence were the HLA-associated variants rs77278603 in IFNß-1a s.c.- (odds ratio (OR) = 3.55 (95% confidence interval = 2.81-4.48), p = 2.1 × 10-26) and rs28366299 in IFNß-1b s.c.-treated patients (OR = 3.56 (2.69-4.72), p = 6.6 × 10-19). The rs77278603-correlated HLA haplotype DR15-DQ6 conferred risk specifically for IFNß-1a s.c. (OR = 2.88 (2.29-3.61), p = 7.4 × 10-20) while DR3-DQ2 was protective (OR = 0.37 (0.27-0.52), p = 3.7 × 10-09). The haplotype DR4-DQ3 was the major risk haplotype for IFNß-1b s.c. (OR = 7.35 (4.33-12.47), p = 1.5 × 10-13). These haplotypes exhibit large population-specific frequency differences. The best prediction models were achieved for ADA in IFNß-1a s.c.-treated patients. Here, the prediction in the Swedish cohort showed AUC = 0.91 (0.85-0.95), sensitivity = 0.78, and specificity = 0.90; patients with the top 30% of genetic risk had, compared to patients in the bottom 30%, an OR = 73.9 (11.8-463.6, p = 4.4 × 10-6) of developing nADA. In the German cohort, the AUC of the same model was 0.83 (0.71-0.92), sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.76, with an OR = 13.8 (3.0-63.3, p = 7.5 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: We identified several HLA-associated genetic risk factors for ADA against interferon ß, which were specific for treatment preparations and population backgrounds. Genetic prediction models could robustly identify patients at risk for developing ADA and might be used for personalized therapy recommendations and stratified ADA screening in clinical practice. These analyses serve as a roadmap for genetic characterizations of ADA against other biopharmaceutical compounds.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072080

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified over 230 genetic risk loci for multiple sclerosis. Current experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models requiring active induction of disease may not be optimally suited for the characterization of the function of these genes. We have thus used gene expression profiling to study whether spontaneous opticospinal EAE (OSE) or MOG-induced EAE mirrors the genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis more faithfully. To this end, we compared gene expression in OSE and MOG EAE models and analyzed the relationship of both models to human multiple sclerosis risk genes and T helper cell biology. We observed stronger gene expression changes and an involvement of more pathways of the adaptive immune system in OSE than MOG EAE. Furthermore, we demonstrated a more extensive enrichment of human MS risk genes among transcripts differentially expressed in OSE than was the case for MOG EAE. Transcripts differentially expressed only in diseased OSE mice but not in MOG EAE were significantly enriched for T helper cell-specific transcripts. These transcripts are part of immune-regulatory pathways. The activation of the adaptive immune system and the enrichment of both human multiple sclerosis risk genes and T helper cell-specific transcripts were also observed in OSE mice showing only mild disease signs. These expression changes may, therefore, be indicative of processes at disease onset. In summary, more human multiple sclerosis risk genes were differentially expressed in OSE than was observed for MOG EAE, especially in TH1 cells. When studying the functional role of multiple sclerosis risk genes and pathways during disease onset and their interactions with the environment, spontaneous OSE may thus show advantages over MOG-induced EAE.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057169

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the ability to read, with a heritability of 40-60%. A notable part of this heritability remains unexplained, and large genetic studies are warranted to identify new susceptibility genes and clarify the genetic bases of dyslexia. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2274 dyslexia cases and 6272 controls, testing associations at the single variant, gene, and pathway level, and estimating heritability using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We also calculated polygenic scores (PGSs) based on large-scale GWAS data for different neuropsychiatric disorders and cortical brain measures, educational attainment, and fluid intelligence, testing them for association with dyslexia status in our sample. We observed statistically significant (p < 2.8 × 10-6) enrichment of associations at the gene level, for LOC388780 (20p13; uncharacterized gene), and for VEPH1 (3q25), a gene implicated in brain development. We estimated an SNP-based heritability of 20-25% for DD, and observed significant associations of dyslexia risk with PGSs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (at pT = 0.05 in the training GWAS: OR = 1.23[1.16; 1.30] per standard deviation increase; p = 8 × 10-13), bipolar disorder (1.53[1.44; 1.63]; p = 1 × 10-43), schizophrenia (1.36[1.28; 1.45]; p = 4 × 10-22), psychiatric cross-disorder susceptibility (1.23[1.16; 1.30]; p = 3 × 10-12), cortical thickness of the transverse temporal gyrus (0.90[0.86; 0.96]; p = 5 × 10-4), educational attainment (0.86[0.82; 0.91]; p = 2 × 10-7), and intelligence (0.72[0.68; 0.76]; p = 9 × 10-29). This study suggests an important contribution of common genetic variants to dyslexia risk, and novel genomic overlaps with psychiatric conditions like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder susceptibility. Moreover, it revealed the presence of shared genetic foundations with a neural correlate previously implicated in dyslexia by neuroimaging evidence.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915819

RESUMO

Epistasis analysis elucidates the effects of gene-gene interactions (G×G) between multiple loci for complex traits. However, the large computational demands and the high multiple testing burden impede their discoveries. Here, we illustrate the utilization of two methods, main effect filtering based on individual GWAS results and biological knowledge-based modeling through Biofilter software, to reduce the number of interactions tested among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 15 cardiac-related traits and 14 fatty acids. We performed interaction analyses using the two filtering methods, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, and the first three principal components from genetic data, among 2,824 samples from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular (LURIC) Health Study. Using Biofilter, one interaction nearly met Bonferroni significance: an interaction between rs7735781 in XRCC4 and rs10804247 in XRCC5 was identified for venous thrombosis with a Bonferroni-adjusted likelihood ratio test (LRT) p: 0.0627. A total of 57 interactions were identified from main effect filtering for the cardiac traits G×G (10) and fatty acids G×G (47) at Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p < 0.05. For cardiac traits, the top interaction involved SNPs rs1383819 in SNTG1 and rs1493939 (138kb from 5' of SAMD12) with Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p: 0.0228 which was significantly associated with history of arterial hypertension. For fatty acids, the top interaction between rs4839193 in KCND3 and rs10829717 in LOC107984002 with Bonferroni-adjusted LRT p: 2.28×10-5 was associated with 9-trans 12-trans octadecanoic acid, an omega-6 trans fatty acid. The model inflation factor for the interactions under different filtering methods was evaluated from the standard median and the linear regression approach. Here, we applied filtering approaches to identify numerous genetic interactions related to cardiac-related outcomes as potential targets for therapy. The approaches described offer ways to detect epistasis in the complex traits and to improve precision medicine capability.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epistasia Genética , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Marcadores Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors. RESULTS: We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy. CONCLUSIONS: This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).

12.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 437-447, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231276

RESUMO

Minimal phenotyping refers to the reliance on the use of a small number of self-reported items for disease case identification, increasingly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report differences in genetic architecture between depression defined by minimal phenotyping and strictly defined major depressive disorder (MDD): the former has a lower genotype-derived heritability that cannot be explained by inclusion of milder cases and a higher proportion of the genome contributing to this shared genetic liability with other conditions than for strictly defined MDD. GWAS based on minimal phenotyping definitions preferentially identifies loci that are not specific to MDD, and, although it generates highly predictive polygenic risk scores, the predictive power can be explained entirely by large sample sizes rather than by specificity for MDD. Our results show that reliance on results from minimal phenotyping may bias views of the genetic architecture of MDD and impede the ability to identify pathways specific to MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(2): e1007616, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012148

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify genetic variants associated with traits or diseases. GWAS never directly link variants to regulatory mechanisms. Instead, the functional annotation of variants is typically inferred by post hoc analyses. A specific class of deep learning-based methods allows for the prediction of regulatory effects per variant on several cell type-specific chromatin features. We here describe "DeepWAS", a new approach that integrates these regulatory effect predictions of single variants into a multivariate GWAS setting. Thereby, single variants associated with a trait or disease are directly coupled to their impact on a chromatin feature in a cell type. Up to 61 regulatory SNPs, called dSNPs, were associated with multiple sclerosis (MS, 4,888 cases and 10,395 controls), major depressive disorder (MDD, 1,475 cases and 2,144 controls), and height (5,974 individuals). These variants were mainly non-coding and reached at least nominal significance in classical GWAS. The prediction accuracy was higher for DeepWAS than for classical GWAS models for 91% of the genome-wide significant, MS-specific dSNPs. DSNPs were enriched in public or cohort-matched expression and methylation quantitative trait loci and we demonstrated the potential of DeepWAS to generate testable functional hypotheses based on genotype data alone. DeepWAS is available at https://github.com/cellmapslab/DeepWAS.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Análise Multivariada , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(2): 125-138, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922285

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading global cause of mortality and has substantial heritability with a polygenic architecture. Recent approaches of risk prediction were based on polygenic risk scores (PRS) not taking possible nonlinear effects into account and restricted in that they focused on genetic loci associated with CAD, only. We benchmarked PRS, (penalized) logistic regression, naïve Bayes (NB), random forests (RF), support vector machines (SVM), and gradient boosting (GB) on a data set of 7,736 CAD cases and 6,774 controls from Germany to identify the algorithms for most accurate classification of CAD status. The final models were tested on an independent data set from Germany (527 CAD cases and 473 controls). We found PRS to be the best algorithm, yielding an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% CI [0.90, 0.95], 50,633 loci) in the German test data. NB and SVM (AUC ~ 0.81) performed better than RF and GB (AUC ~ 0.75). We conclude that using PRS to predict CAD is superior to machine learning methods.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Aprendizado de Máquina , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Benchmarking , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Probabilidade , Curva ROC , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 419-430, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 87(2): 184-193, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with substantial burden on individual well-being and public health. Genetic risk loci have been identified, but the causatives genes at these loci are largely unknown, so that functional investigation and clinical translation of molecular research data are still inhibited. To identify putatively causative genes, we searched for highly significant mutational burden in candidate genes. METHODS: We analyzed 84 candidate genes in 4,649 patients and 4,982 controls by next generation sequencing using molecular inversion probes that targeted mainly coding regions. The burden of low-frequency and rare variants was assessed, and in addition, an algorithm (binomial performance deviation analysis) was established to estimate independently the sequence variation in the probe binding regions from the variation in sequencing depth. RESULTS: Highly significant results (considering the number of genes in the genome) of the conventional burden test and the binomial performance deviation analysis overlapped significantly. Fourteen genes were highly significant by one method and confirmed with Bonferroni-corrected significance by the other to show a differential burden of low-frequency and rare variants in restless legs syndrome. Nine of them (AAGAB, ATP2C1, CNTN4, COL6A6, CRBN, GLO1, NTNG1, STEAP4, VAV3) resided in the vicinity of known restless legs syndrome loci, whereas 5 (BBS7, CADM1, CREB5, NRG3, SUN1) have not previously been associated with restless legs syndrome. Burden test and binomial performance deviation analysis also converged significantly in fine-mapping potentially causative domains within these genes. INTERPRETATION: Differential burden with intragenic low-frequency variants reveals putatively causative genes in restless legs syndrome. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:184-193.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Hum Genet ; 139(1): 45-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630246

RESUMO

Due to its long genetic evolutionary history, Africans exhibit more genetic variation than any other population in the world. Their genetic diversity further lends itself to subdivisions of Africans into groups of individuals with a genetic similarity of varying degrees of granularity. It remains challenging to detect fine-scale structure in a computationally efficient and meaningful way. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept of a novel fine-scale population structure detection tool with Western African samples. These samples consist of 1396 individuals from 25 ethnic groups (two groups are African American descendants). The strategy is based on a recently developed tool called IPCAPS. IPCAPS, or Iterative Pruning to CApture Population Structure, is a genetic divisive clustering strategy that enhances iterative pruning PCA, is robust to outliers and does not require a priori computation of haplotypes. Our strategy identified in total 12 groups and 6 groups were revealed as fine-scale structure detected in the samples from Cameroon, Gambia, Mali, Southwest USA, and Barbados. Our finding helped to explain evolutionary processes in the analyzed West African samples and raise awareness for fine-scale structure resolution when conducting genome-wide association and interaction studies.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Software , África Ocidental/etnologia , Humanos
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 343, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852885

RESUMO

Therapeutic sleep deprivation (SD) rapidly induces robust, transient antidepressant effects in a large proportion of major mood disorder patients suffering from a depressive episode, but underlying biological factors remain poorly understood. Research suggests that these patients may have altered circadian molecular genetic 'clocks' and that SD functions through 'resetting' dysregulated genes; additional factors may be involved, warranting further investigation. Leveraging advances in microarray technology enabling the transcriptome-wide assessment of gene expression, this study aimed to examine gene expression changes accompanying SD and recovery sleep in patients suffering from an episode of depression. Patients (N = 78) and controls (N = 15) underwent SD, with blood taken at the same time of day before SD, after one night of SD and after recovery sleep. A transcriptome-wide gene-by-gene approach was used, with a targeted look also taken at circadian genes. Furthermore, gene set enrichment, and longitudinal gene set analyses including the time point after recovery sleep, were conducted. Circadian genes were significantly affected by SD, with patterns suggesting that molecular clocks of responders and non-responders, as well as patients and controls respond differently to chronobiologic stimuli. Notably, gene set analyses revealed a strong widespread effect of SD on pathways involved in immune function and inflammatory response, such as those involved in cytokine and especially in interleukin signalling. Longitudinal gene set analyses showed that in responders these pathways were upregulated after SD; in non-responders, little response was observed. Our findings emphasize the close relationship between circadian, immune and sleep systems and their link to etiology of depression at the transcriptomic level.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/genética , Transtorno Depressivo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade , Inflamação , Privação do Sono/genética , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/imunologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Imunidade/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5770, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852899

RESUMO

Autophagy is an essential cellular process affecting virus infections and other diseases and Beclin1 (BECN1) is one of its key regulators. Here, we identified S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) as E3 ligase that executes lysine-48-linked poly-ubiquitination of BECN1, thus promoting its proteasomal degradation. SKP2 activity is regulated by phosphorylation in a hetero-complex involving FKBP51, PHLPP, AKT1, and BECN1. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of SKP2 decreases BECN1 ubiquitination, decreases BECN1 degradation and enhances autophagic flux. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) multiplication results in reduced BECN1 levels and blocks the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Inhibitors of SKP2 not only enhance autophagy but also reduce the replication of MERS-CoV up to 28,000-fold. The SKP2-BECN1 link constitutes a promising target for host-directed antiviral drugs and possibly other autophagy-sensitive conditions.


Assuntos
Autofagia/imunologia , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/genética , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitinação/imunologia , Células Vero
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712721

RESUMO

Multiplex families with a high prevalence of a psychiatric disorder are often examined to identify rare genetic variants with large effect sizes. In the present study, we analysed whether the risk for bipolar disorder (BD) in BD multiplex families is influenced by common genetic variants. Furthermore, we investigated whether this risk is conferred mainly by BD-specific risk variants or by variants also associated with the susceptibility to schizophrenia or major depression. In total, 395 individuals from 33 Andalusian BD multiplex families (166 BD, 78 major depressive disorder, 151 unaffected) as well as 438 subjects from an independent, BD case/control cohort (161 unrelated BD, 277 unrelated controls) were analysed. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for BD, schizophrenia (SCZ), and major depression were calculated and compared between the cohorts. Both the familial BD cases and unaffected family members had higher PRS for all three psychiatric disorders than the independent controls, with BD and SCZ being significant after correction for multiple testing, suggesting a high baseline risk for several psychiatric disorders in the families. Moreover, familial BD cases showed significantly higher BD PRS than unaffected family members and unrelated BD cases. A plausible hypothesis is that, in multiplex families with a general increase in risk for psychiatric disease, BD development is attributable to a high burden of common variants that confer a specific risk for BD. The present analyses demonstrated that common genetic risk variants for psychiatric disorders are likely to contribute to the high incidence of affective psychiatric disorders in the multiplex families. However, the PRS explained only part of the observed phenotypic variance, and rare variants might have also contributed to disease development.

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