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2.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(8): 1319-1325, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of kidney disease in obese patients and in such patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) can significantly improve treatment outcome. Serum uromodulin (sUMOD) may be a sensitive parameter for early detection of nephropathy. OBJECTIVES: To analyze sUMOD and traditional markers of kidney function in a cohort study of patients with and without obesity or T2D undergoing metabolic surgery compared with blood donors. SETTING: University of Heidelberg, Germany. METHODS: Patients with obesity (body mass index >35 kg/m2) without T2D (n = 10) and T2D (n = 10) and patients with nonsevere obesity (body mass index, 25-35 kg/m2) and insulin-dependent T2D (n = 16) undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were enrolled. The control group consisted of 190 blood donors. sUMOD was compared with established renal markers. RESULTS: Using sUMOD, impaired kidney function at baseline was present in both groups with T2D and in none of the patients with obesity without T2D. This impairment was not detectable through traditional markers. Significant improvement of sUMOD was shown in patients with obesity and T2D 12 months postoperatively (from 130.0 ± 77.5 to 239.5 ± 179.0 ng/mL; P = .004) and in patients with nonsevere obesity and T2D 6 months after RYGB (from 140.6 ± 78.0 to 298.7 ± 154.0 ng/mL; P = .017). In patients with obesity without T2D, sUMOD remained stable (P = .375). CONCLUSIONS: sUMOD may serve as a tissue-specific biomarker in incipient diabetic nephropathy. Improvement of sUMOD after RYGB seems to profoundly restore the structural integrity of nephrons in these patients at risk for diabetic nephropathy.

3.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(7): 1197-1210, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although research has shown that metabolic surgery is superior to medical therapy in terms of glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors, it remains unclear whether these beneficial effects ultimately result in a reduced incidence of macrovascular complications or mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis assesses the impact of metabolic surgery versus medical therapy on mortality and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. SETTING: Academic centers in the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: An unrestricted systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case-control trials, and cohort studies comparing the effect of metabolic surgery on mortality and the incidence of diabetes-associated macrovascular complications to a medically treated control group were identified. The last search was performed on June 15, 2018. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 3721 potentially eligible articles. Nineteen studies (6 RCTs, 13 nonrandomized studies) were ultimately included. Metabolic surgery was found to be associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio .34, 95% confidence interval [.25-.46], P < .00001) and macrovascular complication rates (odds ratio .38, 95% confidence interval [.22-.67], P = .0008). CONCLUSIONS: Because metabolic surgery is associated with lower mortality and macrovascular complication rates than medical therapy, it seems to be the superior treatment choice for patients with type 2 diabetes. Additional, high-quality RCTs with adequate follow-up comparing state of the art surgical and medical therapies including glifozins and liraglutide are nevertheless needed to identify which patients would benefit most from metabolic surgery.

4.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic suturing and knot tying is essential for advanced laparoscopic procedures and requires training outside of the operating room. However, personal instruction by experienced surgeons is limitedly available. To address this, the concept of combining e-learning with practical training has become of interest. This study aims to investigate the influence of the first-person perspective in instructional videos, as well as the feasibility of a completely self-directed training curriculum for laparoscopic suturing and knot tying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one laparoscopically naïve medical students were randomised into two groups training with e-learning videos in either the first-person perspective (combining endoscopic view and view of hands/instruments/forearm motion) or the endoscopic view only. Both groups trained laparoscopic suturing and knot tying in teams of two until reaching predefined proficiency levels. Blinded, trained raters regularly assessed the participants' performance by using validated checklists. After training, participants filled out questionnaires regarding training experience and personal characteristics. RESULTS: Average training time to reach proficiency did not differ between groups [first-person perspective (min): 112 ± 44; endoscopic view only (min): 109 ± 47; p = 0.746]. However, participants from both groups perceived the first-person perspective as useful for learning new laparoscopic skills. Both groups showed similar baseline performances and improved significantly after training [Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) (max. 37 points): first-person perspective: 30.3 ± 2.3; endoscopic view only: 30.8 ± 2.3]. All participants managed to reach proficiency, needing 8-43 attempts without differences between groups. Visuospatial abilities (mental rotation) seemed to enhance the learning curve. CONCLUSION: Modifying instructional videos to the first-person perspective did not translate into a better performance in this setting but was welcomed by participants. Completely self-directed training with the use of e-learning can be a feasible training approach to achieve technical proficiency in laparoscopic suturing and knot tying in a training setting.

5.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(6): 1006-1020, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic surgery is the most effective therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), also improving diabetic kidney disease. Whether these effects depend on weight loss is currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the correlation between weight loss and improvement of diabetic kidney disease in patients with T2D undergoing metabolic surgery. SETTING: University of Heidelberg, Germany. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in December 2018 using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases without language restrictions or time limit. Studies reporting exact data on change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (uACR) or albuminuria as well as change in body mass index in patients with T2D undergoing metabolic surgery were included. Out of 2145 potentially eligible hits, 15 studies were included. Study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Data were pooled using a random-effects model, and a Spearman's rank correlation was performed. RESULTS: No correlation was found between improved renal injury (change in uACR or albuminuria) and weight loss (change in body mass index) (rs = -.306, P = 0.504, and rs = -.086, P = .872), and no significant correlation was found between improved renal injury (change in uACR or albuminuria) and improved glycemic control (change in A1C) (rs = .378, P = .403, and rs = .500, P = .391. CONCLUSION: Metabolic surgery can improve diabetic kidney disease independent of weight loss and glycemic control. Other mechanisms, including modified adipokine balance, signaling pathways of fat tissue and gut hormones, or reduced systemic inflammation, contribute to improved renal injury, while weight loss seems to play a lesser role than expected.

6.
Obes Surg ; 29(7): 2078-2086, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a rising social and economic burden. Patients with obesity often suffer from stigmatization and discrimination. Underrecognition of obesity as a disease could be a contributing factor. The present study aimed to compare attitudes towards obesity with other chronic diseases and to evaluate the recognition of need of professional treatment. METHODS: Nine hundred and forty-nine participants (subgroups: general population, patients with obesity, nurses in training, nurses, medical students, physicians) were randomized to video teaching on obesity and control. Questionnaires on the burden and influence of obesity on daily life compared to other chronic diseases and the fat phobia scale (FPS) were answered. RESULTS: Burden of obesity was rated low (4.2 ± 1.3; rank 9 of 11) compared to other diseases. Bowel cancer (5.5 ± 0.9) had the highest and caries the lowest (2.7 ± 1.4) estimated impact. Females (p = 0.011) and older people (p < 0.001) rated burden of obesity high whereas general population (p < 0.001) and control (p < 0.001) rated it low. Females (p = 0.001) and people with higher BMI (p = 0.004) rated the influence of obesity on daily life high; the general population (p < 0.001; reference physicians) and the control group (p < 0.001) rated it low. FPS was lowest in patients with obesity (3.2 ± 0.7) and highest in the general population (3.6 ± 0.4) and medical students (3.6 ± 0.5; p < 0.001; compared to physicians). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is underestimated as a disease compared to other chronic diseases and attitudes towards obesity are rather negative in comparison. Video teaching showed positive effects so a focus in medical education and public campaigns should aim to improve prevention and treatment of obesity.

7.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790048

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The most common way of assessing surgical performance is by expert raters to view a surgical task and rate a trainee's performance. However, there is huge potential for automated skill assessment and workflow analysis using modern technology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate machine learning (ML) algorithms using the data of a Myo armband as a sensor device for skills level assessment and phase detection in laparoscopic training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants of three experience levels in laparoscopy performed a suturing and knot tying task on silicon models. Experts rated performance using Objective Structured Assessment of Surgical Skills (OSATS). Participants wore Myo armbands (Thalmic Labs™, Ontario, Canada) to record acceleration, angular velocity, orientation, and Euler orientation. ML algorithms (decision forest, neural networks, boosted decision tree) were compared for skill level assessment and phase detection. RESULTS: 28 participants (8 beginner, 10 intermediate, 10 expert) were included, and 99 knots were available for analysis. A neural network regression model had the lowest mean absolute error in predicting OSATS score (3.7 ± 0.6 points, r2 = 0.03 ± 0.81; OSATS min.-max.: 4-37 points). An ensemble of binary-class neural networks yielded the highest accuracy in predicting skill level (beginners: 82.2% correctly identified, intermediate: 3.0%, experts: 79.5%) whereas standard statistical analysis failed to discriminate between skill levels. Phase detection on raw data showed the best results with a multi-class decision jungle (average 16% correctly identified), but improved to 43% average accuracy with two-class boosted decision trees after Dynamic time warping (DTW) application. CONCLUSION: Modern machine learning algorithms aid in interpreting complex surgical motion data, even when standard analysis fails. Dynamic time warping offers the potential to process and compare surgical motion data in order to allow automated surgical workflow detection. However, further research is needed to interpret and standardize available data and improve sensor accuracy.

8.
Visc Med ; 34(5): 381-387, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498706

RESUMO

Metabolic diseases, comprising type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are rapidly increasing worldwide. Conservative medical therapy, including the newly available drugs, has only limited effects and does neither influence survival or the development of micro- or macrovascular complications, nor the progression of NASH to liver cirrhosis, nor the development of hepatocellular carcinomas in the NASH liver. In contrast, metabolic surgery is very effective independent of the preoperative body mass index (BMI) in reducing overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with T2DM. Furthermore, metabolic surgery significantly reduces the development of micro- and macrovascular complications while being the most effective therapy in order to achieve remission of T2DM and to reach the targeted glycemic control. Importantly, even existing diabetic complications such as nephropathy as well as the features of NASH can be reversed by metabolic surgery. Here, we propose indications for metabolic surgery due to T2DM and NASH based on a simple but objective, disease-specific staging system. We outline the use of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) as a clinical staging system independent of the BMI that will identify patients who will benefit the most from metabolic surgery.

9.
Surg Endosc ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of 3D laparoscopic systems is expanding. The European Association of Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) initiated a consensus development conference with the aim of creating evidence-based statements and recommendations for the surgical community. METHODS: Systematic reviews of the PubMed and Embase libraries were performed to identify evidence on potential benefits of 3D on clinical practice and patient outcomes. Statements and recommendations were prepared and unanimously agreed by an international surgical and engineering expert panel which were presented and voted at the EAES annual congress, London, May 2018. RESULTS: 9967 abstracts were screened with 138 articles included. 18 statements and two recommendations were generated and approved. 3D significantly shortened operative time (mean difference 11 min (8% [95% CI 20.29-1.72], I2 96%)). A significant reduction in complications was observed when 3D systems were used (RR 0.75, [95 CI% 0.60-0.94], I2 0%) particularly for cases involving laparoscopic suturing (RR 0.57 [95% CI 0.35-0.90], I2 0%). In 69 box trainer or simulator studies, 64% concluded trainees were significant faster and 62% performed fewer errors when using 3D. CONCLUSION: We recommend the use of 3D vision in laparoscopy to reduce the operative time (grade of recommendation: low). Future robust clinical research is required to specifically investigate the potential benefit of 3D laparoscopy system on complication rates (grade of recommendation: high).

10.
J Surg Res ; 232: 635-642, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) with transrectal (TR) access the intraoperative opening of the rectal wall poses a risk of intraperitoneal contamination and subsequent infectious complications. A rectal washout with a disinfectant may reduce this risk. The aim of the study was to assess the intraoperative contamination on the circular stapler pin when a rectal washout with povidone-iodine (RW-PI) or Ringer solution was performed in patients undergoing left-sided colectomy. Furthermore, the additional effect of an irrigation instrument on the contamination was evaluated. METHODS: In a patient and assessor blinded randomized controlled trial, patients undergoing left-sided colectomy were assigned to rectal washout with PI with an irrigation instrument (RW-PI; n = 23), rectal washout with Ringer solution with an irrigation instrument (RW-R; n = 21) or rectal washout with Ringer solution without an irrigation instrument (RW; n = 25). An end-to-end anastomosis with a circular stapler was performed. The contamination on the pin of the circular stapler was chosen as primary endpoint in order to simulate the intraabdominal contamination risk during TR NOTES. Secondary endpoints were contamination of the rectal mucosa, peritoneal contamination and postoperative morbidity. RESULTS: The contamination rate of the pin of the circular stapler did not differ (RW-PI 39.1%, RW-R 33.3%, RW 52.0%; P = 0.421), but contamination of the rectal mucosa was reduced (47.8% versus 95.2% versus 100%; P < 0.001) and peritoneal contamination tended to be reduced (39.1% versus 71.4% versus 60.0%; P = 0.09) when a rectal washout with PI was performed. The rates of infectious complications (17.4% versus 9.5% versus 12.0%; P = 0.821) and of overall complications (30.4% versus 28.6% versus 44.0%; P = 0.476) did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an intense rectal washout with PI, contamination of the stapler pin did not differ. Intraabdominal bacterial translocation was frequently encountered even after disinfectant rectal washout with PI. Further studies might focus on the clinical impact of intraabdominal contamination in TR NOTES.

12.
Surg Endosc ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327918

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality (VR-)trainers are well integrated in laparoscopic surgical training. However, objective feedback is often provided in the form of single parameters, e.g., time or number of movements, making comparisons and evaluation of trainees' overall performance difficult. Therefore, a new standard for reporting outcome data is highly needed. The aim of this study was to create a weighted, expert-based composite score, to offer simple and direct evaluation of laparoscopic performance on common VR-trainers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An integrated analytic hierarchy process-Delphi survey was conducted with 14 international experts to achieve a consensus on the importance of different skill categories and parameters in evaluation of laparoscopic performance. A scoring algorithm was established to allow comparability between tasks and VR-trainers. A weighted composite score was calculated for basic skills tasks and peg transfer on the LapMentor™ II and III and validated for both VR-trainers. RESULTS: Five major skill categories (time, efficiency, safety, dexterity, and outcome) were identified and weighted in two Delphi rounds. Safety, with a weight of 67%, was determined the most important category, followed by efficiency with 17%. The LapMentor™-specific score was validated using 15 (14) novices and 9 experts; the score was able to differentiate between both groups for basic skills tasks and peg transfer (LapMentor™ II: Exp: 86.5 ± 12.7, Nov. 52.8 ± 18.3; p < 0.001; LapMentor™ III: Exp: 80.8 ± 7.1, Nov: 50.6 ± 16.9; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: An effective and simple performance measurement was established to propose a new standard in analyzing and reporting VR outcome data-the Heidelberg virtual reality (VR) score. The scoring algorithm and the consensus results on the importance of different skill aspects in laparoscopic surgery are universally applicable and can be transferred to any simulator or task. By incorporating specific expert baseline data for the respective task, comparability between tasks, studies, and simulators can be achieved.

13.
Surg Endosc ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no standards for optimal utilization of workplaces in laparoscopic training. This study aimed to define whether laparoscopy training should be done alone or in pairs (known as dyad training). METHODS: This was a three-arm randomized controlled trial with laparoscopically naïve medical students (n = 100). Intervention groups participated alone (n = 40) or as dyad (n = 40) in a multimodality training curriculum with e-learning, basic, and procedural skills training using box and VR trainers. The control group (n = 20) had no training. Post-performance of a cadaveric porcine laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was measured as the primary outcome by blinded raters using the objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS). Global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills (GOALS), time for LC, and VR performances were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for performance scores [OSATS: alone (40.2 ± 9.8) vs. dyad (39.8 ± 8.6), p = 0.995; alone vs. control (37.1 ± 7.4), p = 0.548; or dyad vs. control, p = 0.590; and GOALS score: alone (10.6 ± 3.0) vs. dyad (10.0 ± 2.7), p = 0.599; alone vs. control (10.1 ± 3.0), p = 0.748; or dyad vs. control, p = 0.998]. Dyad finished LC faster than control [median = 62.5 min (CI 58.0-73.0) vs. 76.5 min (CI 72.0-80+); p = 0.042], while there were no inter-group differences between alone vs. control [median = 69.0 min (CI 62.0-76.0) vs. control; p = 0.099] or alone vs. dyad (p = 0.840). Dyad and alone showed superior performance on the VR trainer vs. control for time, number of movements, and path length, but not for complications and application of cautery. CONCLUSIONS: The curriculum provided trainees with the laparoscopic skills needed to perform LC safely, irrespective of the number of trainees per workplace. Dyad training reduced the operation time needed for LC. Therefore, dyad training seems to be a promising alternative, especially if training time is limited and resources must be used as efficiently as possible. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004675.

14.
Surg Endosc ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental training of laparoscopic procedures with E-learning has been shown to translate to the operating room. The present study aims to explore whether the use of checklists during E-learning improves transfer of skills to the simulated OR on a Virtual Reality (VR) trainer for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Laparoscopy naive medical students (n = 80) were randomized in two groups. After an E-learning introduction to RYGB, checklist group rated RYGB videos using the validated Bariatric Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (BOSATS) checklist while group without checklist only observed the videos. Participants then performed RYGB on a VR-trainer twice and were evaluated by a blinded expert rater using BOSATS. A multiple choice (MC) knowledge test on RYGB was performed. Suturing on a cadaveric porcine small bowel was evaluated using objective structured assessment of technical skill (OSATS). RESULTS: Checklist group was better in the knowledge test (A 8.3 ± 1.1 vs. B 7.1 ± 1.3; p ≤ 0.001) and there was a trend towards better VR RYGB performance (BOSATS) on the first try (85.9 ± 10.2 vs. 81.1 ± 11.5; p = 0.058), but not on the second try (92.0 ± 9.7 vs. 89.3 ± 10.5; p = 0.251). Suturing as measured by OSATS was not different (29.5 ± 3.0 vs. 29.0 ± 3.5; p = 0.472). CONCLUSION: This study presents evidence that the use of a BOSATS checklist during E-learning helps trainees to improve their knowledge acquisition with E-learning. The transfer from mental training to the simulated OR environment seems to be partially enhanced by use of the BOSATS checklist. However, more research is required to investigate potential benefits.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the independent risk factors of vascular and haemorrhagic complications after kidney transplantation (KTx) and to evaluate how the surgeon's experience affects the rate of vascular and haemorrhagic complications. METHODS: After exclusion of paediatric and multi-organ transplantations, 1462 KTx operations between 2000 and 2016 were analysed. Independent risk factors were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The generalised estimating equation logit model was used to display learning curve progression and determine the best cut off number of KTx operations to reduce vascular and haemorrhagic complications. RESULTS: Vascular and haemorrhagic complications occurred in 38 KTx cases (2.6%). Renal vein thrombosis was the most common complication (0.6%). Graft loss occurred in 11 of 38 (28.9%) cases. Donor age of >60 years (OR 3.687, 95% CI 1.663-8.175, p = 0.001), recipient cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.270, 95% CI 1.071-4.810, p = 0.032), and surgeon's experience (OR 0.875, 95% CI 0.783-0.977, p = 0.018) were independent predictors of vascular and haemorrhagic complications. Twenty-six previous KTx operations are needed to decrease predicted probability of post-KTx vascular and haemorrhagic complications below 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The surgeon's experience is an independent risk factor for vascular and haemorrhagic complications after KTx. Acceptable post-operative vascular and haemorrhagic complications are achieved after a minimum of 26 KTx. As a donor age of >60 years and recipient CVD are also independent risk factors for vascular and haemorrhagic complications, it is suggested that these patients should preferably be operated on by surgeons who have performed more than 26 KTx operations.

16.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 44(10): 1646-1656, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic differences between pTN- and ypTN-categories and the prognostic accuracy of the 8th edition UICC-pTNM- and AJCC-ypTNM-staging-system for esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma are unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 740 patients with esophagogastric adenocarcinoma, who underwent curative surgery (344 after neoadjuvant treatment [NT]) at our institution. Survival analyses were performed according to Kaplan-Meier (log-rank test). Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Low ypT-categories did not discriminate overall survival (ypT0: reference; ypT1: HR1.0/p = 0.909; ypT2: HR0.9/p = 0.845; ypT3: HR1.5/p = 0.184; ypT4: HR2.8/p = 0.004) and no difference was found between ypN1- and ypN2-disease (ypN0: HR0.4/p < 0.001; ypN1: reference; ypN2: HR1.1/p = 0.653; ypN3: HR1.7/p = 0.014). In esophageal adenocarcinoma the UICC-TNM- and AJCC-ypTNM-staging-system was able to predict survival for patients after NT, while in gastric cancer it failed to provide sufficient prognostic information. A simplified staging system provided better stratification after NT and was an independent prognosticator for both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma (stage I: reference; stage II: HR2.2/p = 0.005; stage III: HR4.1/p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prognostic value of ypTN-categories seems limited. After NT the current UICC/AJCC-staging-system is able to predict survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma, but needs to be reevaluated in gastric cancer patients and modified if needed. A novel simplified staging system might be more practicable for patients after NT.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Esofagectomia , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Trials ; 19(1): 377, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (HALDN) using a periumbilical or Pfannenstiel incision was developed to improve donor outcome after a kidney transplant. The aim of this study was to investigate two methods of hand assistance and kidney removal during HALDN and their effect on the time it takes for the donor to return to normal physical activity. METHODS/DESIGN: This study was initiated in November 2017 and is expected to last for 2 years. To be eligible for the study, donors must be more than 20 years of age and must not be receiving permanent pain therapy. Only donors with a single artery and vein in the graft are being enrolled in this trial. Donors with infections or scars in the periumbilical or hypogastric area, bleeding disorders, chronic use of immunosuppressive agents, or active infection will be excluded. Donors will be randomly allocated to either a control arm (periumbilical incision) or an intervention arm (Pfannenstiel incision). The sample size was calculated as 26 organ donors in each group. The primary endpoint is the number of days it takes the donor to return to normal physical activity (up to 4 weeks after the operation). Secondary endpoints are intraoperative outcomes, including estimated blood loss, warm ischemia time, and duration of the operation. Postoperative pain will be assessed using the visual analog scale, rescue analgesic use, and peak expiratory flow rate. Length of hospital stay, physical activity score, time to return to work, donor satisfaction, cosmetic score, postoperative complications, and all-cause mortality in living donors will also be reported. Delayed graft function, primary non-function, serum creatinine levels, and glomerular filtration rate will also be assessed in the recipients after transplantation. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized controlled trial to compare the time it takes the living donor to return to normal physical activity after HALDN using two different types of incision. The comprehensive findings of this study will help decide which nephrectomy procedure is best for living donors with regard to patient comfort and satisfaction as well as graft function in the recipient after transplantation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03317184 . Registered on 23 October 2017.

18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(8)2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973382

RESUMO

Most antidiabetic drugs treat disease symptoms rather than adipose tissue dysfunction as a key pathogenic cause in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Pharmacological targeting of adipose tissue through the nuclear receptor PPARg, as exemplified by glitazone treatments, mediates efficacious insulin sensitization. However, a better understanding of the context-specific PPARg responses is required for the development of novel approaches with reduced side effects. Here, we identified the transcriptional cofactor Cited4 as a target and mediator of rosiglitazone in human and murine adipocyte progenitor cells, where it promoted specific sets of the rosiglitazone-dependent transcriptional program. In mice, Cited4 was required for the proper induction of thermogenic expression by Rosi specifically in subcutaneous fat. This phenotype had high penetrance in females only and was not evident in beta-adrenergically stimulated browning. Intriguingly, this specific defect was associated with reduced capacity for systemic thermogenesis and compromised insulin sensitization upon therapeutic rosiglitazone treatment in female but not male mice. Our findings on Cited4 function reveal novel unexpected aspects of the pharmacological targeting of PPARg.

19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 179(2): R77-R93, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764908

RESUMO

Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become one of the largest challenges for health care in the near future. Conservative therapy for obesity and related comorbidities has a very high failure rate and poor long-term results. Similarly, the conservative and medical management of the majority of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are only able to slow down disease progression but have no causal effect on the disease process. Obesity surgery has evolved as a highly effective therapy for severe obesity achieving long-lasting weight loss. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of obesity surgery on reduction of overall mortality, reduction of cardiovascular events and superior control of obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and also the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared to medical therapy. Based on these findings, the term 'metabolic surgery' with the focus on treating metabolic diseases independent of body weight has been coined. Of great interest are recent studies that show that even existing complications of metabolic diseases such as diabetic nephropathy or the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis can be reversed by metabolic surgery. Although metabolic surgery has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for obesity, resolution of comorbidities and enhancing quality of life, it is still uncertain and unclear, which surgical procedure is the most effective to achieve these metabolic effects. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of the two currently most widely used metabolic operations, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy in the treatment of obesity and its related comorbidities.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Complicações do Diabetes/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/cirurgia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/cirurgia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Perda de Peso
20.
Surg Endosc ; 32(7): 3393-3400, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endopancreatic surgery (EPS) is an experimental minimally invasive technique for resection of pancreatic tissue from inside the pancreatic duct, accessed via the duodenum and papilla. It is proposed as an alternative to duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection in benign diseases such as chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study evaluated the use of EPS for resection of pancreatic duct stenoses. Moreover, greenlight laser (GLL) and monopolar electrosurgical device (MES) were compared as resection tools for EPS. METHODS: The suitability of EPS for resection of stenoses was evaluated in ex vivo bovine pancreas (n = 8). Artificially created stenoses in the pancreatic head were accessed via the duodenal papilla and resected from inside the organ with MES through a rigid endoscope. Furthermore, standardized pancreatic resections were performed in an in vivo porcine model using either GLL (n = 18) or MES (n = 18) to compare blood loss, operating time, and complications. Thermal damage to the surrounding tissue was assessed using a standardized histological classification. RESULTS: Stenosis resection by EPS was feasible in 8/8 bovine pancreases, with a procedure time of 17 (12-24) min. No perforation of the organ occurred. Resection by GLL was associated with reduced blood loss [median 1.7 (interquartile range 0.6-2.6) ml vs. 5.1 (3.8-13.2) ml; p < 0.01] and shorter operating time [109 (81-127) s vs. 390 (337-555) s; p < 0.01] compared with MES. The zone of thermal tissue damage was more extensive when using GLL than with MES [4.12 (3.48-4.89) mm vs. 1.33 (1.09-1.48) mm; p < 0.01]. CONCLUSION: Transduodenal-transpapillary EPS can be used to resect stenoses and decompress the pancreatic duct system. Both GLL and MES are feasible resection methods for EPS. However, GLL showed better hemostatic characteristics than MES in an in vivo porcine model. Safety measures such as temperature control and image-guided navigation should be employed to monitor the resection and tissue heating.

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