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1.
Front Neurol ; 13: 755122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665044

RESUMO

Background: Coiling and stent-assisted coiling remain the first-line treatments for distal cerebral circulation aneurysms (DCCAs). The off-label use of the pipeline embolization device (PED) for these aneurysms has been explored recently but remains controversial. Objective: To compare traditional endovascular therapeutic approaches (coiling and stent-assisted coiling) and PED for DCCAs in a multicenter cohort of patients. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective cohort comparison study was conducted that included consecutive patients with unruptured DCCAs treated with either traditional endovascular therapeutic approaches or PED placement at three centers between 2016 and 2020. Propensity score matching analysis was applied to adjust for baseline risk factors between the PED and TET groups. Matching was based on age, sex, aneurysm size, location, morphology, adjunctive coiling, treatment history, and preoperative mRS score. Results: In total, 209 patients with DCCAs treated with PED or traditional endovascular therapeutic approaches were identified. Thirty-seven patients underwent PED treatment, and 172 patients underwent traditional endovascular therapeutic approaches. After propensity score matching, 37 aneurysm pairs were matched, and the baseline characteristics of the patients were balanced between the groups. The complete occlusion rate between PED and traditional endovascular therapeutic approach in both matched cohorts (91.7 vs. 92.3%, p > 0.78) was similar. The rate of periprocedural treatment-related complications in both the PED and traditional endovascular therapeutic groups was 13.5%. Univariate analysis identified average parent vessel diameter as the only predictor of complete occlusion (p = 0.038). Conclusions: PED is a viable option for treating DCCAs by providing occlusion and complication rates similar to those of traditional endovascular therapeutic approaches. A rigid patient selection procedure and proper planning should be undertaken to reduce treatment-related complications.

2.
ISA Trans ; 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691743

RESUMO

Considering the frequency effect of external disturbances, this paper concerns the finite-frequency control problem for nonlinear semi-Markov jump systems (SMJSs) with piecewise transition probabilities (TPs) via the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy modeling approach. More precisely, the piecewise TPs are assumed to switch stochastically within limits, which implies that the corresponding distributions of sojourn time (ST) also vary randomly. Furthermore, another upper semi-Markov chain is utilized to characterize TPs variation in a finite set. With the aid of Finsler's lemma and Parseval's theorem, sufficient criteria for the controlled SMJS are constructed to meet the desired disturbance attenuation performance in the frequency domain. Then, the mode-dependent controllers are developed to use the TP information more efficiently. In particular, a novel matrix method is proposed to decouple the mode-dependent variables and controller gains by selecting slack matrices. Eventually, a numerical example is transmitted to demonstrate the validity and merits of established results.

3.
Front Genet ; 13: 889795, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692823

RESUMO

Type III effectors secreted by rhizobia regulate nodulation in the host plant and are important modulators of symbiosis between rhizobia and soybean (Glycine max), although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we studied the type III effector NopAA in Sinorhizobium fredii HH103, confirming its secretion into the extracellular environment under the action of genistein. The enzyme activity of NopAA was investigated in vitro, using xyloglucan and ß-glucan as substrates. NopAA functions were investigated by the generation of a NopAA mutant and the effects of NopAA deficiency on symbiosis were analyzed. Soybean genes associated with NopAA were identified in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and their functions were verified. NopAA was confirmed to be a type III effector with glycosyl hydrolase activity, and its mutant did not promote nodulation. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified 10 QTLs with one, Glyma.19g074200 (GmARP), found to be associated with NopAA and to positively regulate the establishment of symbiosis. All these results support the hypothesis that type III effectors interact with host proteins to regulate the establishment of symbiosis and suggest the possibility of manipulating the symbiotic soybean-rhizobia interaction to promote efficient nitrogen fixation.

5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 447, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BOPPPS (bridge-in, learning objective, pretest, participatory learning, posttest, and summary) is a student-centered modular teaching model that improves classroom teaching effectiveness. This study's primary aim was to explore whether the BOPPPS model has advantages over traditional instructional approaches in teaching lung cancer courses to clinical medical interns. METHODS: A total of 88 students majoring in clinical medicine of Shandong First Medical University and Shandong University, who had clinical practice in thoracic surgery from January 2018 to December 2019, were divided into two groups, receiving the same lung cancer teaching content. The experimental group (n = 44) utilized the BOPPPS model, while the control group (n = 44) used the traditional instructional approach. A questionnaire was used to attain the students' satisfaction and self-evaluation of the course, and a post-study examination was used to assess end-of-course performance. RESULTS: The experimental group's theoretical examination scores with the BOPPPS teaching model were significantly higher than those in the control group. Students preferred the BOPPPS model more than the traditional instructional approach in course satisfaction, student-teacher interaction, learning initiative, analytical ability, clinical thinking ability, and self-study ability (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the traditional instructional approach. The BOPPPS model can better inspire clinical medical students' enthusiasm for thoracic surgery and enhance the students' comprehensive ability. In a word, the BOPPPS model has better teaching effectiveness in the clinical teaching practice of thoracic surgery, which is worthy of reference and popularization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Estudantes de Medicina , Cirurgia Torácica , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Ensino
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682383

RESUMO

With the rapid development of the Mobile Internet in China, epidemic information is real-time and holographic, and the role of information diffusion in epidemic control is increasingly prominent. At the same time, the publicity of all kinds of big data also provides the possibility to explore the impact of media information diffusion on disease transmission. We explored the mechanism of the influence of information diffusion on the transmission of COVID-19, developed a model of the interaction between information diffusion and disease transmission based on the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model, and conducted an empirical test by using econometric methods. The benchmark result showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the information diffusion and the transmission of COVID-19. The result of robust test showed that the diffusion of both epidemic information and protection information hindered the further transmission of the epidemic. Heterogeneity test results showed that the effect of epidemic information on the suppression of COVID-19 is more significant in cities with weak epidemic control capabilities and higher Internet development levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Difusão , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674117

RESUMO

Heteroatom-doping in metal-nitrogen-carbon single-atom catalyst (SAC) is considered a powerful strategy to promote electrocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR), but the origin of enhanced catalytic activity is still elusive. Here, we disclose that sulfur doping induces an obvious proton-feeding effect for CO2RR. The model SAC catalyst with sulfur doping in second-shell of FeN4 (Fe1-NSC) was verified by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Fe1-NSC exhibits superior CO2RR performance compared to sulfur-free FeN4 and most reported Fe-based SAC, with a maximum CO Faradaic efficiency of 98.6% and turnover frequency of 1197 h-1. Kinetic analysis and in-situ characterizations confirm that sulfur doping accelerates H2O activation and feeds sufficient proton for promoting CO2 conversion to *COOH, which is also corroborated by the theoretical results. This work deepens the understanding of CO2RR mechanism based on SAC catalysts.

8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(5): 3426, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649933

RESUMO

Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is widely used in underwater detection and localization. To address the high-resolution DOA estimation problem, a DenseBlock-based U-net structure is proposed in this paper. U-net is a U-shaped fully convolutional neural network, which yields a two-dimensional image. DenseBlock is a more efficient structure than typical convolutional layers. The proposed network replaces the concatenated convolutional layers in the original U-net with DenseBlocks. Through training, the network can remove the interference of sidelobes and noise in a conventional beam forming bearing-time record (BTR) and get a clean BTR; hence, this method has narrow beam width and few sidelobes. In addition, the network can be trained by simulation data and applied in actual data when the simulated and actual data are similar in BTR features, so the method has high generalization. For a multi-target problem, the network does not need to be trained on all cases with different target quantities and therefore can reduce the training set size. As a data-driven method, it does not rely on prior assumptions of the array model and possesses better robustness to array imperfections than typical model-based DOA algorithms. Simulations and experiments verify the advantages of the proposed method.

9.
Plant Sci ; 322: 111288, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717774

RESUMO

In the southern of China, precipitation is abundant during the grape growing season, which results in lower sugar content, and finally reduces the quality and yield of grape berries and leads to lower economic benefits. The root restriction cultivation method is an important abiotic stress that limits the disordered growth and development of roots, and it favors the accumulation of sugar and abscisic acid. However, the relationship between ABA and sugar accumulation under root restriction remains unclear. Here, we tested the expression levels of several transcription factors and sugar metabolism-related genes and found that root restriction cultivation could induce higher expression of VvMYB15 and VvSWEET15. The VvMYB15 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoter of VvSWEET15 and activate its expression, furthermore, transient overexpression of VvMYB15 in strawberry fruits and grape berries can promote sugar accumulation and increase the expression level of sugar metabolism-related genes, indicating that VvMYB15 is a positive regulator of sugar accumulation. In addition, the endogenous ABA content and expression level of VvGRIP55, which is highly responsive to ABA, were significantly increased under root restriction, and VvGRIP55 could bind to the promoter of VvMYB15 and activate its expression. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the ABA-responsive factor VvGRIP55 can promote sugar accumulation through VvMYB15 and VvSWEET15, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation under root restriction.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 918508, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720614

RESUMO

Powdery mildew of wheat is a foliar disease that is spread worldwide. Cultivation of resistant varieties is the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly strategy to curb this disease. Powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm) are the primary resources for resistance breeding, and new Pm genes are in constant demand. Previously, we identified Aegilops longissima chromosome 6Sl#3 as a carrier of powdery mildew resistance and designated the resistance gene as Pm6Sl. Here, we reported the design of 24 markers specific to 6Sl#3 on the basis of the full-length cDNA sequences of 6Sl#3 donor Ae. longissma accession TA1910, and the development of wheat-Ae. longissima 6Sl#3 introgression stocks by ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination. Further, 6Sl#3 introgression lines were identified and characterized by integration analysis of powdery mildew responses, in situ hybridization, and molecular markers and Pm6Sl was mapped to a distal interval of 42.80 Mb between markers Ael58410 and Ael57699 in the long arm of 6Sl#3. Two resistant recombinants, R43 (T6BS.6BL-6Sl#3L) and T27 (Ti6AS.6AL-6Sl#3L-6AL), contained segments harboring Pm6Sl with less than 8% of 6Sl#3 genomic length, and two markers were diagnostic for Pm6Sl. This study broadened powdery mildew resistance gene resources for wheat improvement and provided a fundamental basis for fine mapping and cloning of Pm6Sl to further understand its molecular mechanism of disease resistance.

11.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725988

RESUMO

The complex relationship between life course traumas and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the underpinning pathways are poorly understood. We aimed to (1) examine the associations of three separate assessments including childhood, adulthood (after 16 years of age), and lifetime traumas (childhood or adulthood) with CVD; (2) examine the associations between diverse life course traumatic profiles and CVD; and (3) examine the extent to which PhenoAge, a well-developed phenotypic aging measure, mediated these associations. Using data from 104,939 participants from the UK Biobank, we demonstrate that subgroups of childhood, adulthood, and lifetime traumas were associated with CVD. Furthermore, life course traumatic profiles were significantly associated with CVD. For instance, compared with the subgroup experiencing nonsevere traumas across life course, those who experienced nonsevere childhood and severe adulthood traumas, severe childhood and nonsevere adulthood traumas, or severe traumas across life course had significantly higher odds of CVD (odds ratios: 1.07-1.33). Formal mediation analyses suggested that phenotypic aging partially mediated the above associations. These findings suggest a potential pathway from life course traumas to CVD through phenotypic aging, and underscore the importance of policy programs targeting traumas over the life course in ameliorating inequalities in cardiovascular health.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726482

RESUMO

The inherently tenuous adhesion strength and limited environmental tolerance of supramolecular adhesives severely restrict their application scenarios. It is challenging for the development of robust adhesives with extreme temperature tolerance. Herein, we report a new type of temperature-resistant crown-ether-protein (CEP) adhesive by harnessing synergistic host-guest molecular interactions between engineered crown ether and protein building blocks. The outputs of CEP adhesive demonstrate ultrahigh shearing adhesion strength of ~22 MPa over a wide temperature range from -196 to 200°C, superior to other established supramolecular or polymeric adhesives. The temperature-induced phase transition and internal bound water stablized the system and led to superb adhesion under extreme conditions. Thus, this work pioneers a molecular engineering approach for the generation of adhesives with tailored applications in extreme settings.

13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 185: 178-187, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696892

RESUMO

Phosphate (Pi) availability has become a major constraint limiting crop growth and production. Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play important roles in mediating plant resistance to various environmental stresses, including heat, drought and salinity. However, whether members of the Hsf family are involved in the transcriptional regulation of plant responses to Pi insufficiency has not been reported. Here, we identified that TaHsfA2d, a member of the heat shock factor family, was strongly repressed by Pi deficiency. Overexpressing TaHsfA2d-4A in Arabidopsis results in significantly enhanced sensitivity to Pi deficiency, evidenced by increased anthocyanin content, decreased proliferation and elongation of lateral roots, and reduced Pi uptake. Furthermore, RNA-seq analyses showed that TaHsfA2d-4A functions through up-regulation of a number of genes involved in stress responses and flavonoid biosynthesis. Collectively, these results provide evidence that TaHsfA2d participates in the regulation of Pi deficiency stress, and that TaHsfA2d could serve as a valuable gene for genetic modification of crop tolerance to Pi starvation.

14.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731023

RESUMO

Malignant pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas are rare tumors for which clinical outcomes remain poorly defined and therapeutic options are limited. Approximately 27% carry pathogenic germline succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) mutations; the presence of such mutations has been correlated with response to temozolomide. We aimed to investigate the association between SDHx and response to temozolomide. We retrospectively identified patients with malignant pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas treated with temozolomide - based chemotherapy at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2003-2020. Correlation between response by RECIST 1.1 and PERCIST and presence of SDHx mutations in the germline and tumor was evaluated. 19 patients received temozolomide. 17 underwent germline assessment: nine (53%) carried a pathogenic SDHx germline mutation. 15 patients were evaluable for response by RECIST 1.1: 6 (40%) partial response, 4 (27%) stable disease, and 5 (33%) progressive disease. Overall median progression free survival was 2.2 years. Three-year overall survival was 58%. Median progression free survival was 1.3 years and 5.5 years for carriers and non-carries, respectively and overall survival was 1.5 years and not estimable for carriers and non-carriers, respectively. Response by PERCIST criteria in 9 patients correlated with the RECIST 1.1 assessment. Our series represents one of the largest analyses of patients with malignant pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas treated with temozolomide who have available germline data. The incidence of pathogenic germline SDHx mutations was similar to what has been previously published, though our analysis suggests that there may be limited association between response to temozolomide and pathogenic germline SDHx mutations.

16.
Neurosci Lett ; : 136742, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716963

RESUMO

Posttranslational modification (PTM) of tubulin proteins is involved in microtubule dynamics. Acetylation, an important alpha-tubulin PTM, which is regarded as a hallmark event of stable microtubules, often occurs in neurogenesis and axon outgrowth. GCN5/KAT2A is a well-known histone acetyltransferase and has also been reported to hold the activity of nonhistone acetyltransferases, such as acetylated tubulin (Ace-tubulin). In this study, we investigated the role of GCN5/KAT2A in axon growth and neurogenesis. E18 cortical neurons obtained from day 18 embryos of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were cultured and transfected with GCN5 siRNA or treated with the GCN5 inhibitor MB-3. Neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from the cerebral cortexes of E14 SD rats were cultured and differentiated. During differentiation, MB-3 was applied to investigate the effect of GCN5 dysfunction on neurogenesis. The axonal length and the ratio and distribution of acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin (Tyr-tubulin) were evaluated by immunostaining assay. The expression levels of Nestin, Tuj1, acetylated tubulin, and tyrosinated tubulin proteins were analyzed by Western blotting assays. In primary neurons, both GCN5 siRNA and MB-3 treatment reduced acetylated tubulin protein, changed the ratio of acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, and decreased axonal length. During NSC differentiation, MB-3 application reduced axon outgrowth, decreased acetylated tubulin and altered the distribution of acetylated tubulin and tyrosinated tubulin. This study revealed for the first time that the acetyltransferase GCN5/KAT2A could contribute to axon outgrowth by altering the ratio and distribution of acetylated tubulin.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 889823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669270

RESUMO

Background: The China Mental Health Survey was carried out using the same sampling frame with the China Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance. This paper explores the relationship between the disability and the comorbidity of mood disorders and anxiety disorders with diabetes and hypertension. Methods: A large-scale nationally representative sample with both mental disorders and chronic diseases was collected from 157 Disease Surveillance Points in 31 provinces across China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained lay interviewers to make diagnoses of mood disorders and anxiety disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diabetes and hypertension were diagnosed from self-report and blood examination or body measurement. Sampling design weights, non-response adjustment weights, and post-stratification adjustment weights were applied during the analyses of comorbidity and disability. Results: Totally 15,000 respondents had information of mental disorders and physical diseases. In the patients with mood disorders or anxiety disorders, the weighted prevalence rates of diabetes or hypertension were not higher than those in persons without the above mental disorders, but the weighed disability rates increased when having the comorbidity of hypertension (P < 0.05). The severity of disability was higher among patients with comorbidity of diabetes and anxiety disorders, or hypertension and mood disorders, compared with that among patients without the physical comorbidity (P < 0.05). After adjusted by age, gender and education, patients with comorbidity of mental disorders and physical disorders had the highest disability, followed by the patients with mental disorders only, and physical diseases only. Conclusions: The disability of mood disorders and anxiety disorders comorbid with diabetes and hypertension are more serious than that of any single disease. The relationship of mental and physical diseases is worth exploring in depth for comprehensive and integrated intervention to decrease the disability.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639311

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of hybrid constructed floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) in a low-flow urban river was evaluated, and the influence radius on dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), and total phosphorus (TP) under different flow conditions was quantified. It was found that DO considerably increased and NH4+-N and TP decreased at the outlet after treatment with hybrid constructed FTW. The NH4+-N removal rate continued to increase to 72.03%, whereas that for TP decreased to 63.16% with fluctuation. The cloud picture of the influence radius showed that when DO ≤ 3 mg/L, Rflow ≈ 5 m, Rstill ≈ 3 m, and when DO > 3 mg/L, Rflow = Rstill ≈ 8 m. For NH4+-N under flow conditions, Rflow ≈ 8 m, whereas under still conditions when NH4+-N ≤ 7 mg/L, Rstill ≈ 5 m, and when NH4+-N > 7 mg/L, the concentration changes were not considerable. When TP ≤ 0.4 mg/L, Rflow ≈ 5 m, and when TP > 0.4 mg/L, Rflow ≈ 8 m; while under still conditions, when TP ≤ 0.8 mg/L, Rstill ≈ 5 m, and when TP > 0.8 mg/L, the concentration changes were not remarkable. Various water quality parameters and water flow affected the radius of influence of FTW on DO, NH4+-N, and TP at the spatial level. For the same water quality parameter, the influence radius in the flow state was larger than that in the still state (Rflow ≥ RStill). This study evaluated treatment efficiency of the hybrid constructed FTW in urban rivers and provided guidance and support for FTW deployment in future.

19.
Oncologist ; 27(6): e494-e505, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited and conflicting findings have been reported regarding the association between social support and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. We sought to assess the influences of marital status and living arrangement on survival outcomes among patients with stage III colon cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 1082 patients with stage III colon cancer prospectively followed in the CALGB 89803 randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Marital status and living arrangement were both self-reported at the time of enrollment as, respectively, married, divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married, and living alone, with a spouse or partner, with other family, in a nursing home, or other. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.6 years, divorced/separated/widowed patients experienced worse outcomes relative to those married regarding disease free-survival (DFS) (hazards ratio (HR), 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14-1.81); P =.002), recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR, 1.35 (95% CI, 1.05-1.73); P = .02), and overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.40 (95% CI, 1.08-1.82); P =.01); outcomes were not significantly different for never-married patients. Compared to patients living with a spouse/partner, those living with other family experienced a DFS of 1.47 (95% CI, 1.02-2.11; P = .04), RFS of 1.34 (95% CI, 0.91-1.98; P = .14), and OS of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.00-2.25; P =.05); patients living alone did not experience significantly different outcomes. CONCLUSION: Among patients with stage III colon cancer who received uniform treatment and follow-up within a nationwide randomized clinical trial, being divorced/separated/widowed and living with other family were significantly associated with greater colon cancer mortality. Interventions enhancing social support services may be clinically relevant for this patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003835.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estado Civil , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Nano Lett ; 22(11): 4429-4436, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35616710

RESUMO

Schottky diode is the fundamental building blocks for modern electronics and optoelectronics. Reducing the semiconductor layer thickness could shrink the vertical size of a Schottky diode, improving its speed and integration density. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to fabricate a Schottky diode with ultrashort physical length approaching atomic limit. By mechanically laminating prefabricated metal electrodes on both-sides of two-dimensional MoS2, the intrinsic metal-semiconductor interfaces can be well retained. As a result, we demonstrate the thinnest Schottky diode with a length of 2.6 nm and decent rectification behavior. Furthermore, with a diode length smaller than the semiconductor depletion length, the carrier transport mechanisms are investigated and explained by thickness-dependent and temperature-dependent electrical measurements. Our study not only pushes the scaling limit of a Schottky diode but also provides a general double-sided electrodes integration approach for other ultrathin vertical devices.

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