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1.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and an increased incidence of thyroid carcinoma (TC) threaten public health in parallel on a global scale. Sufficient evidence supports excess body fatness in thyroid carcinogenesis, and the role and anthropometric markers of obesity have been causally associated with the rising risk of TC. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed. Studies focused on the effect of obesity in TC. RESULTS: This review mainly discusses the global incidence and prevalence of obesity-related TC. We also review the role of obesity in TC and potential clinical strategies for obesity-related TC. CONCLUSIONS: Excess body fatness in early life and TC survival initiate adverse effects later in life.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043799

RESUMO

The development of luminescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has attracted extensive attention due to their applications in photoelectric devices, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), anti-counterfeiting, biological imaging and so on. In this work, a novel anthracene based metal-organic framework, [Cd(DCPA)(DMF)]·(H2O) (1) (H2DCPA = 9,10-di(p-carboxyphenyl)anthracene), has been successfully synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The highly ordered arrangement and special spatial conformation of the anthracene chromophore play a significant role in the photophysical properties of 1. The combination of theoretical calculations and experiments shows that the molecular orbitals have good separation for inhibiting the recombination of electrons and holes. Furthermore, the fluorescence emission of 1 can be instantaneously and reversibly tuned between blue and green at different polarizing angles. Temperature-dependent fluorescence measurements indicate a good linear relationship between the maximum emission intensity/wavelength and the temperature for efficient thermochromism and luminescence thermometry. Photoelectric measurements reveal that 1 shows high performance of photocurrent generation under light illumination. Therefore, our research affords a new perspective to extend the application of luminescent MOFs in the fields of polarized emission, thermometry and photoelectronic response.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 59, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the WHO declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic. While great success in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control has been achieved in China, imported cases have become a major challenge. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and to assess the effectiveness of screening strategies in Beijing, China. METHODS: This retrospective study included all imported cases transferred to Beijing Ditan Hospital from 29 February to 20 March 2020 who were screened by both chest computed tomography (CT) and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the initial presentation. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, in addition to chest CT imaging, were collected and analysed. RESULTS: In total, 2545 cases were included, among which 71 (2.8%) were finally diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The majority 63 (88.7%) were from Europe. The most common initial symptoms were cough and fever, which accounted for 49.3% and 42.3%, respectively. Only four cases (5.6%) had lymphocytopenia, and thirteen cases (18.3%) demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). All cases had normal serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT). At initial presentation, among the 71 confirmed cases, 59 (83.1%) had a positive RT-PCR assay, and 35 (49.3%) had a positive chest CT. Twelve (16.9%) had a negative RT-PCR assay but a positive chest CT. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of RT-PCR and chest CT is an effective strategy for the screening of imported COVID-19 cases. Our findings provide important information and clinical evidence about the infection control of imported COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Biomed J ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotational angiography acquires radiographs at multiple projection angles to demonstrate superimposed vasculature. However, this comes at the expense of the inherent risk of increased ionizing radiation. In this paper, build upon successful deep learning model, we developed a novel technique to super-resolve the radiography at different projection angles, so to reduce the actual projections needed for a diagnosable radiographic procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten models were trained for different levels of angular super-resolution (ASR), denoted as ASRN, where for every N+2 frames, the first and the last frames were submitted as inputs to super-resolve the intermediate N frames. RESULTS: The results show that large arterial structures were well preserved in all ASR levels. Small arteries were adequately visualized in lower ASR levels but progressively blurred out in higher ASR levels. Noninferiority of image quality was demonstrated in ASR1-4 (99.75% confidence intervals: -0.16-0.03, -0.19-0.04, -0.17-0.01, -0.15-0.05 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ASR technique is capable of super-resolving rotational angiographic frames at intermediate projection angles.

5.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 212: 107082, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the curative efficacy by comparing perioperative characteristics and 1.5-year observational outcomes in 1-segment lumbar spondylolisthesis between traditional minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) and optimized Endoscopic TLIF techniques. METHODS: The study was a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing two different treatment approaches for 1-segment lumbar spondylolisthesis. 102 patients treated by MIS-TLIF (48 cases) or Endo-TLIF (54 cases) were included from March 2018 to April 2019. Perioperative parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Degree of slip were measured, and fusion rates were determined at 18 months after surgery. RESULTS: The Endo-TLIF group had similar return to work time and rate. Blood loss, left bed time, analgesic ratio were significantly less in Endo-TLIF group. The Endo-TLIF group had a significantly longer operative time. Significant postoperative reduction in %slip was showed in both groups. The VAS and ODI improved significantly in both groups after surgery. Significant decreases in low-back pain in Endo-TLIF group were found at postoperative day 1 and 3 months. The fusion rate in the two groups was similar. CONCLUSION: Endo-TLIF surgery with a C-shaped working tube and a visualization system may be regarded as an efficient alternative surgery for 1-segment lumbar spondylolisthesis. It is a safe and minimally invasive way to perform this surgery and has shown satisfactory clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800015197, 13 March 2018. TRIAL REGISTRY: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Registered 13 March 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=25865.

6.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877866

RESUMO

Light-absorbing hydrogels provide a means for rapidly evaporating water by using solar energy. However, to achieve light-absorbing hydrogels with both durable mechanical properties and efficient energy utilization remains challenging due to the weak interface interactions between solar absorbers and a hydrogel matrix and difficultly controlled surface topography of swollen hydrogel-based evaporators. Herein, we demonstrate an effective nanoconfinement strategy to assemble a spongy poly(vinyl alcohol)/Janus-like graphene oxide hybrid hydrogel (SPJH) via strong interfacial interactions of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. The resultant SPJHs with an intriguing hierarchical microstructure templated by air bubbles and ice crystals showed a high toughness (∼231 kJ m-2) and ultimate strain (∼310%) that were more than three times as high as those of light-absorbing hydrogels and a high evaporation rate of 4.18 kg m-2 h-1 with an efficiency up to 95% under 1 sun irradiation (relative humidity = 20%; temperature = 25 °C), achieved by synergistic mechanical and energy nanoconfinement and tailored surface topography within the designed hybrid hydrogels. This hybrid hydrogel-based solar evaporator with an ingenious design principle provides a pathway for scalable and processable solar water purification devices.

7.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864825

RESUMO

Sepsis and its severe form, septic shock, represent the leading cause of death among hospitalized patients. Thioredoxin is a ubiquitous protein essential for cellular redox balance and its aberrant expression is associated with a wide spectrum of inflammation-related pathological conditions. The current study aimed to compare the expression of thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5) in septic patients with or without septic shock and to explore the potential regulatory effects of TXNDC5 in sepsis. We analyzed the RNA expression data downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and measured the plasma level of TXNDC5 in septic patients. The results showed that TXNDC5 was upregulated in patients with septic shock compared to septic patients without shock or healthy controls. We further treated wild-type mice and cultured macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and found that TXNDC5 was highly expressed in mice with LPS-induced sepsis and macrophages subjected to LPS stimulation compared to corresponding controls. Then a mouse strain with targeted depletion of Txndc5 was generated. Txndc5 depletion reduced inflammatory cytokine production and affected the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils into the blood and peritoneum of mice challenged with LPS. Further analysis revealed that TXNDC5 inhibition alleviated LPS-induced sepsis by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, these findings suggested that the inhibition of TXNDC5 may be a potential approach to treat sepsis and related syndromes.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 734670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867343

RESUMO

In the prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine for lipid metabolism, Polygoni Multiflori Radix Preparata (ZhiHeShouWu, RPMP) was widely used. In recent years, RPMP ethanol extract has been reported for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of RPMP ethanol extract in the treatment of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we examined the optimal therapeutic dose of RPMP ethanol extracts. Afterward, a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) was treated with RPMP ethanol extract to further evaluate the mechanism of action of RPMP ethanol extract treatment. And the serum lipid metabolism indexes and liver function indexes showed that the RPMP ethanol extract in the 1.35 g/kg dose group exhibited better therapeutic effects than the 2.70 g/kg dose group. Meanwhile, RPMP ethanol extract can regulate the biochemical indicators of serum and liver to normal levels, and effectively reduce liver steatosis and lipid deposition. RPMP ethanol extract treatment restored HFD-induced disruption of the compositional structure of the intestinal microbial (IM) and bile acids (BAs) pools. And restore the reduced expression of intestinal barrier-related genes caused by HFD administration, which also effectively regulates the expression of genes related to the metabolism of BAs in mice. Thus, RPMP ethanol extract can effectively improve the abnormal lipid metabolism and hepatic lipid accumulation caused by HFD, which may be related to the regulation of IM composition, maintenance of intestinal barrier function, and normal cholesterol metabolism in the body.

9.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 790539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869298

RESUMO

Elucidating the chemical and structural characteristics of hemicelluloses and lignin in the p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) down-regulated poplar wood will be beneficial to the upstream gene validation and downstream biomass conversion of this kind of transgenic poplar. Herein, the representative hemicelluloses and lignin with unaltered structures were prepared from control (CK) and C3H down-regulated 84K poplars. Modern analytical techniques, such as 13C NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, and gel chromatography (GPC), were performed to better delineate the structural changes of hemicelluloses and lignin caused by transgenesis. Results showed that both the hemicelluloses (H-CK and H-C3H) extracted from control and C3H down-regulated poplar wood have a chain backbone of (1→4)-ß-D-Xylan with 4-O-Me-α-D-GlcpA as side chain, and the branch degree of the H-C3H is higher than that of H-CK. With regarding to the lignin macromolecules, NMR results demonstrated that the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio and dominant substructure ß-O-4 linkages in C3H down-regulated poplar were lower than those of control poplar wood. By contrast, native lignin from C3H down-regulated poplar wood exhibited higher contents of p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. In short, C3H down-regulation resulted in the chemical and structural changes of the hemicelluloses and lignin in these poplar wood. The identified structures will facilitate the downstream utilization and applications of lignocellulosic materials in the biorefinery strategy. Furthermore, this study could provide some illuminating results for genetic breeding on the improvement of wood properties and efficient utilization of poplar wood.

10.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(6): 1837-1844, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of serum free light chain (sFLC) and monoclonal protein (MP) on the efficacy and prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma relapse, and investigate the clinical value of light chain escape (LCE). METHODS: The relationship between sFLC/MP levels and clinical features and outcomes in 71 patients with multiple myeloma after relapse were retrospective analyzed. The patients were divided into MO group, MLC group and LCE group according to different levels of sFLC/MP after relapse. Then the clinical indicators, efficacy, survival after relapse (SAR) and overall survival (OS) of the patients in each group were compared. Meanwhile a paired sample t test was used to analyze the relevant indicators of the patients before and after relapse in LCE group. RESULTS: There were significant differences in ISS stage, the levels of Hb, PLT, ALB, SFLC/MP and the proportion of myeloplasma cells afte relapse (P<0.05). The initial treatment effect of the patients in MO group was better than those in the other groups, and the LCE group was the worst (P<0.05). Comparison of relevant indicators between the patients before and after relapse in LCE group showed that the levels of MP, Hb and PLT decreased significantly, while sFLC, LDH and Cr increased significantly (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that MO was the independent risk factor affecting SAR, while MO and LCE were the independent risk factors affecting OS (P<0.05) of the patients.The average SAR of the patients in MO, MLC and LCE group was 41, 28.6 and 23.5 months (P=0.002), and the average OS was 79.6, 57.9 and 41 months (P<0.001), respectively. The patients in MO group showed longer SAR and OS, while the LCE group was the shortest. CONCLUSION: After relapse, patients only with elevated MP levels have a better curative effect and prognosis, while only with elevated sFLC levels have poor curative effects and prognosis, which suggesting that sFLC/MP levels can be used as a good indicator for predicting the prognosis of multiple myeloma patients.The appearance of LCE indicates disease progression, poor prognosis and early relapse.

11.
Curr Mol Pharmacol ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a kind of metabolic stress-induced liver injury closely related to insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility, and there is no specific drug for its clinical treatment currently. In recent years, a large amount of literature has reported that many natural compounds extracted from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can improve NAFLD through various mechanisms. According to the latest reports, some emerging natural compounds have shown great potential to improve NAFLD but are seldom used clinically due to the lacking special research. PURPOSE: This paper aims to summarize the molecular mechanisms of the potential natural compounds on improving NAFLD, thus providing a direction and basis for further research on the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the development of effective drugs for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. METHODS: By searching various online databases, such as Web of Science, SciFinder, PubMed, and CNKI, NAFLD and these natural compounds were used as the keywords for detailed literature retrieval. RESULTS: The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the molecular mechanisms of the potential natural compounds on improving NAFLD have been reviewed. CONCLUSION: Many natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicine have a good prospect in the treatment of NAFLD, which can serve as a direction for the development of anti-NAFLD drugs in the future.

12.
ACS Nano ; 15(12): 20607-20618, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910449

RESUMO

Intricate hollow carbon structures possess vital function for anchoring polysulfides and enhancing the utilization of sulfur in room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries. However, their synthesis is extremely challenging due to the complex structure. Here, a facile and efficient strategy is developed for the controllable synthesis of N/O-doped multichambered carbon nanoboxes (MCCBs) by selective etching and stepwise carbonization of ZIF-8 nanocubes. The MCCBs consist of porous carbon shells on the outside and connected carbon grids with a hollow structure on the inside, bringing about a MCCBs structure. As a sulfur host, the multichambered structure has better spatial encapsulation and integrated conductivity via the inner interconnected carbon grids, which combines the characteristics of short charge transfer path and superb physicochemical adsorption along with mechanical strength. As expected, the S@MCCBs cathode realizes decent cycle stability (0.045% capacity decay per cycle over 800 cycles at 5 A g-1) and enhanced rate performance (328 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1). Furthermore, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation confirms the good structural stability of the S@MCCBs during the (de)sodiation process. Our work demonstrates an effective strategy for the rational design and accurate construction of intricate hollow materials for high-performance energy storage systems.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 803037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970275

RESUMO

Macrophages are important immune cells in innate immunity, and have remarkable heterogeneity and polarization. Under pathological conditions, in addition to the resident macrophages, other macrophages are also recruited to the diseased tissues, and polarize to various phenotypes (mainly M1 and M2) under the stimulation of various factors in the microenvironment, thus playing different roles and functions. Liver diseases are hepatic pathological changes caused by a variety of pathogenic factors (viruses, alcohol, drugs, etc.), including acute liver injury, viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, metabolic-associated fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent studies have shown that macrophage polarization plays an important role in the initiation and development of liver diseases. However, because both macrophage polarization and the pathogenesis of liver diseases are complex, the role and mechanism of macrophage polarization in liver diseases need to be further clarified. Therefore, the origin of hepatic macrophages, and the phenotypes and mechanisms of macrophage polarization are reviewed first in this paper. It is found that macrophage polarization involves several molecular mechanisms, mainly including TLR4/NF-κB, JAK/STATs, TGF-ß/Smads, PPARγ, Notch, and miRNA signaling pathways. In addition, this paper also expounds the role and mechanism of macrophage polarization in various liver diseases, which aims to provide references for further research of macrophage polarization in liver diseases, contributing to the therapeutic strategy of ameliorating liver diseases by modulating macrophage polarization.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948547

RESUMO

Exergames are now often implemented among older adults for health purposes. This study aimed to investigate whether playing Kinect and Wii exergames has effects on older adults' physical fitness and psychological perceptions towards exergames. A total of 23 older participants aged above 60 years were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups, in which they played either Kinect or Wii Bowling exergames for three sessions in one week. Physiological and psychological measures were collected including heart rate, blood pressure, shoulder flexibility, as well as perceived benefits and intentions for future use. Findings indicated that exergames are equivalent to light-intensity exercises, and hence pose no or minimal risk to older adults. Older adults had a positive attitude towards exergames and have a strong willingness to engage in exergaming on a regular basis. Although no significant platform difference was identified, observation and qualitative findings suggested that Wii might provide a more intense physical activity than Kinect, while Kinect might obtain a higher perception among older adults than Wii. The study has several practical implications for both health professionals and exergame designers targeting the ageing population.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Aptidão Física , Projetos Piloto
15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 912: 174604, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743980

RESUMO

Betaine is a kind of water-soluble quaternary amine-type alkaloid widely existing in food, such as wheat germ, beet, spinach, shrimp and wolfberry. As an important methyl donor and osmotic pressure regulator in human body, betaine plays an important role in a variety of physiological activities. In recent years, a large number of literatures have shown that betaine has good preventive and therapeutic effects on many liver diseases, including chemical or drug-induced liver injury, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Therefore, by searching the databases of Web of Science, PubMed, SciFinder and CNKI, this paper has summarized the molecular mechanisms of betaine in improving liver diseases. The results show that the improvement of liver diseases by betaine is closely related to a variety of molecular mechanisms, including inhibition of inflammatory response, improvement of insulin resistance, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, alleviation of liver oxidative stress, increase of autophagy, remodeling of intestinal flora and regulation of epigenetic modification. More importantly, nuclear transcription factor kappa (NF-κB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ (PPAR-α/γ), liver X receptor α (LXRα), protein kinase B (Akt), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 (Caspase-3) signaling pathways are considered as important molecular targets for betaine to improve liver diseases. These important findings will provide a direction and basis for further exploring the pathogenesis of various liver diseases and tapping the potential of betaine in the clinical treatment.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 771459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803712

RESUMO

Liver diseases have been a common challenge for people all over the world, which threatens the quality of life and safety of hundreds of millions of patients. China is a major country with liver diseases. Metabolic associated fatty liver disease, hepatitis B virus and alcoholic liver disease are the three most common liver diseases in our country, and the number of patients with liver cancer is increasing. Therefore, finding effective drugs to treat liver disease has become an urgent task. Chinese medicine (CM) has the advantages of low cost, high safety, and various biological activities, which is an important factor for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases. This review systematically summarizes the potential of CM in the treatment of liver diseases, showing that CM can alleviate liver diseases by regulating lipid metabolism, bile acid metabolism, immune function, and gut microbiota, as well as exerting anti-liver injury, anti-oxidation, and anti-hepatitis virus effects. Among them, Keap1/Nrf2, TGF-ß/SMADS, p38 MAPK, NF-κB/IκBα, NF-κB-NLRP3, PI3K/Akt, TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways are mainly involved. In conclusion, CM is very likely to be a potential candidate for liver disease treatment based on modern phytochemistry, pharmacology, and genomeproteomics, which needs more clinical trials to further clarify its importance in the treatment of liver diseases.

17.
Cell Rep ; 37(7): 110025, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788616

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a Ca2+-permeable cation channel, is gated by intracellular adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR), Ca2+, warm temperature, and oxidative stress. It is critically involved in physiological and pathological processes ranging from inflammation to stroke to neurodegeneration. At present, the channel's gating and ion permeation mechanisms, such as the location and identity of the selectivity filter, remain ambiguous. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of human TRPM2 in nanodisc in the ligand-free state. Cryo-EM map-guided computational modeling and patch-clamp recording further identify a quadruple-residue motif as the ion selectivity filter, which adopts a restrictive conformation in the closed state and acts as a gate, profoundly contrasting with its widely open conformation in the Nematostella vectensis TRPM2. Our study reveals the gating of human TRPM2 by the filter and demonstrates the feasibility of using cryo-EM in conjunction with computational modeling and functional studies to garner structural information for intrinsically dynamic but functionally important domains.

18.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; : 19458924211056294, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) describes a heterogenous group of diseases including CRS with (CRSwNP) or without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). It affects 10 to 15% of the US population and is more common in women and White patients. However, these estimates are based on survey and database studies with innate diagnostic inaccuracy. Additionally, few studies report subtype-specific demographics. We explore the demographic differences of CRS in the U.S. by subtype and region. OBJECTIVE: To characterize demographic differences between the CRS population and the overall US population, and also between different CRS subtype populations. METHODS: We performed a systematic review for articles reporting on US demographics of adults with CRS. Study participants were required to have been diagnosed using consensus criteria. Data on demographics, geographic region, and CRS subtype were analyzed. RESULTS: Our study analyzed 31 unique studies representing 8409 patients with 50.7% females and weighted mean age of 48.0 years. Compared to the overall US population, CRS patients were predominantly White (78.5%) and non-Hispanic (94.5%) with under-representation of other races. Grouped by subtype, CRSwNP affected a significantly higher proportion of men (59.8%). AFRS affected a significantly higher proportion of Black patients (53.8%) while CRSsNP was more prevalent in White patients (84.2%). When grouped by region, the South had a significantly higher proportion of female (53%) and Black (17.8%) CRS patients. The West had a significantly higher proportion of Asian (4.5%) and Hispanic (12.3%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Significant demographic differences exist in CRS patients based on subtype and region. These data provide an estimation of the demographic make-up of CRS, but further high-level demographic studies are needed.

19.
Small ; : e2104508, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837307

RESUMO

Solid-state fluoride-ion batteries (FIBs) circumvent multiple formidable bottlenecks of lithium-ion batteries, but their overall performance remains inferior due to the absence of appropriate solid electrolytes. Presently the conductivity of most solid electrolytes for FIBs is too low to enable room-temperature cycling, while the few sufficiently conductive ones only allow for very low discharge voltages because of the narrow electrochemical stability window (ESW). Here, high room-temperature conductivity and a decent ESW are simultaneously achieved by designing a solid electrolyte CsPb0.9 K0.1 F2.9 . Its room-temperature conductivity is 1.23 × 10-3  S cm-1 , comparable to the most conductive system reported so far (PbSnF4 , 5.44 × 10-4 -1.6 × 10-3  S cm-1 ), but the ESW is several times broader. With these appealing characteristics simultaneously achieved in the solid electrolyte, a cell with much higher voltages than other room-temperature-operable solid-state FIBs in literature is successfully constructed, and stably cycled at 25 °C for 4581 h without considerable capacity fade.

20.
Chem Sci ; 12(42): 14126-14132, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760197

RESUMO

DNA 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU) is a thymine modification existing in the genomes of various organisms. The post-replicative formation of 5hmU occurs via hydroxylation of thymine by ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases in mammals and J-binding proteins (JBPs) in protozoans, respectively. In addition, 5hmU can also be generated through oxidation of thymine by reactive oxygen species or deamination of 5hmC by cytidine deaminase. While the biological roles of 5hmU have not yet been fully explored, determining its genomic location will highly assist in elucidating its functions. Herein, we report a novel enzyme-mediated bioorthogonal labeling method for selective enrichment of 5hmU in genomes. 5hmU DNA kinase (5hmUDK) was utilized to selectively install an azide (N3) group or alkynyl group into the hydroxyl moiety of 5hmU followed by incorporation of the biotin linker through click chemistry, which enabled the capture of 5hmU-containing DNA fragments via streptavidin pull-down. The enriched fragments were applied to deep sequencing to determine the genomic distribution of 5hmU. With this established enzyme-mediated bioorthogonal labeling strategy, we achieved the genome-wide mapping of 5hmU in Trypanosoma brucei. The method described here will allow for a better understanding of the functional roles and dynamics of 5hmU in genomes.

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